400 Series Shinkansen

Last updated

400 series
Tsubasa 422-6.jpg
A 400 series train on a Tsubasa service at Yonezawa Station in March 2005
In service1 July 1992;29 years ago (1992-07-01) – 18 April 2010;11 years ago (2010-04-18)
Manufacturer Hitachi, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Tokyu Car Corporation
Family name Mini-shinkansen
Constructed19921995
Refurbished19992001
Scrapped20082010
Number built84 vehicles (12 sets)
Number in serviceNone
Number preserved1 vehicle
Number scrapped83 vehicles
Successor E3-2000 series
Formation7 cars per trainset
Fleet numbersL1L12
Capacity399 (20 Green + 379 Standard)
Operator(s) JR East
Depot(s)Yamagata
Line(s) served Tohoku Shinkansen, Yamagata Shinkansen
Specifications
Car body constructionSteel
Car length22,825 mm (74 ft 10.6 in) (end cars)
20,500 mm (67 ft 3 in) (intermediate cars)
Width2,947 mm (9 ft 8.0 in)
Doorsone per side
Maximum speed240 km/h (150 mph) (Tōhoku Shinkansen)
130 km/h (81 mph) (Yamagata Shinkansen)
Traction system24 x 210 kW (280 hp) (Thyristor drive)
Power output5.04 MW (6,760 hp)
Acceleration 1.6 km/h/s
Deceleration 2.6 km/h/s
Electric system(s) 20/25 kV AC, 50 Hz, overhead catenary
Current collection method PS204 pantograph
Bogies DT204 (motored), TR7006 (trailer)
Safety system(s) ATC-2, DS-ATC, ATS-P
Multiple working 200 series, E4 series
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge

The 400 series (400系) was a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type operated by East Japan Railway Company (JR East) between 1992 and 2010 on Tsubasa services on Japan's first mini-shinkansen line, the Yamagata Shinkansen branch from the main Tohoku Shinkansen.

Contents

The fleet of 400 series trains was leased by JR East from the owning company, Yamagata JR Chokutsū Tokkyū Hoyū Kikō (山形ジェイアール直通特急保有機構(株)), a third-sector company jointly owned by JR East and Yamagata Prefecture. [1]

They were originally six-car sets, but a seventh car (type 429) was added in 1995 to each set due to the popularity of the new Tsubasa services.

Pre-series set

The pre-series set, S4, was delivered in October 1990, and shown off to the press on 26 October 1990. This was a six-car set arranged as shown below with all cars motored. [2]

Car No.123456
Numbering401-1402-1403-1404-1405-1406-1
Seating capacity206760686456

The unit featured three different types of bolster less bogies: DT9028 on cars 1 and 3, DT9029 on cars 2 and 4, and DT9030 on cars 5 and 6. The Green car seats featured seat-back TV screens, a feature not used on the subsequent production sets. [2]

Test running began on the Ōu Main Line between Niwasaka and Itaya on 14 November 1990. From 23 January 1991, test running began in conjunction with a newly converted 200 series 8-car K set on the Tōhoku Shinkansen between Sendai and Kitakami. On 26 March 1991, the 400 series set S4 established a new Japanese speed record of 336 km/h on the Jōetsu Shinkansen in the Yuzawa Tunnel between Echigo-Yuzawa and Urasa. On 19 September 1991, the train set a new speed record of 345 km/h on the same stretch of track. [3]

Test running continued into 1992, with set S4 reaching Tokyo for the first time on 20 May 1992. The pre-series set was then modified to bring it up to production batch standards, becoming set L1 on 29 June 1992. [3]

Formation

The production 400 series sets were configured as shown below following the addition of a trailer car (car 15) in late 1995. [4]

Car No.11121314151617
DesignationMscM'MM'TMM'c
Numbering411426-200425426429425422
Seating capacity20676068646456
FacilitiesWC, wheelchair spaceCardphoneWC, cardphoneLuggage spaceWC, luggage spaceWC, cardphoneLuggage space

Cars 1 and 2 were built by Tokyu Car Corporation, cars 3 to 4 were built by Hitachi, and cars 5 to 6 were built by Kawasaki Heavy Industries. [4] Cars 12 and 14 were equipped with pantographs. [5]

