|A-235 PL-19 Nudol|
|Type|| Anti-ballistic missile |
|Place of origin||Russian Federation|
|Used by||See Users|
A-235 PL-19 Nudol (Russian:Система А-235 / РТЦ-181М RTTs-181M / Нудоль) is a Russian anti-ballistic missile and anti-satellite weapon system in development. It is designed to deflect a nuclear attack on Moscow and important industrial regions. The main developer of the system is JSC Concern VKO Almaz-Antey. The new system should replace the current one — A-135. The two main differences will be that the A-235 will use conventional warheads and it will be mobile.
Missile defense system A-235 will be using the Don-2N radar and the range radar Don 2NP / 5N20P with updated software and hardware; the guidance system of the A-235 complex will be similar to the existing system A-135. The A-235, when deployed, could be equipped with a nuclear warhead which would greatly increase its ability to kill incoming warheads. The yield on which it would be deployed is not yet known.According to reports in early 2018, the system will not be equipped with nuclear warheads. According to Russian sources, the system will be deployed at points surrounding Moscow by the end of 2018.
The anti-ballistic missile systems are located at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, at the ex-launch site of the Tsyklon-2 rocket.[ citation needed ] The new PRS-1M (45T6) is a modernized variant of the PRS-1 (53T6 Gazelle) and can use nuclear or conventional warheads. It can hit targets at ranges of 350 km and altitudes of 50 km.
The A-235 will have missiles capable of operating at three different ranges: long-range, based on the 51T6 and capable of destroying targets at distances up to 1500 km (930 miles), at altitudes up to 800,000 m; medium-range, an update of the 58R6, designed to hit targets at distances up to 1000 km (620 miles), at altitudes up to 120,000 m; and short-range (the 53T6M or 45T6 (based on the 53T6)), with an operating range of 350 km (215 miles) and a flight ceiling of 40,000-50,000 m.[ citation needed ] The long-range missiles will most likely be equipped with nuclear warheads, while the others will have kinetic energy warheads. Testing of new missiles for the A-235 Samolyot-M system began in August 2014.
Initially, the A-235 missile defense system was planned to have three-echelons: long-range echelon with the A-925 missile, the middle echelon was the 58R6 firing complex, and the short-range flight was the PRS-1M missiles (the result of the upgrade of the PRS-1 missiles).In the modified A-235 anti-missile and anti-space defense system, it is planned to use two-stage anti-missiles with high-explosive and nuclear warheads, providing it with the ability to shoot down hypersonic attack weapons, hypersonic orbital platforms, ballistic missiles, and their combat units, as well as satellites in near space.
On 4 June 2019, the Russian Ministry of Defense posted a video showing the successful interception of the test target which was a test of a new anti-ballistic missile system in the form of a long-range surface to air missile. Though the nature of the air defense system which was being tested was not mentioned it has been widely speculated to have been a test of the S-500 Prometheus long-range surface to air missile system which entered early production earlier in the year. However, it also could have been the test of the A-235 anti-ballistic missile system which tests have been conducted on since 2014.
This section does not cite any sources . (July 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The task of developing a modernized version of the A-135 missile defense system was set out in Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 585-119 dated 7 June 1978: "On the construction of the A-135 system." The system was designed by the Research Institute of Radio Instrument Engineering (NIIRP) of the Vimpel Central Scientific Industrial Association from 1986. Its general designer was A. G. Bassist (until 1998); its chief designer was B. P. Vinogradov (after the death of A. G. Basistov in 1998, B. P. Vinogradov replaced him as the general designer of the NIIRP).
By the Decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 661-202 15 July 1985, NIIRP, as a subdivision of Vympel, became the leading enterprise of Russia in the multi-echelon ABM system as a whole, in the ground ABM system and the information system for the ABM system. The first draft design of the ABM A-235 system was probably protected in 1985–1986. The Soviet government signed the state contract No. 406/1591 31 January 1991 with the NIIRP to modernize the missile defense system, work to expand the combat capabilities of the A-135 system in terms of increasing the distant border of the affected area, increasing the maneuverability of the missile, and equipping new missiles to the combat unit (all together known as the OCD "Samolet-M").
The name of the technical rocket complex of the modernized missile defense system of Moscow was RTTs-181M. Under the state contract, the readiness period of the upgraded version was set for 2015. According to the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin No. 163 dated 17 February 1995, the NIIRP was determined as the head enterprise for the modernization and improvement of the Moscow PRO system - the RTC-181 system - and the creation of the RTC-181M system. In 2011, the concern Almaz-Antey developed the working design documentation for the shooting complex 14TS033, the working design documentation for the first stage of the complex 14LS031 radar and the design of functional software.
