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|3 Dywizja Strzelców Karpackich|
Emblem of the division worn as a shoulder patch and painted on vehicles
|Engagements||Tobruk, Alem Hamza, Bardia, Monte Cassino, Gothic Line, Ancona, Bologna|
|Stanisław Kopański, Bronisław Duch|
The 3rd Carpathian Rifle Division (Polish : 3 Dywizja Strzelców Karpackich, sometimes translated as 3rd Carpathian Infantry Division), also commonly known as Christmas Tree Division due to the characteristic emblem, was an infantry division of the Polish Armed Forces in the West that fought during World War II on the Italian Front. It was formed in 1942 of the Polish Independent Carpathian Brigade and the forces of Lieutenant-General Władysław Anders' Polish 2nd Corps evacuated from the Soviet Union.
Polish is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group. It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces. Also known as foot soldiers, infantry traditionally relies on moving by foot between combats as well, but may also use mounts, military vehicles, or other transport. Infantry make up a large portion of all armed forces in most nations, and typically bear the largest brunt in warfare, as measured by casualties, deprivation, or physical and psychological stress.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. Infantry divisions during the World Wars ranged between 8,000 and 30,000 in nominal strength.
The division participated in the North African and the Italian Campaigns (1941–1945) as part of the British Eighth Army. Notable actions in Italy include the victories in the Battle of Monte Cassino, Ancona and Bologna. Disbanded after the war, most soldiers chose not to return to the new, Communist Poland. After the war, the division was housed at Hodgemoor Camp in Hodgemoor Woods, Chalfont St Giles, Buckinghamshire, England. They maintained a presence there until 1962. There were, and may still be, many Polish families in the area.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943. It included campaigns fought in the Libyan and Egyptian deserts and in Morocco and Algeria, as well as Tunisia.
The Eighth Army was a field army formation of the British Army during the Second World War, fighting in the North African and Italian campaigns. Units came from Australia, British India, Canada, Free French Forces, Greece, New Zealand, Poland, Rhodesia, South Africa and the United Kingdom.
The Battle of Monte Cassino was a costly series of four assaults by the Allies against the Winter Line in Italy held by Axis forces during the Italian Campaign of World War II. The intention was a breakthrough to Rome.
General Stanisław Kopański was a Polish military commander, politician, diplomat, an engineer and one of the best-educated Polish officers of the time, serving with distinction during World War II. He is best known as the creator and commander of the Polish Independent Carpathian Brigade and Polish 3rd Carpathian Infantry Division.
The division's order of battle between 1943 and 1946 was as follows:
In modern use, the order of battle of an armed force participating in a military operation or campaign shows the hierarchical organization, command structure, strength, disposition of personnel, and equipment of units and formations of the armed force. Various abbreviations are in use, including OOB, O/B, or OB, while ORBAT remains the most common in the United Kingdom. An order of battle should be distinguished from a table of organisation, which is the intended composition of a given unit or formation according to the military doctrine of its armed force. As combat operations develop during a campaign, orders of battle may be revised and altered in response to the military needs and challenges. Also the known details of an order of battle may change during the course of executing the commanders' after action reports and/or other accounting methods as combat assessment is conducted.
|1st Carpathian Rifle Brigade|
1 Brygada Strzelców Karpackich
|1st Rifle Battalion|
|2nd Rifle Battalion|
|3rd Rifle Battalion|
|2nd Carpathian Rifle Brigade|
2 Brygada Strzelców Karpackich
|4th Rifle Battalion|
|5th Rifle Battalion|
|6th Rifle Battalion|
|3rd Carpathian Rifle Brigade|
3 Brygada Strzelców Karpackich
|7th Rifle Battalion|
|8th Rifle Battalion|
|9th Rifle Battalion|
(one of the following)
|3rd Carpathian Cavalry Regiment|
|12th Podolian Cavalry Regiment|
|7th Lublin Cavalry Regiment|
|1st Carpathian Field Artillery Regiment|
|2nd Carpathian Field Artillery Regiment|
|3rd Carpathian Field Artillery Regiment|
|3rd Carpathian Anti-tank Artillery Regiment|
|3rd Carpathian Light Anti-aircraft Artillery Regiment|
|Support Units||3rd Carpathian Medium Machinegun Battalion|
|3rd Carpathian Engineers Battalion|
|3rd Carpathian Signals Battalion|
|military police, court martial, military hospital, front hospitals, |
logistics units, transport battalions and such
The II Corps was a corps-sized formation of the United States Army that was active in both World War I and World War II. It was originally formed and fought on the Western Front during World War I and was also the first American formation of any size to see combat in North Africa or Europe during World War II.
The Polish II Corps, 1943–1947, was a major tactical and operational unit of the Polish Armed Forces in the West during World War II. It was commanded by Lieutenant General Władysław Anders and fought with distinction in the Italian Campaign, in particular at the Battle of Monte Cassino. By the end of 1945, the corps had grown to well over 100,000 soldiers.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to 1945. The Joint Allied Forces Headquarters (AFHQ) was operationally responsible for all Allied land forces in the Mediterranean theatre and it planned and led the invasion of Sicily in July 1943, followed in September by the invasion of the Italian mainland and the campaign in Italy until the surrender of the German Armed Forces in Italy in May 1945.
The Polish First Army was a communist Polish Army unit formed in the Soviet Union in 1944, from the previously existing soviet Polish I Corps as part of the People's Army of Poland (LWP), a formation of the Polish Armed Forces in the East. The First Army fought westward, subordinated to the Soviet 1st Belorussian Front, during the offensive against Germany that led to the liberation of Warsaw in January 1945, and the capture of Berlin in May 1945.
Polish Independent Carpathian Brigade was a Polish military unit formed in 1940 in French Syria composed of the Polish soldiers exiled after the invasion of Poland in 1939 as part of the Polish Army in France. It was commanded by General Stanisław Kopański.
The 3rd Infantry Division was an infantry division of the German Army that fought in World War II. The division was established under the cover name Wehrgauleitung Frankfurt in 1934 by expanding the 3rd Division of the Reichswehr. It was redesignated Kommandant von Frankfurt shortly afterward, and took on its bona fide name when the formation of the Wehrmacht was announced in October 1935. In March 1939 the division took part in the invasion and occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Bolesław Bronisław Duch (1885–1980) was a Polish Major General and General Inspector of the Armed Forces.
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