Fleet details

Set No.Manufacturer [4] Delivered7th car addedRefurbishedDS-ATC addedWithdrawnRemarks
L1 Tokyu Car, Hitachi, Kawasaki HI 1 November 199014 November 19953 March 200027 July 20051 January 2009 [6] Originally pre-series set S4, converted 29 June 1992.
L2 Kawasaki HI 17 January 199220 November 199514 September 20017 October 200523 January 2009 [6]
L3Kawasaki HI28 January 19922 December 199511 June 200112 September 200518 April 2010Last set to be withdrawn. Car 411-3 stored pending preservation.
L4Kawasaki HI6 March 199212 December 199516 December 199928 May 200518 September 2009 [1] First set to be refurbished and reliveried.
L5Kawasaki HI23 March 199210 December 199528 July 200026 November 200521 April 2009 [7]
L6Kawasaki HI2 April 19928 December 199516 October 200124 December 200526 May 2009 [7]
L7Kawasaki HI13 April 19926 December 199519 September 20002 November 200515 May 2009 [7]
L8Kawasaki HI1 May 19924 December 199519 June 200024 June 20053 April 2009 [7]
L9Kawasaki HI11 May 199220 December 199514 April 200022 March 200621 February 2009 [6] Car 15 built by Hitachi.
L10Kawasaki HI29 May 199214 December 199530 March 200128 February 20067 August 2009 [1] Car 15 built by Hitachi.
L11Kawasaki HI12 June 199216 December 199519 February 20016 February 200620 June 2009 [7] Car 15 built by Hitachi.
L12Kawasaki HI25 June 199218 December 199529 May 200027 April 200519 March 2009 [6] Car 15 built by Hitachi.

Source: [5]

Exterior

Set L11 in original livery in July 1997 400 L11 Sendai General Depot 19970727.jpg
Set L11 in original livery in July 1997

Styling wise, the 400 series were originally painted a medium silver grey with a darker roof and area around the cab windows and underframe, but they were refurbished and repainted between 1999 and 2001, with a higher area of dark bluish-grey on the underside, coming up almost to the side windows, and separated from the silver grey with a green stripe. The dark grey on the roof and around the cab windows was removed.

Set L1 at Omiya Station in June 2002, showing the door steps extended 400 L1 Tsubasa 127 Omiya 20020622.jpg
Set L1 at Omiya Station in June 2002, showing the door steps extended

Clearances were much reduced compared to previous Shinkansen lines, and thus the 400 series units were much narrower than previous Shinkansen trains. At shinkansen stations (i.e. high-speed line stations), steps extended from beneath the doors to bridge the gap between the trains and platforms.

Interior

Green (first class) car accommodation had with 2+1 abreast seating, unlike the E3 series trains which replaced them, which featured 2+2 seating in both standard and Green cars. Seat pitch was 1,160 mm (46 in) in Green class (car 11), 980 mm (39 in) in reserved-seating cars (12 to 15), and 910 mm (36 in) in non-reserved cars (16 and 17). [8]

When the fleet received life-extension refurbishment between 1999 and 2001, the interiors were also refurbished with new seat moquette. The reserved seating cars received red moquette, while the non-reserved seating cars received turquoise moquette. [8]

History

A six-car 400 series set in original colour scheme JR East shinkansen 400 tsubasa 6cars.jpg
A six-car 400 series set in original colour scheme

Introduction

The fleet of 12 six-car sets entered service on the new Tsubasa shinkansen services from 1 July 1992. [8] The six-car sets were all lengthened to seven cars between November and December 1995 with the addition of a new type 429 trailer car as car 15. [8]

Withdrawal

Withdrawals started in December 2008, with the first set, L1. [8] The entire fleet was scheduled to be withdrawn by summer 2009 and replaced by new E3-2000 series trains. [9] However, one set, L3, remained in service until 18 April 2010, with the date chosen to mark 18 years of service. [10]

Preservation

The first eleven sets to be withdrawn were all cut up at Sendai General Depot, but one car (Green car 411-3) of the last set to be withdrawn, L3, was stored at the former Fukushima depot before being moved to Omiya in Saitama Prefecture in December 2017 in preparation for preservation at the Railway Museum. [11]

See also

Related Research Articles

0 Series Shinkansen Japanese high-speed train type

The 0 series trains were the first generation Shinkansen trainsets built to run on Japan's new Tōkaidō Shinkansen high-speed line which opened in Japan in 1964. The last remaining trainsets were withdrawn in 2008.

100 Series Shinkansen Japanese high-speed train type

The 100 series was a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type which operated between 1985 and 2012 on the Tokaido Shinkansen and Sanyo Shinkansen high-speed lines. They were introduced after the 200 series trains, but their numbering is such because in the days of Japanese National Railways (JNR), Shinkansen types running east of Tokyo were given even numbers and those west of Tokyo odd numbers, hence they were given the next odd number in line after 0, 100. The last remaining examples of the type were withdrawn from service following the last runs on 16 March 2012.

