8K resolution

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Comparison chart 8K UHD, 5K, 4K UHD, FHD and SD.svg
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Example 8k footage from the Inter­national Space Station (select "WebM source" from the menu to view).

8K resolution refers to an image or display resolution with a width of approximately 8,000 pixels. 8K UHD (7680 × 4320) is the highest resolution defined in the Rec. 2020 (UHDTV) standard. [1]

Contents

8K display resolution is the successor to 4K resolution. TV manufacturers pushed to make 4K a new standard by 2017. At CES 2019, the first 8K TVs were unveiled. [2] The feasibility of a fast transition to this new standard is questionable in view of the absence of broadcasting resources. [3] It is predicted (2018 forecast by Strategy Analytics) that 8K-ready devices will still only account for 3% of UHD TVs by 2023 with global sales of 11 million units a year. [4] However, TV manufacturers remain optimistic as the 4K market grew much faster than expected, with actual sales exceeding projections nearly six-fold in 2016. [5]

In 2013, a transmission network's capability to carry HDTV resolution was limited by internet speeds and relied on satellite broadcast to transmit the high data rates. The demand is expected to drive the adoption of video compression standards and to place significant pressure on physical communication networks in the near future. [6]

As of 2018, few cameras had the capability to shoot video in 8K, NHK being one of the only companies to have created a small broadcasting camera with an 8K image sensor. [7] By 2018, Red Digital Cinema camera company had delivered three 8K cameras in both a Full Frame sensor and Super 35 sensor. [8] Until major content sources are available, 8K is speculated to become a mainstream consumer display resolution around 2023 as mentioned in UHD forum Phase-B recommendations.[ citation needed ] Despite this, filmmakers are pushing demand for 8K cameras due to their ability to capture better 4K footage.

8K standards and technology

The term "8K" is generic and refers to any resolution with a horizontal pixel count of approximately 8,000. Several different 8K resolutions have been standardized by various organizations.

History

Astro Design 8K camera being displayed at the 2013 NAB Show Astro8Kcamerademo.JPG
Astro Design 8K camera being displayed at the 2013 NAB Show
NHK and Hitachi demonstrating their 8K camera at the 2013 NAB Show NHKHitachi8Kcamerademo.JPG
NHK and Hitachi demonstrating their 8K camera at the 2013 NAB Show

Japan's public broadcaster NHK was the first to start research and development of 4320p resolution in 1995. The format was standardized by SMPTE in October 2007, Interface standardized by SMPTE in August 2010 and recommended as the international standard for television by lTU-R in 2012. Followed by public displays at electronics shows and screenings of 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi and public viewings in February 2014 and the FIFA World Cup in Brazil in June 2014 using HEVC with partners AstroDesign and Ikegami Electronics. [9] [10] [11]

On January 6, 2015, the MHL Consortium announced the release of the superMHL specification which will support 8K resolution at 120 fps, 48-bit video, the Rec. 2020 color space, high dynamic range support, a 32-pin reversible superMHL connector, and power charging of up to 40 watts. [12] [13] [14]

On March 1, 2016, The Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) unveiled DisplayPort 1.4, a new format that allows the use of 8K resolution (7680 × 4320) at 60 Hz with HDRR and 32 audio channels through USB-C. [15]

On January 4, 2017, the HDMI Forum announced HDMI 2.1 featuring support for 8K video with HDR, will be "released early in Q2 2017". [16]

8K Association Formed at CES 2019 to Help Develop 8K Ecosystem. [17]

In early February 2020, Samsung Electronics, announced during their Unpacked event that their Samsung Galaxy S20 can video record in 8K, which uses 600 MB of storage per minute. [18]

First cameras

On April 6, 2013, Astrodesign Inc. announced the AH-4800, capable of recording 8K resolution. In April 2015 it was announced by Red that their newly unveiled Red Weapon VV is also capable of recording 8K footage. In October 2016 they announced two additional 8K cameras, Red Weapon 8K S35 and Red Epic-W 8K S35. [19] The Red Weapon Dragon VV has been discontinued as of October 7,2017, when Red unveiled the Red Weapon Monstro VV, their fourth camera capable of shooting 8K, with additional improvements in dynamic range and noise reduction, among other features.

Mobile phone cameras

In May 2019 mobile phone vendors started releasing the first mobile phones with 8K video recording capabilities, such as the ZTE Nubia Red Magic 3 series.

This is enabled by the sufficient resolution of image sensors used in mobile phones, and by the sufficient chipset performance. However, mobile phones with up to 5K (2880p) or 6K (3240p) video cameras have never been released.

