| 9K35 Strela-10 |
|Type||Vehicle-mounted SAM system|
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||See list of operators|
|Wars|| Angolan Civil War |
Syrian Civil War
War in Donbass
|Designer||KB Tochmash Design Bureau of Precision Engineering|
|Manufacturer||Saratovskiy Zenit Machine Plant (Muromteplovoz Joint Stock Company for the 9K35M3-K)|
|Variants||Strela-10, Strela-10SV (Prototype), Strela-10M, Strela-10M2, Strela-10M3, Strela-10M3-K, Strela-10M4|
|Specifications (9K35 Strela-10M3 )|
|Height||2.3 m (travelling), 3.8 m (firing)|
|Crew||3 (commander, gunner and driver)|
|4 × 9M333 (or 9M37MD)|
|Engine||YaMZ-238 V diesel|
|Ground clearance||0.7 m|
|Fuel capacity||450 litres|
|Maximum speed||61.5 km/h (road)|
6 km/h (water)
The 9K35 Strela-10 (Russian : 9К35 «Стрела-10»; English: arrow ) is a highly mobile, short-range surface-to-air missile system. It is visually aimed, and utilizes optical/infrared-guidance. The system is primarily intended to engage low-altitude threats, such as helicopters. "9K35" is its GRAU designation; its NATO reporting name is SA-13 "Gopher".
The 9K35 is the successor of the 9K31 Strela-1 (SA-9 "Gaskin") and can also use the Strela-1's missiles in place of the 9M37.
Development of the 9K37 Strela-10SV system was initiated July 24, 1969. The decision to begin the development of a new non-all-weather system was taken despite the simultaneous development of an all-weather hybrid gun/missile system 9K22 "Tunguska" mainly as an economical measure. It was also seen as advantageous to have a system capable of fast reaction times and immunity to heavy radio-frequency jamming.
Rather than being mounted on an amphibious but lightly armoured BRDM chassis like the 9K31, the 9K35 is mounted on a more mobile tracked, modified MT-LB, with more room for equipment and missile reloads. Provision for amphibious capability is provided in some variants in the form of polyurethane-filled floats.
The Strela-10SV system and its 9M37 missile were tested in Donguzkom range from 1973 to 1974, but the results were disappointing: the system was found deficient in terms of missile probability of kill, vehicle reliability, among other things. Acceptance to service was thus delayed until May 16, 1976, by which time improvements had been introduced to the system.
Development of the system continued throughout the years through Strela-10M, -10M2 and -10M3 variants introducing among other things improved radio communications and provision for better integration to the Soviet integrated air defence system air picture data.Also improved missiles (9M37M and 9M333) have been developed and by September 2007 the 9K35M3-K Kolchan variant, mounted on a BTR-60 wheeled chassis, was displayed for the first time at the Moscow Air Show MAKS 2007.
The Russian Armed Forces will receive 72 advanced mobile “night” short-range anti-aircraft missile complexes “Strela-10M4″ by 2016. In 2014, the Russian Airborne Troops received the first batch of 18 “Strela-10M4″ vehicles. Modernization of equipment extends the “life” of an air defense system for 3–5 years.
The Strela-10M is expected to be replaced by the Sosna anti-aircraft missile system. The system is based on the MT-LB chassis consisting of 2x6 Sosna-R 9M337 (SA-24) beam rider missiles with a range of 10 km and altitude of 5 km.
The 9K35 is a SAM system with electro-optical guidance. It has the capability to use radars for target acquisition and range. Some vehicles have a pintle-mounted PKT 7.62 mm machine gun in front of the forward hatch for local protection. Other vehicles have been seen with additional support railings for the system on the rear deck. The following is a list of associated equipment:
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Used by||See Operators|
|Designer||KB Tochmash Design Bureau|
|Variants||9M37, 9M37M, 9M37MD, 9M333|
|Specifications (9M333 )|
|Warhead weight||5 kg|
|contact and laser proximity fuzes|
|Propellant||single-stage solid propellant rocket motor|
|5 kilometres (3.1 mi)|
|Flight altitude||3,500 metres (11,500 ft)|
|Maximum speed||550 m/s|
|dual-mode passive 'photocontrast'/IR seeker|
The Strela-10 system was originally designed to use the 9M37 missile as its primary weapon, but its launch system was designed to be also backwards compatible with the 9M31M missile of the earlier 9K31 Strela-1 (SA-9 "Gaskin") system.
