9K114 Shturm

Last updated
9K114 Shturm
9P149 Shturm-S Tank Destroyer.jpg
Shturm-S of Armenian army
Type ATGM
Place of origin Soviet Union

9K114 Shturm [1] (Russian : 9К114 «Штурм» - "Assault", borrowed from German "Sturm" - Storm/Assault) - is a SACLOS radio guided anti-tank missile system of the Soviet Union. Its GRAU designation is 9K114. [2] Its NATO reporting name is AT-6 Spiral. The missile itself is known as the 9M114 Kokon (Cocoon).

Contents

Development

The missile called 9M114 Kokon (Cocoon) was developed by the Kolomna Machine Design Bureau, which was also responsible for the 3M6 Shmel and 9M14 Malyutka. Work on the missile began in 1967, with the hope of using the missile on Mi-24s. However, delays forced the design of an upgraded Falanga system (9M17 Skorpion) using SACLOS guidance as a stopgap. Testing of the missile was completed in 1974, and it was accepted into service in 1976. The missile has no direct western counterpart, though, in role, it is closest to the AGM-114 Hellfire, and in guidance method, to the MGM-18 Lacrosse.

It was originally given the NATO designation AS-8, before being redesignated as AT-6. [3]

Description

Shturm launch tubes(right) on the wing of an Mi-24 Krzesiny 82RB.JPG
Shturm launch tubes(right) on the wing of an Mi-24
9P149 Shturm-S in Saint Petersburg Artillery Museum 9P149 vehicle with 9M144 missiles of anti-tank complex <<Shturm-S>> in Military-historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps in Saint-Petersburg, Russia.jpg
9P149 Shturm-S in Saint Petersburg Artillery Museum
9P149 vehicle with 9M114 missiles of anti-tank complex <<Shturm-S>> is firing 9P149.jpg
9P149 vehicle with 9M114 missiles of anti-tank complex «Shturm-S» is firing

The missile can be deployed on a variety of platforms, including the Mi-24V and from 1979-onwards the MT-LB based 9P149 tank destroyer. There is also a shipborne version of the missile, with the launcher holding six missiles.

The missile is transported and launched from a glass-reinforced plastic tube. The missile uses a Soyuz NPO solid-rocket sustainer, with a small booster stage to launch the missile from its tube.

The missile is SACLOS with a radio command link. The use of a radio link allows the missile to travel much faster and further than if it were wire guided. The radio link is a VHF system with five frequency bands and two codes to minimize the risk of jamming. The system comprises a KPS-53AV 8× daylight-only direct vision sight with an integrated laser rangefinder. After the missile is launched, the gunner has to keep the sight's crosshairs on the target until impact. Appropriate steering commands are transmitted to the missile via the radio link.

The missile flies above the gunner's line of sight to the target. With the range of the target determined by the laser rangefinder, the missile descends onto the target just before impact. This is done primarily to clear obstacles, instead of achieving a top-attack, and can be switched off. It is possible to engage low and slow moving helicopters with the system; however, since the missile only has a contact fuze, a direct hit would be needed.

Soviet sources report kill ratios of 75–85% during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Also a Mil demonstration in Sweden in late 1995 using an Mi-28A firing Shturm and Ataka missiles also showed good results: from a hovering helicopter, a Shturm was fired at a target 900 m away; and from level flight at 200 km/h an Ataka was fired at a target 4,700 m away. Both missiles passed within 1 m of their aiming point. [4]

In 2014, a modernized variant, the 9K132 Shturm-SM, was adopted by the Russian army, featuring a sight with television and thermal channels as well as a new missile with a high-explosive fragmentation warhead and a proximity fuse. [5]

General characteristics (AT-6A Spiral)

Variants

Operators

Map with 9K114 operators in blue and former operators in red 9K114 operators.png
Map with 9K114 operators in blue and former operators in red

Current operators

Former operators

Related Research Articles

Kamov Ka-50 Attack helicopter

The Kamov Ka-50 "Black Shark" is a Russian single-seat attack helicopter with the distinctive coaxial rotor system of the Kamov design bureau. It was designed in the 1980s and adopted for service in the Russian army in 1995. It is manufactured by the Progress company in Arsenyev. It is used as a heavily armed scout helicopter. It is the world's first operational helicopter with a rescue ejection system.

K-5 (missile) Short-range air-to-air missile

The Kaliningrad K-5, also known as RS-1U or product ShM, was an early Soviet air-to-air missile.

The MolniyaR-60 is a short-range lightweight infrared homing air-to-air missile designed for use by Soviet fighter aircraft. It has been widely exported, and remains in service with the CIS and many other nations.

M-11 Shtorm

The M-11 Shtorm is a Russian naval surface-to-air missile system. Its GRAU designation is 4K60. Its NATO reporting name is SA-N-3 Goblet. The system was first installed on Moskva, an anti-submarine warfare carrier, which was commissioned in 1967, but the system was not officially accepted into service until 1969. Unusually for such systems, it has no land-based counterpart. It was only deployed on Russian vessels, and was never fired in anger.

Mil Mi-28 Attack helicopter

The Mil Mi-28 is a Russian all-weather, day-night, military tandem, two-seat anti-armor attack helicopter. It is an attack helicopter with no intended secondary transport capability, better optimized than the Mil Mi-24 gunship for the role. It carries a single gun in an undernose barbette, plus external loads carried on pylons beneath stub wings.

