4 World Trade Center

Last updated

4 World Trade Center
4 WTC May 17 2013.jpg
Alternative names4 WTC
150 Greenwich Street
General information
StatusComplete
Type Office, Retail
Architectural style Modern
Location150 Greenwich Street
New York City, New York, U.S.
Coordinates 40°42′37″N74°00′43″W / 40.710409°N 74.011933°W / 40.710409; -74.011933 Coordinates: 40°42′37″N74°00′43″W / 40.710409°N 74.011933°W / 40.710409; -74.011933
Construction startedAugust 2009
OpenedNovember 13, 2013 [1]
Cost USD $1.67 billion [2]
Owner Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Height
Roof978 ft (298 m)
Top floor74 [3]
Technical details
Floor count78 (including 4 basement floors)
Floor area2,500,004 sq ft (232,258.0 m2)
Lifts/elevators55
Design and construction
Architect Fumihiko Maki
Developer Silverstein Properties
Structural engineerLeslie E. Robertson Associates
Main contractor Tishman Realty & Construction
References
[4] [5] [6] [7]

4 World Trade Center (also known by its street address, 150 Greenwich Street) is a skyscraper that is part of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. It is located on the southeast corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, where the original nine-story 4 World Trade Center stood. Pritzker Prize-winning architect Fumihiko Maki was awarded the contract to design the 978-foot-tall (298 m) building. [8] It houses the headquarters of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). [9]

Skyscraper tall building

A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately 150 m (492 ft). Historically, the term first referred to buildings with 10 to 20 floors in the 1880s. The definition shifted with advancing construction technology during the 20th century. Skyscrapers may host offices, residential spaces, and retail spaces. For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term supertall skyscrapers can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as megatall skyscrapers.

World Trade Center (2001–present) Skyscraper complex in Manhattan, New York

The World Trade Center is a mostly completed complex of buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, U.S., replacing the original seven buildings on the same site that were destroyed in the September 11 attacks. The site is being rebuilt with up to six new skyscrapers, four of which have been completed; a memorial and museum to those killed in the attacks; the elevated Liberty Park adjacent to the site, containing the St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church and Vehicular Security Center; and a transportation hub. The 104-story One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, is the lead building for the new complex.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Contents

The building's groundbreaking took place in January 2008, and it opened to tenants and the public on November 13, 2013. [10] As of 2016, it is the third tallest skyscraper at the rebuilt World Trade Center, behind One and 3 World Trade Center. However, 2 World Trade Center is expected to surpass the height of both 3 and 4 WTC upon completion. [11] The total floor space of the building includes 1.8 million square feet (167,000 square meters) of office and retail space. [12]

One World Trade Center Main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City

One World Trade Center is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the tallest building in the United States, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the sixth-tallest in the world. The supertall structure has the same name as the North Tower of the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The new skyscraper stands on the northwest corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, on the site of the original 6 World Trade Center. The building is bounded by West Street to the west, Vesey Street to the north, Fulton Street to the south, and Washington Street to the east.

3 World Trade Center Office skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

3 World Trade Center is a skyscraper constructed as part of the rebuilding of the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The tower is located on the east side of Greenwich Street, on the eastern side of the World Trade Center site.

2 World Trade Center Unfinished skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

2 World Trade Center is a skyscraper under construction as part of the World Trade Center complex in Manhattan, New York City. It will replace the original 2 World Trade Center, which was completed in 1972, and subsequently destroyed during the September 11 attacks in 2001, and it will occupy the position of the original 5 World Trade Center. The foundation work was completed in 2013.

Original building (1975–2001)

The original 4 World Trade Center was a 9-story low-rise office building completed in 1975 that was 118 ft (36 m) tall, and located in the southeast corner of the World Trade Center site. The first tenants moved into the building in January 1977. [13] The building's major tenants were Deutsche Bank (Floor 4, 5, and 6) and the New York Board of Trade (Floors 7, 8, and 9). The building's side facing Liberty Street housed the entrance to The Mall at the World Trade Center on the basement concourse level of the WTC. It was practically destroyed as a result of the collapse of the South Tower during the September 11 attacks and its remains were later demolished to make way for the construction of the new skyscrapers, Four World Trade Center and Three World Trade Center. 4 World Trade Center was home to five commodities exchanges on what was at the time one of the world's largest trading floors (featured in the Eddie Murphy movie Trading Places ).

Deutsche Bank German banking and financial services company

Deutsche Bank AG is a German multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany.

New York Board of Trade futures exchange

The New York Board of Trade, is a physical commodity futures exchange located in New York City. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of Intercontinental Exchange (ICE).

September 11 attacks Attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001

The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.