Each 9M37 missile is 2.2 m (7.2 ft) long, weighs 40 kg (88 pounds) and carries a 3.5 kg (7-15 pound) warhead. The maximum speed of the missile is near Mach 2, engagement range is from 500...800 to 5000 m (0.3–3 miles) and engagement altitude is between 10 and 3500 m (33-11,500 ft). (The ranges define the zone of target intercept, minimum and maximum launch distances are longer for approaching and shorter for receding targets, depending on the target's speed, altitude and flight direction.)
Four missiles are mounted on the turret in boxes, ready to launch, and eight more are carried inside the vehicle as reloads. Reloading takes around 3 minutes.
The 9M37 was quickly replaced with a slightly improved 9M37M (main improvement was in more efficient autopilot system for missile flight path control), and later the more significantly upgraded 9M333, which introduced:
All missiles—9M31M, 9M37, 9M37M and 9M333—are equipped with optical homing heads utilizing reticle-based photocontrast and/or infrared homing. 9M333 is said to have particularly good countermeasures resistance due to its triple-channel homing head, while the photocontrast channel of 9M37/9M37M is described as back-up method to the IR channel.
All main variants—Strela-10SV, Strela-10M, Strela-10M2 and Strela-10M3—can use all aforementioned missile types.
The main characteristics of the missiles are listed in the table below, based on source number,unless otherwise noted. For comparison purposes data for nearest western equivalent, the somewhat larger and heavier MIM-72 Chaparral, is also provided.
As the photocontrast channel provides effective head-on engagement ability, firing range against an approaching target can be considerably longer than the maximum ranges listed above, likewise maximum firing range would be considerably less than the maximum range of target destruction against a receding target. Definition of range and effective ceiling for MIM-72 is unknown and the figures are therefore not directly comparable.
|System||9K31 Strela-1M||9K35 Strela-10||9K35M Strela-10M3-K||9K35M Strela-10M4||MIM-72A Chaparral||MIM-72G Chaparral|
|length [mm]||1803||2190||2190||2 230||2900||2900|
|warhead (HE) [kg]||2.6||3||3||5||11||12.6|
|fuze||impact and proximity||proximity + impact||proximity + impact||8-ray laser proximity + impact||impact + radar proximity||impact + directional doppler radar proximity|
|seeker head||AM-modulated photocontrast (uncooled PbS detector element )||Two-channel: |
1) AM-modulated photocontrast (cooled PbS),
2) FM-modulated uncooled IR
1) AM-modulated photocontrast (cooled PbS),
2) FM-modulated uncooled IR
3) IRCCM channel
|cooled IR of AIM-9D (limited /no forward hemisphere capability)||two-channel:|
1) cooled all-aspect IR,
2) UV (forward-hemisphere / long-range homing + IRCCM)
|Min. range of target destruction [km]||0.8||0.8||0.8||0.8||?||?|
|Max. range of target destruction [km]||4.2||5.0||5.0||5.0||6..9 (sources vary)||6..9 (sources vary)|
|Min. intercept altitude [m]||30||25||25||10||15||15|
|Max. intercept altitude [m]||3000..3500||3500||3500||3500||3000||3000|
|speed [m/s]||420||517||517||517||515 (Mach 1.5)||515 (Mach 1.5)|
|target max speed [m/s]: approaching / receding||?||415/310||415/310||415/310||?||?|
(*) Contract for production of MIM-72G by retrofitting new components was awarded in late 1982, with all missile in US service upgraded by the late 1980s. New production of MIM-72G missiles started in 1990.
On February 20, 1988, 31-year-old Major Edward Richard Every from 1st Squadron, SAAF was killed in action when his Mirage F1AZ (serial 245), was shot down by a Cuban Strela-10 surface-to-air missile in Cuatir (near Menongue) while on an operational attack over Southern Angola.
Iraq had several operational Strela-10 systems in the beginning of the 1991 operation to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi occupation, most if not all of which were organized as part of the battlefield air defence systems of the Republican Guard divisions.
During the operation, a total of 27 coalition aircraft are believed to have been hit by Iraqi IR-homing SAMs, resulting in a total of 14 aircraft losses. Some of the aircraft losses were shot down on the spot, while others, such as the OA-10A 77-0197, managed to return to base only to be lost on a crashed landing.Others still landed safely but were since written off as total losses.
At least two of the losses are believed to have been due to Strela-10 hits: on February 15 an A-10A (78-0722) of 353rd TFS/354th TFW was hit by a SAM believed to be Strela-10 some 100 km north west of Kuwait City while attacking Republican Guard targets. Pilot Lt Robert Sweet ejected and was made a prisoner of war. While attempting to protect Sweet on the ground, his wingman Steven Phyllis flying A-10A 79-0130 was also hit by what is believed to have been a missile from a Strela-10. Phyllis was killed in the incident.
