624 Hektor

Last updated
624 Hektor
Hektor & Skamandrios 2006 Jul 16.PNG
624 Hektor and its moon Skamandrios
Discovery [1]
Discovered by A. Kopff
Discovery site Heidelberg Obs.
Discovery date10 February 1907
Designations
(624) Hektor
Pronunciation /ˈhɛktər/ [2]
Named after
Hector (Greek mythology) [3]
1907 XM; 1948 VD
Jupiter trojan [1] [4]  · Hektor [5]
(Greek camp) [6]
Adjectives Hektorean or Hektorian
(both /hɛkˈtɔːriən/ ) [2]
Orbital characteristics [4]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 111.28 yr (40,646 d)
Aphelion 5.3824 AU
Perihelion 5.1319 AU
5.2571 AU
Eccentricity 0.0238
12.05 yr (4,403 d)
136.09°
0° 4m 54.48s / day
Inclination 18.166°
342.79°
185.22°
Known satellites 1
Jupiter  MOID 0.2752 AU
TJupiter 2.8990
Physical characteristics
Dimensions403 km × 201 km(derived) [7]
370 km × 195 km × 195 km [8]
Mean diameter
250±26 km [7]
(if bilobe:256±12 km) [7]
225 km [4]
147±2 km [9]
227±15 km [10]
231±4 km [11]
Mass (7.9±1.4)×1018 kg [7]
(9.95±0.12)×1018 kg [10]
Mean density
1.0±0.3 g/cm3 [7]
1.63±0.32 g/cm3 [10]
2.43±0.35 g/cm3 [12]
6.9205 hours (0.28835 d) [7]
0.025 [4]
0.034±0.001 [11]
0.107±0.011 [9]
D (Tholen) [4]
13.79 to 15.26 [ citation needed ]
7.20 [9]  ·7.3 [4]  ·7.49 [11]
0.078" to 0.048" [ citation needed ]

    624 Hektor /ˈhɛktər/ is the largest Jupiter trojan and the namesake of the Hektor family, with a highly elongated shape equivalent in volume to a sphere of approximately 225 to 250 kilometers diameter. It was discovered on 10 February 1907, by astronomer August Kopff at Heidelberg Observatory in southwest Germany, and named after the Trojan prince Hector, from Greek mythology. [1] [3] It has one small 12-kilometer sized satellite, Skamandrios, discovered in 2006. [7]

    Contents

    Description

    Hektor is a D-type asteroid, dark and reddish in colour. It lies in Jupiter's leading Lagrangian point, L4, called the Greek camp after one of the two sides in the legendary Trojan War. Hektor is named after the Trojan hero Hektor and is thus one of two trojan asteroids that is "misplaced" in the wrong camp (the other one being 617 Patroclus in the Trojan camp).

    Contact-binary hypothesis

    Modelled shape of 624 Hektor from its light curve. Note that Skamandrios is not part of this model. 624 Hektor.png
    Modelled shape of 624 Hektor from its light curve. Note that Skamandrios is not part of this model.

    Hektor is one of the most elongated bodies of its size in the Solar System, being approximately 403 km in its longest dimension, but averaging only around 201 km in its other dimensions, with a total volume equivalent to an approx 250 km diameter sphere, and an estimated mass of 7.9×1018 kg (thus density of 1.0g/cm3). It is thought that Hektor might be a contact binary (two asteroids joined by gravitational attraction) like 216 Kleopatra, composed of two more rounded lobes of 220 and 183 km mean diameters. [7] Hubble Space Telescope observations of Hektor in 1993 did not show an obvious bilobate shape because of a limited angular resolution. On 17 July 2006, the Keck 10-meter-II-telescope and its laser guide star adaptive optics (AO) system indicated a bilobate shape for Hektor, [13] which was reinforced by later studies that, together with multiple historical lightcurves, suggest a rotation period of 6.9205 hours. [7]

    Hektor is, so far, one of only three known binary trojan asteroids in the L4 point (the others being 16974 Iphthime and 3548 Eurybates) and the first known trojan with a satellite companion. 617 Patroclus, another large trojan asteroid located in the L5 point, is composed of two almost equal-sized components. [13] There are now a further two known binary asteroids in the L5 point, (17365) 1978 VF11 and 29314 Eurydamas. [14]

