A. Philip Randolph

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A. Philip Randolph
A. Philip Randolph 1963 NYWTS.jpg
Randolph in 1963
Born
Asa Philip Randolph

(1889-04-15)April 15, 1889
Crescent City, Florida, U.S.
DiedMay 16, 1979(1979-05-16) (aged 90)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Spouse(s)
Lucille Campbell Green Randolph(m. 1914)

Asa Philip Randolph [1] (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement, the American labor movement, and socialist political parties.

Contents

In 1925, he organized and led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first predominantly African-American labor union. In the early Civil Rights Movement and the Labor Movement, Randolph was a voice that would not be silenced. His continuous agitation with the support of fellow labor rights activists against unfair labor practices in relation to people of color eventually led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802 in 1941, banning discrimination in the defense industries during World War II. The group then successfully pressured President Harry S. Truman to issue Executive Order 9981 in 1948, ending segregation in the armed services.

Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters

Founded in 1925, The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP) was the first labor organization led by African Americans to receive a charter in the American Federation of Labor (AFL). The BSCP gathered a membership of 18,000 passenger railway workers across Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Beginning after the American Civil War, the job of Pullman porter had become an important means of work in the black community in the United States. As a result of a decline in railway transportation in the 1960s, BSCP membership declined. It merged in 1978 with the Brotherhood of Railway and Airline Clerks (BRAC), now known as the Transportation Communications International Union.

Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd president of the United States

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, often referred to by initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the Democratic Party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century. Roosevelt directed the federal government during most of the Great Depression, implementing his New Deal domestic agenda in response to the worst economic crisis in U.S. history. As a dominant leader of his party, he built the New Deal Coalition, which realigned American politics into the Fifth Party System and defined American liberalism throughout the middle third of the 20th century. His third and fourth terms were dominated by World War II, which ended shortly after he died in office. He has been subject to substantial criticism. He is rated by scholars as one of the three greatest U.S. presidents, along with George Washington and Abraham Lincoln.

Executive Order 8802 Reaffirming Policy of Full Participation in the Defense Program by All Persons, Regardless of Race, Creed, Color, or National Origin, and Directing Certain Action in Furtherance of Said Policy

Executive Order 8802 was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 25, 1941, to prohibit ethnic or racial discrimination in the nation's defense industry. It also set up the Fair Employment Practice Committee. It was the first federal action, though not a law, to promote equal opportunity and prohibit employment discrimination in the United States. Many citizens of Italian or German ethnicity were affected by World War II and this was impeding the war effort and lowering morale. This ethnic factor was a major motivation for Roosevelt. The President's statement that accompanied the Order cited the war effort, saying that "the democratic way of life within the nation can be defended successfully only with the help and support of all groups," and cited reports of discrimination:

There is evidence available that needed workers have been barred from industries engaged in defense production solely because of considerations of race, creed, color or national origin, to the detriment of workers' morale and of national unity.

In 1963, Randolph was the head of the March on Washington, which was organized by Bayard Rustin, at which Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his "I Have A Dream" speech. Randolph inspired the "Freedom Budget", sometimes called the "Randolph Freedom budget", which aimed to deal with the economic problems facing the black community, it was published by the Randolph Institute in January 1967 as "A Freedom Budget for All Americans". [2]

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom Major demonstration of the civil rights movement

The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, the March on Washington, or The Great March on Washington, was held in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. The purpose of the march was to advocate for the civil and economic rights of African Americans. At the march, Martin Luther King Jr., standing in front of the Lincoln Memorial, delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech in which he called for an end to racism.

Bayard Rustin American civil rights activist and gay rights activist

Bayard Rustin was an American leader in social movements for civil rights, socialism, nonviolence, and gay rights.

In the fall of 1965 A. Philip Randolph, prominent economists, allies from the labor movement and others who had participated in the 1963 March on Washington, began working on what they called "A Freedom Budget For All Americans". Writing 50 years later in The Nation, John Nichols listed as its goals "the abolition of poverty, guaranteed full employment, fair prices for farmers, fair wages for workers, housing and healthcare for all, the establishment of progressive tax, and fiscal policies that respected the needs of working families."

Early life and education

Randolph was born April 15, 1889, in Crescent City, Florida, [3] the second son of the Rev. James William Randolph, a tailor and minister [3] in an African Methodist Episcopal Church, and Elizabeth Robinson Randolph, a skilled seamstress. In 1891, the family moved to Jacksonville, Florida, which had a thriving, well-established African-American community. [4]

Crescent City, Florida City in Florida, United States

Crescent City is a city in Putnam County, Florida, United States. The city is located on two lakes and is part of the Palatka Micropolitan Statistical Area. Crescent Lake lies to the east of town and Lake Stella is located to the west.