In 2012, the concern Almaz-Antey held an autonomous preliminary test of the components of the complex 14TS033. Experimental and combat training tests of the A-235 were planned to be held in 2013. At that time, experts did not point out any fundamental differences between the A-235 and the A-135 missile defense system. According to foreign media reports, on 18 November 2015, the first successful launch of the Nudol missile and the third launch in the missile test program took place. Presumably, the deployment site of the A-235 missile defense system will be the former base area of the A-135 missile defense system near Moscow. According to the plan, the complex will have the capabilities to intercept the warheads of ballistic missiles, as well as spacecraft. In May 2016, system elements were tested as part of the exercises of the Military Space Forces of the Russian Federation.[ citation needed ]
As the military expert, reserve colonel M. Hodarenok notes: "The A-235 will be a classic version of the missile defense system. A very well-informed source in the MIC [Military-Industrial Complex of Russia] personally told me about the system: 'The work is being done, and very successfully.'" Also, according to the expert, due to the secrecy of the project, accurate information on the A-235 system is currently not available, but it can be hypothetically assumed that the following three principles are taken into account in the tactical and technical task: first, the system must be capable of non-nuclear interception, since the earlier anti-missile projects were equipped with a nuclear warhead, which significantly narrowed the scope of their possible use, moreover, the use of anti-missiles with special charges Eski meant the beginning of nuclear war and eliminates the use within the limited armed conflict and other situations of this kind; secondly, the system must be mobile, without a rigid binding to any object or center; thirdly, it must provide interception at an altitude of at least 500–750 km, that is, at Low Earth orbit.[ citation needed ]
An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a surface-to-air missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. Ballistic missiles are used to deliver nuclear, chemical, biological, or conventional warheads in a ballistic flight trajectory. The term "anti-ballistic missile" is a generic term conveying a system designed to intercept and destroy any type of ballistic threat; however, it is commonly used for systems specifically designed to counter intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (1972—2002) was an arms control treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against ballistic missile-delivered nuclear weapons. Under the terms of the treaty, each party was limited to two ABM complexes, each of which was to be limited to 100 anti-ballistic missiles.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a missile with a minimum range of 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi) primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery. Similarly, conventional, chemical, and biological weapons can also be delivered with varying effectiveness, but have never been deployed on ICBMs. Most modern designs support multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs), allowing a single missile to carry several warheads, each of which can strike a different target. Russia, United States, China, France, India, United Kingdom, and North Korea are the only countries that have operational ICBMs.
A Multiple Independently targetable Re-entry Vehicle (MIRV) is an exoatmospheric ballistic missile payload containing several warheads, each capable of being aimed to hit a different target. The concept is almost invariably associated with intercontinental ballistic missiles carrying thermonuclear warheads, even if not strictly being limited to them. By contrast, a unitary warhead is a single warhead on a single missile. An intermediate case is the multiple reentry vehicle (MRV) missile which carries several warheads which are dispersed but not individually aimed. Only China, Russia, United Kingdom, United States and France are currently confirmed to possess functional MIRV missile systems. Israel is suspected to be developing or possessing MIRVs.
Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) are space weapons designed to incapacitate or destroy satellites for strategic or tactical purposes. Several nations possess operational ASAT systems. Although no ASAT system has yet been utilised in warfare, some countries have successfully shot down their own satellites to demonstrate their ASAT capabilities in a show of force.
The S-300 is a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, based on the initial S-300P version. The S-300 system was developed to defend against aircraft and cruise missiles for the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Subsequent variations were developed to intercept ballistic missiles. The S-300 system was first deployed by the Soviet Union in 1979, designed for the air defence of large industrial and administrative facilities, military bases and control of airspace against enemy strike aircraft. The system is fully automated, though manual observation and operation are also possible. Components may be near the central command post, or as distant as 40 km. Each radar provides target designation for the central command post. The command post compares the data received from the targeting radars up to 80 km apart, filtering false targets, a difficult task at such great distances. The central command post features both active and passive target detection modes.
Missile defense is a system, weapon, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception, and destruction of attacking missiles. Originally conceived as a defense against nuclear-armed intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), its application has broadened to include shorter-ranged non-nuclear tactical and theater missiles.