    Satellite

    Skamandrios
    Discovery [7]
    Discovered by Marchis et al.
    Discovery date2006 July 16
    Designations
    Designation
    Hektor I
    Pronunciation /skəˈmændriəs/
    Named after
    Scamandrius
    S/2006 (624) 1
    Adjectives Skamandrian
    Orbital characteristics [7]
    623.5±10 km
    Eccentricity 0.31±0.03
    2.9651±0.0003 days
    Inclination 50.1°±1.1° (to primary)
    166.2°±3.2° (in EQJ2000)
    170.7°±6.1° (in EQJ2000)
    113.4°±1.4° (in EQJ2000)
    Physical characteristics
    Mean diameter
    12±3 km (assuming composition of primary)

      A 10–15-km-diameter moon, named Skamandrios, was detected orbiting 624 Hektor in 2006 with a semi-major axis of 623.5 km and an orbital period of 2.9651 days (71.162 hours). [15] [7] It was confirmed with Keck observations in November 2011, [16] and was then named on 12 March 2017. [17] No mass estimate was provided, but the equivalent volume suggests an approximate mass of 8.74×1014 kg if the two bodies are of the same density. Its orbit is highly inclined and eccentric, and it is likely that its rotation is chaotic. Marchis et al. (2014) speculate that it was ejected after a low-velocity collision produced the bilobed primary. The newly merged primary could have spun fast enough to be unstable and shed some mass. [7]

      Studies

      624 Hektor was in a 2003 study of asteroids using the Hubble FGS. [18] Asteroids studied include 63 Ausonia, 15 Eunomia, 43 Ariadne, 44 Nysa, and 624 Hektor. [18] It has since been revisited several times, particularly as a test of the upgraded resolution of the Keck Observatory's LGS Adaptive Optics system which allowed Earth-based observation of binary asteroids for the first time. [13] [7] The asteroid has also been imaged by the NEOWISE and AKARI all-sky studies, which reported highly divergent size estimates of 147.4 [9] and 231.0 kilometers [11] respectively, although this mostly arises from large differences in estimated albedo (approximately 0.107 for NEOWISE, and a much lower 0.034 for AKARI) rather than its absolute magnitude being measured only briefly at opposing extremes of a widely varying cycle such as thought to account for the uncertainty over the size of 1173 Anchises (624 Hektor's own abs. mag. recorded as a relatively similar 7.20 and 7.49 by the two studies). It is, unusually, not included in the published IRAS results, and is therefore the largest Jupiter trojan to be omitted from that study.