Minister (Christianity) religious occupation in Christianity

In Christianity, a minister is a person authorized by a church, or other religious organization, to perform functions such as teaching of beliefs; leading services such as weddings, baptisms or funerals; or otherwise providing spiritual guidance to the community. The term is taken from Latin minister, which itself was derived from minus ("less").

African Methodist Episcopal Church African American denomination

The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church or AME, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination. It is the first independent Protestant denomination to be founded by black people. It was founded by the Rt. Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the mid-Atlantic area that wanted independence from white Methodists. It was among the first denominations in the United States to be founded on racial rather than theological distinctions and has persistently advocated for the civil and human rights of African Americans through social improvement, religious autonomy, and political engagement. Allen, a deacon in Methodist Episcopal Church, was consecrated its first bishop in 1816 by a conference of five churches from Philadelphia to Baltimore. The denomination then expanded west and south, particularly after the Civil War. By 1906, the AME had a membership of about 500,000, more than the combined total of the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church in America and the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, making it the largest major African-American Methodist denomination. The AME currently has 20 districts, each with its own bishop: 13 are based in the United States, mostly in the South, while seven are based in Africa. The global membership of the AME is around 2.5 million and it remains one of the largest Methodist denominations in the world.

From his father, Randolph learned that color was less important than a person's character and conduct. From his mother, he learned the importance of education and of defending oneself physically against those who would seek to hurt one or one's family, if necessary. Randolph remembered vividly the night his mother sat in the front room of their house with a loaded shotgun across her lap, while his father tucked a pistol under his coat and went off to prevent a mob from lynching a man at the local county jail.

Moral character evaluation of a particular individuals stable moral qualities

Moral character or character is an evaluation of an individual's stable moral qualities. The concept of character can imply a variety of attributes including the existence or lack of virtues such as empathy, courage, fortitude, honesty, and loyalty, or of good behaviors or habits. Moral character primarily refers to the assemblage of qualities that distinguish one individual from another—although on a cultural level, the set of moral behaviors to which a social group adheres can be said to unite and define it culturally as distinct from others. Psychologist Lawrence Pervin defines moral character as "a disposition to express behavior in consistent patterns of functions across a range of situations". Similarly, the philosopher Marie I. George refers to moral character as the “sum of one’s moral habits and dispositions.” Aristotle has said, "we must take as a sign of states of character the pleasure or pain that ensues on acts."

Behavior or behaviour is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the computed response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.

Shotgun Smoothbore firearm

A shotgun is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug. Shotguns come in a wide variety of sizes, ranging from 5.5 mm (.22 inch) bore up to 5 cm (2.0 in) bore, and in a range of firearm operating mechanisms, including breech loading, single-barreled, double or combination gun, pump-action, bolt-, and lever-action, revolver, semi-automatic, and even fully automatic variants.

Asa and his brother, James, were superior students. They attended the Cookman Institute in East Jacksonville, the only academic high school in Florida for African Americans. [5] Asa excelled in literature, drama, and public speaking; he also starred on the school's baseball team, sang solos with the school choir, and was valedictorian of the 1907 graduating class.

Baseball Sport

Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat. The objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, and to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, and to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner legally advances around the bases in order and touches home plate. The team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner.

Choir Ensemble of singers

A choir is a musical ensemble of singers. Choral music, in turn, is the music written specifically for such an ensemble to perform. Choirs may perform music from the classical music repertoire, which spans from the medieval era to the present, or popular music repertoire. Most choirs are led by a conductor, who leads the performances with arm and face gestures.

Valedictorian is an academic title of success used in the United States, Canada, Philippines, and Armenia for the student who delivers the closing or farewell statement at a graduation ceremony. The chosen valedictorian is traditionally the student with the highest ranking among their graduating class. The term is an Anglicised derivation of the Latin vale dicere, historically rooted in the valedictorian's traditional role as the final speaker at the graduation ceremony before the students receive their diplomas. The valedictory address generally is considered a final farewell to classmates, before they disperse to pursue their individual paths after graduating.