Productions

In 2007, the original 65 mm negative of the 1992 film Baraka was re-scanned at 8K with a film scanner built specifically for the job at FotoKem Laboratories, and used to remaster the 2008 Blu-ray release. Chicago Sun-Times critic Roger Ebert described the Blu-ray release as "the finest video disc I have ever viewed or ever imagined." [20] A similar 8K scan/4K intermediate digital restoration of Lawrence of Arabia was made for Blu-ray and theatrical re-release during 2012 by Sony Pictures to celebrate the film's 50th anniversary. [21] [22] According to Grover Crisp, executive VP of restoration at Sony Pictures, the new 8K scan has such high resolution that when examined, showed a series of fine concentric lines in a pattern "reminiscent of a fingerprint" near the top of the frame. This was caused by the film emulsion melting and cracking in the desert heat during production. Sony had to hire a third party to minimize or eliminate the rippling artifacts in the new restored version. [21]

On May 17, 2013, the Franklin Institute premiered To Space and Back, an 8K×8K, 60  fps, 3D video running approximately 25 minutes. During its first run at the Fels Planetarium it was played at 4K, 60 fps. [23]

In November 2013, NHK screened the experimental-drama short film "The Chorus" at Tokyo Film Festival which was filmed in 8K and 22.2 sound format. [24]

On May 1, 2015, an 8K abstract computer animation was screened at the Filmatic Festival at the University of California, San Diego. The work was created as an assignment in the VIS 40/ICAM 40 Introduction to Computing in the Arts class taught at UCSD by Associate Teaching Professor Brett Stalbaum during the winter quarter of 2015, with each student producing three hundred 8192 × 4800 pixel frames. The work's music soundtrack was composed by Mark Matamoros. [25] [26]

On January 6, 2016, director James Gunn stated that the 2017 film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 would be the first (feature) film to be shot in 8K, using the Red Weapon 8K VV. [27]

Broadcasting

Japanese public broadcaster NHK began research and development on 8K in 1995, having spent over $1 billion on R&D since then. [28] Codenamed Super Hi-Vision (named after its old Hi-Vision analog HDTV system), NHK also was simultaneously working on the development of 22.2 channel surround sound audio. The world's first 8K television was unveiled by Sharp at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in 2012. [29] Experimental transmissions of the resolution were tested with the 2012 Summer Olympics, and at the Cannes Film Festival showcasing Beauties À La Carte, a 27-minute short showcased publicly on a 220" screen, with a three-year roadmap that entails the launch of 8K test broadcasting in 2016, with plans to roll out full 8K services by 2018, and in time for the 2020 Summer Olympics, [30] which were delayed to 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. On December 1, 2018, NHK launched BS8K, a broadcast channel transmitting at 8K resolution. [31] [32] [33]

On February 28, 2020, it was reported that BT Sport would broadcast the UEFA Europa League in 8K HDR10+ as early as August 2020. [34]

Gaming

Sony announced that the PlayStation 5 will support 8K graphics. [35] Microsoft then announced Xbox Series X with 8K graphic support set to release in late 2020. [36] Nvidia's GeForce RTX 3090 promises to enable 8K 60 fps HDR gaming, recording, and streaming with ShadowPlay on PCs. [37] [38]

Editing

Given adequate hardware, 8K video can be edited by all major non-linear video editors such as Avid Media Composer, Adobe Premiere Pro, Lightworks, Vegas Pro, Final Cut Pro X, Edius, DaVinci Resolve, and Kdenlive.

Resolutions

Examples of 8K resolutions
Resolution Aspect ratio Total pixels
7680 × 21603.551 329 16.59 Mpx
7680 × 32002.401241024.58 Mpx
7680 × 32402.3701642724.88 Mpx
7680 × 43201.771 169 33.18 Mpx
8192 × 43201.8962125613535.39 Mpx
8192 × 46081.771 169 37.75 Mpx
8192 × 51201.601 1610 41.94 Mpx
8192 × 81921.0011167.11 Mpx

7680 × 4320

This is the resolution of the UHDTV2 format defined in SMPTE ST 2036–1, [39] [40] as well as the 8K UHDTV format defined in ITU-R BT.2020. [41] It was also chosen by the DVB project as the resolution for their 8K broadcasting standard, UHD-2. [42] It has 33.2 million total pixels, and is double the resolution of 4K UHD in each dimension (four times as many total pixels) or four times the resolution of 1080p in each dimension (sixteen times as many total pixels).

Devices

TVs

Projectors

Monitors

8K VR Headset

  • Pimax Vision 8K X, made up of two 3840 × 2160 screens @ 90 Hz, started Crowdfunding in October 2017, with the product released and shipped in September 2020. [55]