Tenants
FL#Companies
9 New York Board of Trade
8 New York Board of Trade
7 New York Board of Trade, [14] Gelderman, Inc., [14] Overseas-Chinese Banking Corp., [14] New York Stock Exchange
6 Deutsche Bank [14]
5 Deutsche Bank, [14] Green Coffee Association
4 Deutsche Bank [14]
3
2
L Tony Gemelli's Restaurant & Bar, [14] Marche Restaurant, Flowers of the World, XandO-Cosi, Sam Goody, Structure, Banana Republic
C The Mall at the World Trade Center

Current building

Construction

Groundbreaking took place in 2008. The building reached street level in November 2009. The safety cocoon was installed December 2010. The first glass was installed May 2011. In November 2010, three PureCell fuel cells were delivered at the World Trade Center site which together will provide about 30% of the tower’s power. [15] The structural engineer for the building is Leslie E. Robertson Associates, New York City. [16]

PureCell System

The PureCell System is a stationary phosphoric acid fuel cell designed, manufactured and marketed by Doosan Fuel Cell America of South Windsor, Connecticut. Intended for distributed generation and micro combined heat and power applications, it is considered a good match for commercial and industrial buildings such as hotels, hospitals, data centers, supermarkets and educational institutions. PureCell System says that its users will see lower energy costs, reduced emissions, 95% system efficiency, 10-year cell stack durability and 20-year product life. It utilizes a combustion-free process with natural gas and converts heat exhaust into cooling and heating, turning potential waste into usable energy.

Fuel cell Device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity

A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel and an oxidizing agent into electricity through a pair of redox reactions. Fuel cells are different from most batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy usually comes from metals and their ions or oxides that are commonly already present in the battery, except in flow batteries. Fuel cells can produce electricity continuously for as long as fuel and oxygen are supplied.

Leslie Earl Robertson is an American engineer. He was the lead structural engineer of the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center in New York City. He has since been structural engineer on numerous other projects, including the Shanghai World Financial Center and the Bank of China Tower in Hong Kong.

On February 16, 2012, one of the building's construction crane cables snapped while lifting steel, causing the steel to fall 40 stories from the building, landing on a flat bed truck. No injuries were reported. Construction on the building eventually resumed after the accident. [17]

On June 25, 2012, steel topped out at floor 72. [18] Structural steel and concrete completed by June 1, 2013, followed by the removal of construction fencing in September 2013 and the building's opening in November 13, 2013. [19] Cost of construction of 4 World Trade Center was 1.67 billion USD, funded by insurance funds and Liberty bonds. [2] The first tenants to move in were two government agencies, [20] and as of July 2015, the building is 62% leased. [21]

Layout and occupancy

4 World Trade Center reflecting water of the Hudson River, viewed from One World Observatory in 2017 4 WTC reflecting water from One World Observatory 2017.jpg
4 World Trade Center reflecting water of the Hudson River, viewed from One World Observatory in 2017

The above-ground portion of the building dedicated for retail use (which consists of the ground floor, the three floors immediately above the ground floor as well as the two floors below ground), accommodates offices using two distinct floor shapes. From floors 7 through 46, the typical floor space is 36,350 square feet (3,376 square meters) in the shape of a parallelogram (which is designed to echo the configuration of the site). [11] From floors 48 through 63 the floor space is 28,000 sq ft (2,600 square meters) in the shape of a trapezoid, shaped so that it opens toward the tip of Manhattan Island and also triangulated to face One World Trade Center. The tower includes five levels of mechanical floors. [11] The New York Power Authority selected UTC Power to provide 12 PureCell Model 400 fuel cells that will be used to provide electricity, water and heat. According to the developer, the systems combined will rank as one of the largest installations of fuel cells in the world. [15] The upper floors of the building have no interior columns.

The PANYNJ is headquartered in 4 World Trade Center, [22] leasing approximately 600,766 square feet (55,813.0 m2) in 4 World Trade Center for its new headquarters. [11] [23] PANYNJ was formerly headquartered at 1 World Trade Center in the first World Trade Center complex before it was destroyed. [24] Afterwards the PANYNJ moved into 225 Park Avenue South in Midtown Manhattan, before returning to the World Trade Center in 2015. [25]

The lower levels of the building are used by retail businesses, including Eataly, [26] and connects via an underground "retail and transportation concourse" to the PATH's World Trade Center station and the New York City Subway's WTC Cortlandt station. [11] The city of New York also plans to lease 581,642 square feet (54,036.3 m2) of space, which is not in use yet, in the completed building. [23] A February 2017 announcement by Spotify that it would lease floors 62 through 72 for its United States headquarters, along with a subsequent expansion announcement that July, brought 4 World Trade Center to full occupancy. [27] [28] SportsNet New York, carrier of New York Mets broadcasts, moved its headquarters from 1271 Avenue of the Americas to an 83,000 square feet (7,700 m2) facility in 4 WTC. [29]

The building's elevators are supplied by Schindler, and are the second fastest in North America at 9 m/s (1800 fpm). [30]

See also

Related Research Articles

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the U.S. states of New York and New Jersey, established in 1921 through an interstate compact authorized by the United States Congress. The Port Authority oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port of New York and New Jersey. This 1,500-square-mile (3,900 km2) port district is generally encompassed within a 25-mile (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center and is a member of the Real Estate Board of New York.