      100+ largest Jupiter trojans
      Largest Jupiter Trojans by survey(A)
      (mean-diameter in kilometers; YoD: Year of Discovery)
      Designation H WISE IRAS Akari Ln RP V–I YoDRef
      624 Hektor 7.2225233230.99L46.920.9301907 list
      617 Patroclus 8.19140.362140.92140.85L5102.800.8301906 list
      911 Agamemnon 7.89131.038166.66185.30L46.590.9801919 list
      588 Achilles 8.67130.099135.47133.22L47.310.9401906 list
      3451 Mentor 8.4126.288116.30117.91L57.700.7701984 list
      3317 Paris 8.3118.790116.26120.45L57.090.9501984 list
      1867 Deiphobus 8.3118.220122.67131.31L558.660.9301971 list
      1172 Äneas 8.33118.020142.82148.66L58.710.9501930 list
      1437 Diomedes 8.3117.786164.31172.60L424.490.8101937 list
      1143 Odysseus 7.93114.624125.64130.81L410.110.8601930 list
      2241 Alcathous 8.64113.682114.63118.87L57.690.9401979 list
      659 Nestor 8.99112.320108.87107.06L415.980.7901908 list
      3793 Leonteus 8.7112.04686.2687.58L45.620.7801985 list
      3063 Makhaon 8.4111.655116.14114.34L48.640.8301983 list
      1583 Antilochus 8.6108.842101.62111.69L431.540.9501950 list
      884 Priamus 8.81101.09396.29119.99L56.860.9001917 list
      1208 Troilus 8.99100.477103.34111.36L556.170.7401931 list
      1173 Anchises 8.8999.549126.27120.49L511.600.7801930 list
      2207 Antenor 8.8997.65885.1191.32L57.970.9501977 list
      2363 Cebriones 9.1195.97681.8484.61L520.050.9101977 list
      4063 Euforbo 8.795.619102.46106.38L48.850.9501989 list
      2357 Phereclos 8.9494.62594.9098.45L514.390.9601981 list
      4709 Ennomos 8.591.43380.8580.03L512.280.6901988 list
      2797 Teucer 8.789.430111.14113.99L410.150.9201981 list
      2920 Automedon 8.888.574111.01113.11L410.210.9501981 list
      15436 Dexius 9.187.64685.7178.63L48.970.8701998 list
      3596 Meriones 9.287.38075.0973.28L412.960.8301985 list
      2893 Peiroos 9.2386.88487.4686.76L58.960.9501975 list
      4086 Podalirius 9.185.49586.8985.98L410.430.8701985 list
      4060 Deipylos 9.384.04379.2186.79L49.300.7601987 list
      1404 Ajax 9.383.99081.6996.34L429.380.9601936 list
      4348 Poulydamas 9.582.03270.0887.51L59.910.8401988 list
      5144 Achates 9.080.95891.9189.85L55.960.9201991 list
      4833 Meges 8.980.16587.3389.39L414.250.9401989 list
      2223 Sarpedon 9.4177.48094.63108.21L522.740.8801977 list
      4489 Dracius 9.076.59592.9395.02L412.580.9501988 list
      2260 Neoptolemus 9.3176.43571.6581.28L48.180.9501975 list
      5254 Ulysses 9.276.14778.3480.00L428.720.9701986 list
      3708 Socus 9.375.66179.5976.75L56.550.9801974 list
      2674 Pandarus 9.174.26798.10101.72L58.481.0001982 list
      3564 Talthybius 9.473.73068.9274.11L440.590.9001985 list
      4834 Thoas 9.172.33186.8296.21L418.190.9501989 list
      7641 Cteatus 9.471.83968.9775.28L427.770.9801986 list
      3540 Protesilaos 9.370.22576.8487.66L48.950.9401973 list
      11395 Iphinous 9.868.97764.7167.78L417.381998 list
      4035 Thestor 9.668.73368.2366.99L413.470.9701986 list
      5264 Telephus 9.468.47273.2681.38L49.530.9701991 list
      1868 Thersites 9.568.16370.0878.89L410.480.9601960 list
      9799 Thronium 9.668.03364.8772.42L421.520.9101996 list
      4068 Menestheus 9.567.62562.3768.46L414.400.9501973 list
      23135 Pheidas 9.966.23058.2968.50L48.690.8602000 list
      2456 Palamedes 9.365.91691.6699.60L47.240.9201966 list
      3709 Polypoites 9.165.29799.0985.23L410.041.0001985 list
      1749 Telamon 9.564.89881.0669.14L416.980.9701949 list
      3548 Eurybates 9.663.88572.1468.40L48.710.7301973 list
      4543 Phoinix 9.763.83662.7969.54L438.871.2001989 list
      12444 Prothoon 9.863.83564.3162.41L515.821996 list
      4836 Medon 9.563.27767.7378.70L49.820.9201989 list
      16070 Charops 9.763.19164.1368.98L520.240.9601999 list
      15440 Eioneus 9.662.51966.4871.88L421.430.9701998 list
      4715 Medesicaste 9.762.09763.9165.93L58.810.8501989 list
      34746 Thoon 9.861.68460.5163.63L519.630.9502001 list
      38050 Bias 9.861.60361.0450.44L418.850.9901998 list
      5130 Ilioneus 9.760.71159.4052.49L514.770.9601989 list
      5027 Androgeos 9.659.78657.86n.a.L411.380.9101988 list
      6090 Aulis 9.459.56874.5381.92L418.480.9801989 list
      5648 Axius 9.759.29563.91n.a.L537.560.9001990 list
      7119 Hiera 9.759.15076.4077.29L44000.9501989 list