200 Series Shinkansen Japanese high speed train type

The 200 series (200系) was a Shinkansen high-speed train type introduced by Japanese National Railways (JNR) for the Tohoku Shinkansen and Joetsu Shinkansen high-speed rail lines in Japan, and operated by East Japan Railway Company until 2013. They actually predated the 100 series trains, having been built between 1980 and 1986. It was one of the two recipients of the 23rd Laurel Prize presented by the Japan Railfan Club, the first Shinkansen type to receive that award. The last remaining sets were retired from regular service in March 2013, and were completely withdrawn from service in April 2013.

300 Series Shinkansen Japanese high-speed train type

The 300 series was a Japanese high-speed Shinkansen train type, with a top operational speed of 270 km/h, which operated on the Tokaido and Sanyo Shinkansen lines in Japan between 1992 and 2012. When first introduced, they were used on the fastest Nozomi services, being capable of 270 km/h (170 mph). As more were delivered they replaced earlier units on Hikari service and allowed the thus displaced 100 series units to finally in turn displace 0 series units on almost all services.

500 Series Shinkansen Japanese high speed train type

The 500 series is a Shinkansen high-speed train type operated by West Japan Railway Company (JR-West) on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen and San'yō Shinkansen lines in Japan since 1997. They were designed to be capable of 320 km/h (200 mph) but operated at 300 km/h (185 mph), until they were finally retired from the primary Nozomi service in 2010. The trainsets were then refurbished and downgraded to the all-stations Kodama service between Shin-Ōsaka and Hakata.

700 Series Shinkansen Japanese high speed train type

The 700 series is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type built between 1997 and 2006, and entering service in 1999. Originally designated as "N300" during the development phase, they formed the next generation of shinkansen vehicles jointly designed by JR Central and JR-West for use on the Tokaido Shinkansen, Hakata Minami Line and the San'yō Shinkansen. Though it has since been withdrawn from service on the Tōkaidō Shinkansen, it still operates on the San'yō Shinkansen and Hakata Minami Line.

E1 Series Shinkansen Japanese high speed train type

The E1 series (E1系) was a high-speed Shinkansen train type operated by East Japan Railway Company in Japan from July 1994 until September 2012. They were the first double-deck trains built for Japan's Shinkansen. They were generally, along with their fellow double-deck class the E4 series, known by the marketing name "Max". The fleet was withdrawn from regular service on 28 September 2012.

E3 Series Shinkansen Japanese high speed train type

The E3 series (E3系) is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type built for Komachi services which commenced on 3 June 1997, coinciding with the opening of the new Akita Shinkansen "mini-shinkansen" line, a regular 1,067 mm narrow-gauge line between Morioka and Akita re-gauged to 1,435 mmstandard gauge. Later versions of the E3 series were also introduced for use on Yamagata Shinkansen Tsubasa services. Both "mini-shinkansen" lines join the Tohoku Shinkansen, providing services to and from Tokyo.

E4 Series Shinkansen Japanese high speed train type

The E4 series (E4系) is a high-speed shinkansen train type operated by East Japan Railway Company in Japan. They were the second series of completely bi-level Shinkansen trainsets to be built in Japan. They operate on the Tōhoku and Jōetsu Shinkansen, and occasionally on the Nagano Shinkansen. E4 series trains feature double-decker cars to accommodate additional commuter traffic around Tokyo and other urban areas. They were often coupled to 400 series trains on the Tōhoku Shinkansen between Tokyo and Fukushima before the latter retired in April 2010.

N700 Series Shinkansen Japanese high speed train type

The N700 series is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train with tilting capability developed jointly by JR Central and JR West for use on the Tokaido and San'yō Shinkansen lines since 2007, and also operated by JR Kyushu on the Kyushu Shinkansen line.

E5 Series Shinkansen Japanese high speed train type

The E5 series (E5系) is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type operated by East Japan Railway Company on Tōhoku Shinkansen services since 5 March 2011 and on Hokkaido Shinkansen services since 26 March 2016. A total of 59 10-car sets are on order, with three sets in service in time for the start of new Hayabusa services to Shin-Aomori in March 2011.

Yamabiko

The Yamabiko (やまびこ) is a high-speed Shinkansen train service operated on the Tōhoku Shinkansen between Tokyo and Morioka by East Japan Railway Company in Japan.