Cameras

Smartphones with 8K camera

  • Samsung Galaxy S20 series, shoots 8K @ 24 fps, went on sale from February 2020
  • Samsung Galaxy Note 20 series, shoots 8K @ 24 fps, went on sale from August 2020
  • Samsung Galaxy S21 series, shoots 8K @ 30  fps, went on sale from January 2021
  • Asus ROG Phone 3, shoots 8K @ 30 fps, went on sale from July 2020
  • Asus ZenFone 7, shoots 8K @ 30 fps, went on sale from September 2020
  • LG V60 ThinQ, shoots 8K @ 30 fps, went on sale from March 2020
  • OnePlus 9/9 Pro, shoots 8K @ 30 fps, went on sale from March 2021
  • Xiaomi Mi 10/Mi 10 Pro, shoots 8K @ 30 fps, went on sale from February 2020
  • Xiaomi Mi 10 Ultra, shoots 8K @ 24 fps, went on sale from August 2020
  • Xiaomi Mi 10T/Mi 10T Pro, shoots 8K @ 30 fps, went on sale from October 2020
  • Xiaomi Mi 11, shoots 8K @ 24/30 fps, went on sale from January 2021
  • Redmi K30 Pro, Poco F2 Pro, shoots 8K @ 24/30 fps, went on sale from March–May 2020
  • Redmi K40 Pro/K40 Pro+, shoots 8K @ 30 fps, went on sale from March 2021
  • Sharp Aquos R5G, shoots 8K @ 30 fps, went on sale from July 2020
  • Vivo X50 Pro+, shoots 8K @ 30 fps, went on sale from July 2020
  • Vivo X60 Pro+, shoots 8K @ 30 fps, went on sale from January 2021

8K VR camera

  • QooCam 8K, first affordable 8K 360° VR camera, with built-in video stitching.
  • Insta360 Pro 2

Fulldome

See also

Related Research Articles

NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories

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1080p Video mode

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Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL) is an industry standard for a mobile audio/video interface that allows the connection of smartphones, tablets, and other portable consumer electronics devices to high-definition televisions (HDTVs), audio receivers, and projectors. The standard was designed to share existing mobile device connectors, such as Micro-USB, and avoid the need to add additional video connectors on devices with limited space for them.

"21:9" is a consumer electronics (CE) marketing term to describe the ultrawide aspect ratio of 64:27, designed to show films recorded in CinemaScope and equivalent modern anamorphic formats. The main benefit of this screen aspect ratio, compared to the more common 16:9, is the absence of the black bars at the top and bottom of the screen when viewing content in this format, and a constant display height when displaying other content with a lesser aspect ratio.

4K resolution Video size standard

4K resolution refers to a horizontal display resolution of approximately 4,000 pixels. Digital television and digital cinematography commonly use several different 4K resolutions. In television and consumer media, 3840 × 2160 is the dominant 4K standard, whereas the movie projection industry uses 4096 × 2160.

Graphics display resolution Width and height of an electronic visual display device, such as a computer monitor, in pixels

The graphics display resolution is the width and height dimension of an electronic visual display device, such as a computer monitor, in pixels. Certain combinations of width and height are standardized and typically given a name and an initialism that is descriptive of its dimensions. A higher display resolution in a display of the same size means that displayed photo or video content appears sharper, and pixel art appears smaller.

Rec. 2020 ITU-R recommendation

ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 2020 or BT.2020, defines various aspects of ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) with standard dynamic range (SDR) and wide color gamut (WCG), including picture resolutions, frame rates with progressive scan, bit depths, color primaries, RGB and luma-chroma color representations, chroma subsamplings, and an opto-electronic transfer function. The first version of Rec. 2020 was posted on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) website on August 23, 2012, and two further editions have been published since then. It is expanded in several ways by Rec. 2100.

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5K resolution

5K resolution refers to display formats with a horizontal resolution of around 5,000 pixels. The most common 5K resolution is 5120 × 2880, which has an aspect ratio of 16∶9 with around 14.7 million pixels, with four times the linear resolution of 720p. This resolution is typically used in computer monitors to achieve a higher pixel density, and is not a standard format in digital television and digital cinematography, which feature 4K resolutions and 8K resolutions.

Ultra-high-definition television Television formats beyond HDTV

Ultra-high-definition television today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9. These were first proposed by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories and later defined and approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). It is a digital television (DTV) standard, and the successor to high-definition television (HDTV), which in turn was the successor to standard-definition television (SDTV).

Samsung Galaxy A5 (2016) Android smartphone by Samsung

Samsung's Galaxy A5 (2016) is a mid-range Android smartphone developed by Samsung Electronics as a part of Samsung Galaxy A series. The phone is powered by Exynos 7580 SoC with a 1.6 GHz processor. It has 2GB RAM and 16GB internal storage that is expandable up to 128 GB. It has accelerometer, geomagnetic sensor, hall sensor, proximity sensor and RGB light sensor. Notable features include Samsung Pay (MST) and S-Voice. It measures 144.8 x 71.0 x 7.3 mm and weighs 155g.

Samsung Galaxy S20 Line of high-end Android smartphones by Samsung Electronics

The Samsung Galaxy S20 is a series of Android-based smartphones designed, developed, marketed, and manufactured by Samsung Electronics as part of its Galaxy S series. They collectively serve as the successor to the Galaxy S10 and were unveiled at Samsung's Galaxy Unpacked event on 11 February 2020.

Samsung Galaxy A71 Android phone from Samsung

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LG V60 ThinQ 2020 Android phablet manufactured by LG Electronics

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Samsung Galaxy Note 20 Line of Android-based phablets developed by Samsung Electronics

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Sony α7S III

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Samsung Galaxy S20 FE Android-based smartphone manufactured by Samsung

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