World Trade Center site Grounds of the World Trade Center in New York City

The World Trade Center site, formerly referred to as "Ground Zero" or "the Pile" immediately after the September 11 attacks, is a 14.6-acre (5.9 ha) area in Lower Manhattan in New York City. The site is bounded by Vesey Street to the north, the West Side Highway to the west, Liberty Street to the south, and Church Street to the east. The Port Authority owns the site's land. The previous World Trade Center complex stood on the site until it was destroyed in the September 11 attacks.

7 World Trade Center Either of two office buildings that have existed at the same location in Manhattan, New York

7 World Trade Center refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location within the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The original structure, part of the original World Trade Center, was completed in 1987 and was destroyed in the September 11 attacks in 2001. The current structure opened in May 2006. Both buildings were developed by Larry Silverstein, who holds a ground lease for the site from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.

Larry Silverstein American businessman

Larry A. Silverstein is an American businessman. Among his real estate projects, he is the developer of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in lower Manhattan as well as one of New York's tallest residential towers at 30 Park Place, where he owns a home. His worth has been estimated at $3.5 billion as of 2016.

WTC Cortlandt station New York City Subway station in Manhattan

WTC Cortlandt, additionally signed as World Trade Center on walls and formerly known as Cortlandt Street and Cortlandt Street–World Trade Center, is a station on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line of the New York City Subway in Lower Manhattan. The station is located under the intersection of Greenwich Street and Cortlandt Way within the World Trade Center. It is served by the 1 train at all times.

Deutsche Bank Building Former skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

The Deutsche Bank Building was a 39-story office skyscraper located at 130 Liberty Street in New York City, adjacent to the World Trade Center site. The building opened in 1974 and closed following the September 11 attacks, due to contamination that spread from the collapse of the South Tower. The structure existed from 1974 to 2007, and was designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, which also designed the famous Empire State Building.

World Trade Center station (PATH) Port Authority Trans-Hudson rail station

World Trade Center is a terminal station on the PATH system. It is located in the World Trade Center complex, within the Financial District neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City. It is served by the Newark–World Trade Center line on weekdays and holiday weekends, as well as by the Hoboken–World Trade Center line on weekdays, and is the eastern terminus of both.

Newark–World Trade Center rapid transit service in New Jersey and New York City

Newark–World Trade Center is a rapid transit service operated by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH). It is colored red on the PATH service map and trains on this service display red marker lights. This service operates from Pennsylvania Station in Newark, New Jersey, by way of the Downtown Hudson Tubes to the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. Operating 24 hours a day, the 8.9-mile (14.3 km) trip takes 22.5 minutes to complete.

Construction of the World Trade Center

The construction of the first World Trade Center complex in New York City was conceived as an urban renewal project to help revitalize Lower Manhattan spearheaded by David Rockefeller. The project was developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The idea for the World Trade Center arose after World War II as a way to supplement existing avenues of international commerce in the United States.

5 World Trade Center Proposed skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

5 World Trade Center is a planned skyscraper at the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The site is across Liberty Street, to the south of the main 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site. As of June 2018, the project is on standby while the Port Authority explores a potential sale of the lot to a developer and looks for tenants to occupy the skyscraper. The proposed building shares its name with the original 5 World Trade Center, which was heavily damaged as a result of the collapse of the North Tower during the September 11 attacks and was later demolished. The Port Authority has no plans to construct a building at 130 Liberty Street, although it is open to future development of the site as office, retail, hotel, residential or some mix of those uses.

Construction of One World Trade Center was deferred until 2006 because of disputes between the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and the developer. Tishman Realty & Construction is the selected builder. The building reached ground level on May 17, 2008, and was topped out on May 10, 2013. One World Trade Center opened to tenants on November 3, 2014, and One World Observatory opened to the public on May 28, 2015.

Liberty Park

Liberty Park is a one-acre (4,000 m2) elevated public park at the World Trade Center in New York City, overlooking the National September 11 Memorial & Museum. It is located above the Vehicular Security Center and opened on June 29, 2016. The St. Nicholas National Shrine is located within the park, as well as The Sphere, the iconic sculpture salvaged from the World Trade Center site. Another statue, America's Response Monument, is also located in the park.