After graduation, Randolph worked odd jobs and devoted his time to singing, acting, and reading. Reading W. E. B. Du Bois' The Souls of Black Folk convinced him that the fight for social equality was most important. Barred by discrimination from all but manual jobs in the South, Randolph moved to New York City in 1911, where he worked at odd jobs and took social sciences courses at City College. [4]

Marriage and family

In 1913 Randolph courted and married Mrs. Lucille Campbell Green, a widow, Howard University graduate, and entrepreneur who shared his socialist politics. She earned enough money to support them both. The couple had no children. [4]

Early career

Shortly after Randolph's marriage, he helped organize the Shakespearean Society in Harlem. With them he played the roles of Hamlet, Othello, and Romeo, among others. Randolph aimed to become an actor but gave up after failing to win his parents' approval.

In New York, Randolph became familiar with socialism and the ideologies espoused by the Industrial Workers of the World. He met Columbia University Law student Chandler Owen, and the two developed a synthesis of Marxist economics and the sociological ideas of Lester Frank Ward, arguing that people could only be free if not subject to economic deprivation. [4] At this point, Randolph developed what would become his distinctive form of civil rights activism, which emphasized the importance of collective action as a way for black people to gain legal and economic equality. To this end, he and Owen opened an employment office in Harlem to provide job training for southern migrants and encourage them to join trade unions. [4]

Like others in the labor movement, Randolph favored immigration restriction. He opposed African Americans' having to compete with people willing to work for low wages. Unlike other immigration restrictionists, however, he rejected the notions of racial hierarchy that became popular in the 1920s. [6]

In 1917, Randolph and Chandler Owen founded The Messenger [7] with the help of the Socialist Party of America. It was a radical monthly magazine, which campaigned against lynching, opposed U.S. participation in World War I, urged African Americans to resist being drafted, to fight for an integrated society, and urged them to join radical unions. The Department of Justice called The Messenger "the most able and the most dangerous of all the Negro publications." When The Messenger began publishing the work of black poets and authors, a critic called it "one of the most brilliantly edited magazines in the history of Negro journalism." [4]

Soon thereafter, however, the editorial staff of The Messenger became divided by three issues – the growing rift between West Indian and African Americans, support for the Bolshevik revolution, and support for Marcus Garvey's Back-to-Africa movement. In 1919, most West Indian radicals joined the new Communist Party, while African-American leftists – Randolph included – mostly supported the Socialist Party. The infighting left The Messenger short of financial support, and it went into decline. [4]

Randolph ran on the Socialist Party ticket for New York State Comptroller in 1920, and for Secretary of State of New York in 1922, unsuccessfully. [7]

Union organizer

Painting by Betsy Graves Reyneau A. Philip Randolph - NARA - 559204.tif
Painting by Betsy Graves Reyneau

Randolph's first experience with labor organization came in 1917, when he organized a union of elevator operators in New York City. [7] In 1919 he became president of the National Brotherhood of Workers of America, [8] a union which organized among African-American shipyard and dock workers in the Tidewater region of Virginia. [9] The union dissolved in 1921, under pressure from the American Federation of Labor.

His greatest success came with the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, who elected him President in 1925. [7] This was the first serious effort to form a labor institution for employees of the Pullman Company, which was a major employer of African Americans. The railroads had expanded dramatically in the early 20th century, and the jobs offered relatively good employment at a time of widespread racial discrimination. Because porters were not unionized, however, most suffered poor working conditions and were underpaid. [4] [10]

Under Randolph's direction, the BSCP managed to enroll 51 percent of porters within a year, to which Pullman responded with violence and firings. In 1928, after failing to win mediation under the Watson-Parker Railway Labor Act, Randolph planned a strike. This was postponed after rumors circulated that Pullman had 5,000 replacement workers ready to take the place of BSCP members. As a result of its perceived ineffectiveness membership of the union declined; [4] by 1933 it had only 658 members and electricity and telephone service at headquarters had been disconnected because of nonpayment of bills. [11]

Fortunes of the BSCP changed with the election of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932. With amendments to the Railway Labor Act in 1934, porters were granted rights under federal law. Membership in the Brotherhood jumped to more than 7,000. After years of bitter struggle, the Pullman Company finally began to negotiate with the Brotherhood in 1935, and agreed to a contract with them in 1937. Employees gained $2,000,000 in pay increases, a shorter workweek, and overtime pay. [12] Randolph maintained the Brotherhood's affiliation with the American Federation of Labor through the 1955 AFL-CIO merger. [13]

Civil rights leader

Randolph in 1942. A.-Phillip-Randolph.png
Randolph in 1942.