9M14 Malyutka Anti-tank missile

The 9M14 Malyutka is a manual command to line of sight (MCLOS) wire-guided anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) system developed in the Soviet Union. It was the first man-portable anti-tank guided missile of the Soviet Union and is probably the most widely produced ATGM of all time—with Soviet production peaking at 25,000 missiles a year during the 1960s and 1970s. In addition, copies of the missile have been manufactured under various names by at least five countries.

9M17 Fleyta Anti-tank missile

The AT-2Swatter is the NATO reporting name for the 3M11Fleyta (flute) SACLOS radio command anti-tank missile of the Soviet Union.

9K111 Fagot Anti-tank weapon

The 9K111 Fagot is a second-generation tube-launched SACLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile system of the Soviet Union for use from ground or vehicle mounts. The 9K111 Fagot missile system was developed by the Tula KBP Design Bureau for Instrument Building. "9M111" is the GRAU designation of the missile. Its NATO reporting name is AT-4 Spigot.

9M120 Ataka Anti-tank guided missile

The 9M120 Ataka is an anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) originating from the Soviet Union. The NATO reporting name of the 9M120 missile is the AT-9 Spiral-2. It is the next major generation in the 9K114 Shturm family. The missile has radio command guidance and is also a Beam riding SACLOS. This missile's primary variant was designed to defeat tanks with composite armour and explosive reactive armor. The 9M120 Ataka system is often confused with the 9K121 Vikhr system, despite being different weapons systems developed by different companies. The former was designed by the KBM machine-building design bureau and manufactured by the Degtyarev plant. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Russia exported the Ataka ATGM to Iran, Kazakhstan, and Slovenia.

9K115 Metis Anti-tank missile

The 9K115 Metis is a man-portable, tube launched, SACLOS wire-guided anti-tank guided missile of the Soviet Union. It is considered the Soviet counterpart to the American M47 Dragon ATGM.

9K112 Kobra Anti-tank missile

The 9K112 Kobra is a SACLOS anti-tank missile system of the Soviet Union. It is fired from the 125 mm main guns of the T-64 and T-80 series of tanks. A newer design based on the same concept is the 9M119.

9M123 Khrizantema Anti-tank missile

The 9M123 Khrizantema is a Russian anti-tank guided missile. Khrizantema was designed to deal with current and future generations of main battle tanks and can also be used to engage slow and low flying aerial targets like helicopters. The 9M123 missile together with its associated guidance system forms the 9K123 missile system.

9K121 Vikhr Air-launched anti-tank missile

The 9K121 Vikhr is a Russian laser guided anti-tank missile. "9K121" is the GRAU designation for the missile system. The missile can be launched from warships, Ka-50 and Ka-52 helicopters, and Su-25T aircraft. It was first shown publicly at the 1992 Farnborough Airshow.

GRAU Department of the Russian Ministry of Defense.

The Main Missile and Artillery Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, commonly referred to by its transliterated Russian acronym GRAU (ГРАУ), is a department of the Russian (ex-Soviet) Ministry of Defense. It is subordinate to the Chief of Armament and Munition of the Russian Armed Forces, a vice-minister of defense.

Kashtan CIWS Close-in weapon system

The Kortik close-in weapon system (CIWS) is a modern naval air defence gun-missile system deployed by the Russian Navy. Its export version is known as Kashtan, with the NATO designation CADS-N-1 Kashtan.

KB Mashinostroyeniya or KBM for short is a state defence enterprise, scientific and design R&D centre specialised in missile systems located in Kolomna, Moscow region, Russia. Part of Rostec state corporation.

The 2T Stalker, also known as BM-2T Stalker, is a Belarusian armoured vehicle. It never entered production.

<i>Sovremenny</i>-class destroyer

The Sovremenny class, Soviet designation Project 956 Sarych (buzzard), is a class of anti-ship and anti-aircraft guided missile destroyers of the Soviet and later Russian Navy. The ships are named after qualities, with "Sovremenny" translating as "modern" or "contemporary". Most of the ships have been retired from active service and one converted into a museum ship in 2018; as of 2020 one remains in commission with the Russian Navy with several in overhaul. Four modified ships were delivered to the People's Liberation Army Navy, and remain in service.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 9K114 Shturm - Weaponsystems.net
  2. (in Russian) Artillery
  3. Parsch, Andreas; Aleksey V. Martynov (2008). "Designations of Soviet and Russian Military Aircraft and Missiles". Designation-Systems.net. Retrieved 2014-09-14.
  4. "AT Shturm" . Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  5. "Принят на вооружение модернизированный самоходный ПТРК "Штурм-СМ"" . Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-10-17. Retrieved 2006-06-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)[ unreliable source? ]
  7. "Error with loading of Weaponsystem (HH06 - 9K114 Shturm)". www.weaponsystems.net. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  8. Small Arms Survey (2012). "Blue Skies and Dark Clouds: Kazakhstan and Small Arms". Small Arms Survey 2012: Moving Targets. Cambridge University Press. p. 131. ISBN   978-0-521-19714-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-08-31. Retrieved 2018-08-30.
  9. 1 2 Jenzen-Jones, N. R.; Ferguson, Jonathan (18 November 2014). Raising Red Flags: An Examination of Arms & Munitions in the Ongoing Conflict in Ukraine. Armament Research Services Pty. Ltd. ISBN   9780992462437 . Retrieved 10 April 2018 via Google Books.
  10. "Vježba HRZ-a i HRM-a Posejdon 94" . Retrieved 14 November 2014 via YouTube.
  11. "samolotypolskie.pl - 9K114 (9M114) "Szturm"". www.samolotypolskie.pl. Retrieved 10 April 2018.