On April 14, 2018, American, British, and French forces launched a barrage of 105 air-to-surface and cruise missiles targeting eight sites in Syria. According to a Russian source, five Strela-10 missiles launched in response destroyed three incoming missiles,However, the American Department of Defense stated in a daily press briefing that no Allied missiles were shot down.
The Armenian Air Defense employed Strela-10 missile systems during the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. During the opening days of the war, several videos released by the Azerbaijani military showed several Armenian 9K33 Osa and Strela-10 vehicles destroyed by Bayraktar TB2 armed drones.
The 9K32 Strela-2 is a light-weight, shoulder-fired, surface-to-air missile system. It is designed to target aircraft at low altitudes, with passive infrared homing guidance and destroy them with a high explosive warhead.
The 9K34 Strela-3 is a man-portable air defense missile system (MANPADS) developed in the Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela 2 system. The missile was largely based on the earlier Strela 2, and thus development proceeded rapidly. The new weapon was accepted into service in the Soviet Army in January 1974.
The 2K12 "Kub" mobile surface-to-air missile system is a Soviet low to medium-level air defence system designed to protect ground forces from air attack. "2К12" is the GRAU designation of the system.
The S-125 Neva/Pechora Soviet surface-to-air missile system was designed by Aleksei Isaev to complement the S-25 and S-75. It has a shorter effective range and lower engagement altitude than either of its predecessors and also flies slower, but due to its two-stage design it is more effective against more maneuverable targets. It is also able to engage lower flying targets than the previous systems, and being more modern it is much more resistant to ECM than the S-75. The 5V24 (V-600) missiles reach around Mach 3 to 3.5 in flight, both stages powered by solid fuel rocket motors. The S-125, like the S-75, uses radio command guidance. The naval version of this system has the NATO reporting name SA-N-1 Goa and original designation M-1 Volna.
The 9K33 Osa is a highly mobile, low-altitude, short-range tactical surface-to-air missile system developed in the Soviet Union in the 1960s and fielded in 1972. Its export version name is Romb.
The 9K31 Strela-1 is a highly mobile, short-range, low altitude infra-red guided surface-to-air missile system. Originally developed by the Soviet Union under the GRAU designation 9K31, it is commonly known by its NATO reporting name, SA-9 "Gaskin". The system consists of a BRDM-2 amphibious vehicle, mounting two pairs of ready-to-fire 9M31 missiles.
Man-portable air-defense systems are portable surface-to-air missiles. They are guided weapons and are a threat to low-flying aircraft, especially helicopters.
The 9K38 Igla is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. A simplified, earlier version is known as the 9K310 Igla-1, or SA-16 Gimlet, and the latest variant is the 9K338 Igla-S.
The Buk missile system is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, and designed to counter cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles.
The Tor missile system is an all-weather low to medium altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system designed for destroying airplanes, helicopters, cruise missiles, precision guided munitions, unmanned aerial vehicles and short-range ballistic threats (anti-munitions). Originally developed by the Soviet Union under the GRAU designation 9K330 Tor, the system is commonly known by its NATO reporting name, SA-15 "Gauntlet". A navalized variant was developed under the name 3K95 "Kinzhal", also known as the SA-N-9 "Gauntlet". Tor was also the first air defence system in the world designed from the start to shoot down precision guided weapons like the AGM-86 ALCM day and night, in bad weather and jamming situations. Tor can detect targets while on the move. The vehicle must stop intermittently when firing, although trials are being conducted to eliminate this restriction.
The 2K22 Tunguska is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system. It is designed to provide day and night protection for infantry and tank regiments against low-flying aircraft, helicopters, and cruise missiles in all weather conditions. The NATO reporting name for the missile used by the weapon system is SA-19 "Grison".
The Pantsir missile system is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery systems. Starting with the Pantsir-S1 as the first version, it is produced by KBP Instrument Design Bureau of Tula, Russia. The system is a further development of 2K22 Tunguska and uses phased array radars for both target acquisition and tracking.
The 9K115-2Metis-M is a Russian anti-tank missile system. "9K115-2" is the GRAU designation of the missile system. Its NATO reporting name is AT-13Saxhorn-2. The system is designed to augment the combat power of company-level motorized units.
KB Mashinostroyeniya or KBM for short is a state defence enterprise, scientific and design R&D centre specialised in missile systems located in Kolomna, Moscow region, Russia. Part of Rostec state corporation.
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There are several surface-to-air missile design bureaus in Russia, including MKB Fakel, NPO Novator, and DNPP.
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The 9M337 Sosna-R (Pine) (SA-24) is a Russian radar and laser-guided supersonic two-stage missile. It is used in Sosna-R short range air defense missile system designed to protect military units from air attacks in all types of combat situations, including during march.
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