The Safeguard Program was a U.S. Army anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system designed to protect the U.S. Air Force's Minuteman ICBM silos from attack, thus preserving the US's nuclear deterrent fleet. It was intended primarily to protect against the very small Chinese ICBM fleet, limited Soviet attacks and various other limited-launch scenarios. A full-scale attack by the Soviets would easily overwhelm it. It was designed to allow gradual upgrades to provide similar lightweight coverage over the entire United States over time.
The militarisation of space involves the placement and development of weaponry and military technology in outer space. The early exploration of space in the mid-20th century had, in part, a military motivation, as the United States and the Soviet Union used it as an opportunity to demonstrate ballistic-missile technology and other technologies having the potential for military application. Outer space has since been used as an operating location for military spacecraft such as imaging and communications satellites, and some ballistic missiles pass through outer space during their flight. As of 2019, known deployments of weapons stationed in space include only the Almaz space-station armament and pistols such as the TP-82 Cosmonaut survival pistol.
The A-135 is a Russian anti-ballistic missile system deployed around Moscow to intercept incoming warheads targeting the city or its surrounding areas. The system was designed in the Soviet Union and entered service in 1995. It is a successor to the previous A-35, and complies with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
The A-35 anti-ballistic missile system was a Soviet military anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system deployed around Moscow to intercept enemy ballistic missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas. The A-35 was the only Soviet ABM system allowed under the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. In development since the 1960s and in operation from 1971 until the 1990s, it featured the nuclear-tipped A350 exoatmospheric interceptor missile. The A-35 was supported by the two Dunay radars and the Soviet early warning system. It was followed by the A-135 in the early 1990s.
NPO Novator is a Russian company that designs long-range anti-aircraft missiles. It was established in 1947 as OKB-8 in Sverdlovsk, became independent in 1991, and then became part of the Almaz-Antey conglomerate. It is perhaps best known for designing the 9M82 and 9M83 missiles of the S-300V SAM system.
The Shaheen-II is a Pakistani land-based supersonic surface-to-surface medium-range guided ballistic missile. The Shaheen-II is designed and developed by the NESCOM and the National Defence Complex (NDC) of Pakistan. The Shaheen missile series is named after a falcon that lives in the mountains of Pakistan. It is suspected to be a derivative of Chinese M-18 missile, a two-stage missile based on the M-9.
The S-500 Prometey, also known as 55R6M "Triumfator-M", is a Russian surface-to-air missile/anti-ballistic missile system intended to replace the A-135 missile system currently in use, and supplement the S-400. The S-500 is under development by the Almaz-Antey Air Defence Concern. Initially planned to be in production by 2014, it is currently targeting 2021 for first delivery. With its characteristics, according to Pravda Report, it is unrivaled by any other similar system in the world, being the first in a new class of space-defense weapons. Also according to Pravda Report, it shares with the US Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system the trait that it will be integrated into a single network of aerospace defense assets.
JSC NPO Almaz named after A.A. Raspletin is a Soviet/Russian military R&D enterprise founded in 1947. It is the core of the Almaz-Antey holding. Headquarters – Moscow, Leningradsky av., 80.
The ABM-1 Galosh was a Soviet, nuclear-tipped surface-to-air anti-ballistic missile. The Galosh was a component of the A-35 anti-ballistic missile system. Its primary mission was to destroy U.S. Minuteman and Titan intercontinental ballistic missiles targeting Moscow.
The 53T6 is a Russian anti-ballistic missile. Designed in 1978 and in service since 1995, it is a component of the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system.
The Don-2N radar is a large missile defense and early warning passive electronically scanned array radar outside Moscow, and a key part of the Russian A-135 anti-ballistic missile system designed for the defense of the capital against ballistic missiles. Located near Sofrino in Pushkinsky District of Moscow Oblast, it is a quadrangular frustum 33 metres (108 ft) tall with sides 130 metres (427 ft) long at the bottom, and 90 metres (295 ft) long at the top. Each of its four faces has an 18 metres (59 ft) diameter Ultra high frequency band radar giving 360 degree coverage. The system is run by an Elbrus-2 supercomputer.
Missile defense systems are a type of missile defense intended to shield a country against incoming missiles, such as intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBMs) or other ballistic missiles. The United States, Russia, India, France, Israel, Italy, United Kingdom and China have all developed missile defense systems.
The RS-28 Sarmat is a Russian liquid-fueled, MIRV-equipped super-heavy intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) under development by the Makeyev Rocket Design Bureau since 2009. It is intended to replace the R-36M ICBM in Russia's arsenal.
Russia has repeatedly flight-tested a so-called direct ascent weapon, the PL-19 Nudol ballistic missile, which could strike objects in orbit, although it hasn’t conducted a live attack on an orbiting satellite.