Toki (train)

The Toki (とき) is a high-speed Shinkansen train service operated by East Japan Railway Company on the Joetsu Shinkansen in Japan.

<i>Tanigawa</i> (train)

The Tanigawa (たにがわ) is a high-speed train service operated by the East Japan Railway Company on the Joetsu Shinkansen in Japan.

E6 Series Shinkansen Japanese high speed train type

The E6 series (E6系) is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type operated by East Japan Railway Company on Komachi "mini-shinkansen" services on the Tōhoku Shinkansen and Akita Shinkansen from Tokyo to Akita since 16 March 2013. A pre-series set was delivered in June 2010 for extensive testing, with 23 full-production sets delivered between November 2012 and spring 2014.

WIN350 Japanese experimental high-speed train type

"WIN350" was the name given to the 500-900 series (500系900番代) 6-car experimental high-speed Shinkansen train developed in 1992 by the West Japan Railway Company in Japan to test technology to be incorporated in next-generation shinkansen trains expected to operate at speeds of 350 km/h (217 mph) from 1994. Initially given the designation "500X", the name "WIN350" stood for "West Japan's Innovation for operation at 350 km/h".

E7 and W7 Series Shinkansen Japanese high-speed train type

The E7 series (E7系) and W7 series Shinkansen are Japanese high-speed train types operated by East Japan Railway Company and West Japan Railway Company (JR-West), respectively. They were jointly developed.

Eiji Mitooka

Eiji Mitooka is a Japanese industrial designer, illustrator, and managing director of the industrial design company Don Design Associates (ドーンデザイン研究所). He also works as a design consultant for Kyushu Railway Company.

H5 Series Shinkansen Japanese high-speed train type

The H5 series (H5系) is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type owned by Hokkaido Railway Company for use on Tohoku and Hokkaido Shinkansen services since 26 March 2016. Based on the earlier E5 series trains, a total of four 10-car sets were built by Hitachi and Kawasaki Heavy Industries at a cost of approximately 18 billion yen. The first two sets were delivered in October 2014.

E8 Series Shinkansen Japanese high speed train type

The E8 series (E8系) is a Japanese Shinkansen high-speed train type on order for Tsubasa services announced on 3 March 2020. It is intended to replace the E3 series, raising the top speed of the service from 275 km/h (171 mph) to 300 km/h (186 mph). It is designed by Ken Okuyama, in cooperation with Kawasaki Heavy Industries.

References

  1. 1 2 3 つばさの世代交代[Tsubasa transition]. Japan Railfan Magazine . Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. 49 (584): 42–43. December 2009.
  2. 1 2 在来線直通新幹線電車 400系デビュー[400 series mini-shinkansen train debut]. Japan Railfan Magazine . Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. 31 (357): 8–15. January 1991.
  3. 1 2 Yamanouchi, Shūichirō (2002). 東北・上越新幹線[Tohoku & Joetsu Shinkansen]. Tokyo, Japan: JTB Can Books. ISBN   4-533-04513-8.
  4. 1 2 3 新幹線電車データブック2011[Shinkansen Databook 2011]. Japan: JRR. March 2011. p. 86. ISBN   978-4-330-19811-8.
  5. 1 2 JR電車編成表 '07冬号[JR EMU Formations - Winter 2007]. Japan: JRR. December 2006. ISBN   4-88283-046-9.
  6. 1 2 3 4 JR車両のデータバンク[JR Fleet Databank]. Japan Railfan Magazine . Japan: Koyusha Co., Ltd. 49 (579). July 2009.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 JR車両の動き[JR Rolling Stock Changes]. Tetsudō Daiya Jōhō. Japan: Kotsu Shimbun. 38 (305): 126. September 2009.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 新幹線 車両大全[Shinkansen Cars Encyclopedia]. Tokyo, Japan: Ikaros Publications Ltd. November 2011. pp. 342–354. ISBN   978-4-86320-526-0.
  9. 山形新幹線「つばさ」用車両の新造について [Details of new trains for Yamagata Shinkansen "Tsubasa" services](PDF) (Press release) (in Japanese). JR East. 3 July 2007. Retrieved 1 August 2008.
  10. 山形新幹線400系「つばさ」 ご利用に感謝を込めて (PDF) (Press release) (in Japanese). JR East. 25 February 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
  11. 400系新幹線が陸送される [400 series shinkansen transported by road]. RM News (in Japanese). Japan: Neko Publishing Co., Ltd. 4 December 2017. Archived from the original on 4 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.