      4805 Asteropaios 10.057.64753.1643.44L512.371990 list
      16974 Iphthime 9.857.34155.4357.15L478.90.9601998 list
      4867 Polites 9.857.25158.2964.29L511.241.0101989 list
      2895 Memnon 10.056.70655.67n.a.L57.500.7101981 list
      4708 Polydoros 9.954.96455.67n.a.L57.520.9601988 list
      (21601) 1998 XO89 10.054.90955.6756.08L412.650.9701998 list
      12929 Periboea 9.954.07761.0455.34L59.270.8801999 list
      17492 Hippasos 10.053.97555.67n.a.L517.751991 list
      5652 Amphimachus 10.153.92153.1652.48L48.371.0501992 list
      2759 Idomeneus 9.953.67661.0152.55L432.380.9101980 list
      5258 Rhoeo 10.253.27550.77n.a.L419.851.0101989 list
      (12126) 1999 RM11 10.153.202n.a.n.a.L5n.a. ?1999 list
      (15502) 1999 NV27 10.053.10055.6750.86L515.130.8751999 list
      4754 Panthoos 10.053.02553.1556.96L527.681977 list
      4832 Palinurus 10.052.05853.16n.a.L55.321.0001988 list
      5126 Achaemenides 10.551.92244.2248.57L453.021989 list
      3240 Laocoon 10.251.69550.77n.a.L511.310.8801978 list
      4902 Thessandrus 9.851.26361.0471.79L47380.9601989 list
      11552 Boucolion 10.151.13653.1653.91L532.441993 list
      (20729) 1999 XS143 10.450.96146.30n.a.L45.721.0001999 list
      (6545) 1986 TR6 10.150.95153.16n.a.L416.260.9101986 list
      4792 Lykaon 10.150.87053.16n.a.L540.090.9601988 list
      21900 Orus 10.050.81055.6753.87L413.450.9501999 list
      1873 Agenor 10.150.79953.7654.38L520.601971 list
      5028 Halaesus 10.250.77050.77n.a.L424.940.9001988 list
      2146 Stentor 9.950.75558.29n.a.L416.401976 list
      4722 Agelaos 10.050.37853.1659.47L518.440.9101977 list
      5284 Orsilocus 10.150.15953.16n.a.L410.310.9701989 list
      11509 Thersilochos 10.149.96053.1656.23L517.371990 list
      5285 Krethon 10.149.60658.5352.61L412.041.0901989 list
      4791 Iphidamas 10.149.52857.8559.96L59.701.0301988 list
      9023 Mnesthus 10.149.15150.7760.80L530.661988 list
      5283 Pyrrhus 9.748.35664.5869.93L47.320.9501989 list
      4946 Askalaphus 10.248.20952.7166.10L422.730.9401988 list
      (22149) 2000 WD49 10.248.19050.7750.37L47.841.0902000 list
      (32496) 2000 WX182 10.248.01750.7751.63L523.340.9502000 list
      5120 Bitias 10.247.98750.77n.a.L515.210.7801988 list
      12714 Alkimos 10.147.81961.0454.62L428.481991 list
      (7352) 1994 CO 9.947.73155.67 47.07L56480.8501994 list
      1870 Glaukos 10.647.64942.23n.a.L55.991971 list
      4138 Kalchas 10.146.46253.1661.04L429.20.8101973 list
      (23958) 1998 VD30 10.246.00150.7747.91L45620.9901998 list
      4828 Misenus 10.445.95446.30 43.22L512.870.9201988 list
      4057 Demophon 10.145.68353.16n.a.L429.821.0601985 list
      4501 Eurypylos 10.445.52446.30n.a.L46.051989 list
      4007 Euryalos 10.345.51548.4853.89L46.391973 list
      5259 Epeigeus 10.344.74142.5944.42L418.421989 list
      30705 Idaios 10.444.54646.30n.a.L515.741977 list
      16560 Daitor 10.743.86151.4243.38L51991 list
      (15977) 1998 MA11 10.443.53046.3051.53L52500.9061998 list
      7543 Prylis 10.642.89342.23n.a.L417.801973 list
      4827 Dares 10.542.77044.22n.a.L519.001988 list
      1647 Menelaus 10.542.71644.22n.a.L417.740.8661957 list
      (A) Used sources: WISE/NEOWISE catalog (NEOWISE_DIAM_V1 PDS, Grav, 2012); IRAS data (SIMPS v.6 catalog); and Akari catalog (Usui, 2011); RP: rotation period and V–I (color index) taken from the LCDB

      Note: missing data was completed with figures from the JPL SBDB (query) and from the LCDB (query form) for the WISE/NEOWISE and SIMPS catalogs, respectively. These figures are given in italics. Also, listing is incomplete above #100.

      See also

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      References

      1. 1 2 3 "624 Hektor (1907 XM)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
      2. 1 2 "Hector" . Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
      3. 1 2 Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(624) Hektor". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (624) Hektor. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 63. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_625. ISBN   978-3-540-00238-3.
      4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 624 Hektor (1907 XM)" (2018-05-25 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory . Retrieved 14 June 2018.
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