Vehicular Security Center

The World Trade Center Vehicle Security Center and Tour Bus Parking Facility, or simply the Vehicular Security Center (VSC), is a secure complex for truck delivery and underground parking at the World Trade Center. The entrance to the VSC is located at street-level along the southern edge of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum on Liberty Street. The VSC is connected via underground tunnels that feed the entire 16-acre (65,000 m2) WTC complex, linking the security checkpoint at its entrance with the buildings and services at the complex requiring vehicular services. Underground garages provide parking for tenants, visitors, and tour buses.

World Trade Center (1973–2001) Former skyscraper complex in Manhattan, New York

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m)—were the tallest buildings in the world. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. The complex contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.

225 Park Avenue South is an office building property in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. At the intersection of Park Avenue and East 18th Street on the northeast corner, between East 18th Street and East 19th Street, it is in proximity to Union Square. Orda Management owns the facility, which served as a temporary headquarters for the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) from 2001 to 2015 after its previous headquarters in the former World Trade Center complex were destroyed in the September 11, 2001 attacks, and it also formerly had the headquarters of Crown Publishing Group.

References

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  2. 1 2 Dunlap, David W. "A 977-Foot Tower You May Not See, Assuming You've Even Heard of It". City Room. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
  3. "Stacking Diagram | 4 World Trade Center | Silverstein Properties". 4wtc.com. Retrieved February 3, 2014.
  4. 4 World Trade Center at Emporis
  5. "4 World Trade Center". SkyscraperPage .
  6. 4 World Trade Center at Structurae
  7. "4 World Trade Center". Skyscraper Center. CTBUH. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  8. "Designs for the Three World Trade Center Towers Unveiled" (Press release). Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. September 7, 2006. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
  9. "Contact Us." Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved on January 5, 2019. "The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Corporate Offices 4 World Trade Center 150 Greenwich Street New York, NY 10007"
  10. Newman, Andy; Correal, Annie (November 13, 2013). "New York Today: Skyward". The New York Times.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 150 Greenwich St., Maki and Associates, Architectural Fact Sheet - September 2006. Retrieved February 9, 2007
  12. Pogrebin, Robin (May 3, 2006). "Richard Rogers to Design Tower at Ground Zero". The New York Times. Retrieved June 22, 2006.
  13. History of the Twin Towers.PANYNJ.gov. 2013. Retrieved September 11, 2015
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "CNN.com Specials" . Retrieved March 21, 2017.
  15. 1 2 Troianovski, Anton (November 1, 2010). "WTC Taps Fuel Cells". The Wall Street Journal.
  16. Post, Nadine M. (September 18, 2006). "Ground Zero Office Designs Hailed as Hopeful Symbols". Engineering News-Record. p. 12.
  17. Rosenberg, Rebecca; Messing, Philip (February 17, 2012). "35-ton WTC plunge". New York Post. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
  18. http://m.citybizlist.com/city/details/18/215317%5B%5D
  19. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. "NYC's World Trade Tower Opens 40% Empty in Revival". Bloomberg.com. November 12, 2013. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
  21. July 29, 2015. "Silverstein Signs Four More Tenants at 4WTC". Real Estate Weekly. Archived from the original on February 20, 2016. Retrieved October 5, 2015.  via  HighBeam (subscription required)
  22. "Contact Us." Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Retrieved on January 5, 2019. "The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Corporate Offices 4 World Trade Center 150 Greenwich Street New York, NY 10007"
  23. 1 2 Dunlap, David W. (July 9, 2008). "Answers About Ground Zero Rebuilding". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
  24. "About." Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. February 7, 2001. Retrieved on January 5, 2019. "Mailing Address: The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey 67 West # 1 World Trade Center New York, NY 10048"
  25. Dunlap, David W. (March 4, 2015). "With Newfound Modesty, Port Authority Returns to the World Trade Center". The New York Times . Retrieved January 5, 2019. After 14 years near Union Square, the agency’s headquarters have returned to a spot at the World Trade Center, where they had been from 1973 until Sept. 11, 2001.[...]the interim board room at 225 Park Avenue South, at East 18th Street.
  26. Fishbein, Rebecca. "First Look Inside The Gigantic New Eataly Location At 4 World Trade Center". Gothamist. Archived from the original on August 29, 2016. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
  27. "Spotify deal makes 4 World Trade Center the complex's first fully leased tower". Curbed NY. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  28. "Spotify Expands by 100K SF at 4 WTC, Bringing Tower to Full Occupancy". Commercial Observer. July 5, 2017. Retrieved April 23, 2018.
  29. "Mets broadcaster SportsNet moves HQ to 4 WTC". The Real Deal. November 9, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
  30. "Spotify Will Move to WTC; Expand Staff by 1,000". The Wall Street Journal. February 15, 2017. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
Lists of tenants of the WTC complex on 9/11
One WTC | 2 WTC | 5 WTC | 6 WTC | 7 WTC