Through his success with the BSCP, Randolph emerged as one of the most visible spokespeople for African-American civil rights. In 1941, he, Bayard Rustin, and A. J. Muste proposed a march on Washington [7] to protest racial discrimination in war industries, an end to segregation, access to defense employment, the proposal of an anti-lynching law and of the desegregation of the American Armed forces. [14] Randolph's belief in the power of peaceful direct action was inspired partly by Mahatma Gandhi's success in using such tactics against British occupation in India. [15] Randolph threatened to have 50,000 blacks march on the city; [11] it was cancelled after President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802, or the Fair Employment Act. [7] Some activists, including Rustin, [16] felt betrayed because Roosevelt's order applied only to banning discrimination within war industries and not the armed forces. Nonetheless, the Fair Employment Act is generally considered an important early civil rights victory.

And the movement continued to gain momentum. In 1942, an estimated 18,000 blacks gathered at Madison Square Garden to hear Randolph kick off a campaign against discrimination in the military, in war industries, in government agencies, and in labor unions. [17] Following passage of the Act, during the Philadelphia transit strike of 1944, the government backed African-American workers' striking to gain positions formerly limited to white employees. [18]

Buoyed by these successes, Randolph and other activists continued to press for the rights of African Americans. In 1947, Randolph, along with colleague Grant Reynolds, renewed efforts to end discrimination in the armed services, forming the Committee Against Jim Crow in Military Service, later renamed the League for Non-Violent Civil disobedience. When President Truman asked Congress for a peacetime draft law, Randolph urged young black men to refuse to register. Since Truman was vulnerable to defeat in 1948 and needed the support of the growing black population in northern states, he eventually capitulated. [4] On July 26, 1948, President Harry S. Truman abolished racial segregation in the armed forces through Executive Order 9981. [19]

In 1950, along with Roy Wilkins, Executive Secretary of the NAACP, and, Arnold Aronson, [20] a leader of the National Jewish Community Relations Advisory Council, Randolph founded the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR). LCCR has been a major civil rights coalition. It coordinated a national legislative campaign on behalf of every major civil rights law since 1957.

Leaders of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in Washington, D.C. Civil Rights March on Washington, D.C. (Leaders of the march) - NARA - 542056.jpg
Leaders of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in Washington, D.C.

Randolph and Rustin also formed an important alliance with Martin Luther King, Jr. In 1957, when schools in the south resisted school integration following Brown v. Board of Education , Randolph organized the Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom with Martin Luther King, Jr. In 1958 and 1959, Randolph organized Youth Marches for Integrated Schools in Washington, DC. [4] At the same time, he arranged for Rustin to teach King how to organize peaceful demonstrations in Alabama and to form alliances with progressive whites. [16] The protests directed by James Bevel in cities such as Birmingham and Montgomery provoked a violent backlash by police and the local Ku Klux Klan throughout the summer of 1963, which was captured on television and broadcast throughout the nation and the world. Rustin later remarked that Birmingham "was one of television's finest hours. Evening after evening, television brought into the living-rooms of America the violence, brutality, stupidity, and ugliness of {police commissioner} Eugene "Bull" Connor's effort to maintain racial segregation." [21] Partly as a result of the violent spectacle in Birmingham, which was becoming an international embarrassment, the Kennedy administration drafted civil rights legislation aimed at ending Jim Crow once and for all. [21]

External audio
Nuvola apps arts.svg National Press Club Luncheon Speakers, A. Philip Randolph, August 26, 1963, 55:17, Randolph speaks starting at 4:56 about the forthcoming March on Washington, Library of Congress [22]

Randolph finally realized his vision for a March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963, which attracted between 200,000–300,000 to the nation's capital. The rally is often remembered as the high-point of the Civil Rights Movement, and it did help keep the issue in the public consciousness. However, when President Kennedy was assassinated three months later, Civil Rights legislation was stalled in the Senate. It was not until the following year, under President Lyndon B. Johnson, that the Civil Rights Act was finally passed. In 1965, the Voting Rights Act was passed. Although King and Bevel rightly deserve great credit for these legislative victories, the importance of Randolph's contributions to the Civil Rights Movement is large.

Religion

Randolph avoided speaking publicly about his religious beliefs to avoid alienating his diverse constituencies. [23] Though he is sometimes identified as an atheist, [4] particularly by his detractors, [23] Randolph identified with the African Methodist Episcopal Church he was raised in. [23] He pioneered the use of prayer protests, which became a key tactic of the civil rights movement. [23] In 1973, he signed the Humanist Manifesto II. [24]

Death

Randolph died in his Manhattan apartment on May 16, 1979. For several years prior to his death, he had a heart condition and high blood pressure. He had no known living relatives, as his wife had died in 1963, before the March on Washington. [25]

Awards and accolades

Randolph Receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964 from President Lyndon B. Johnson. A. Philip Randolph Medal of Freedom.jpg
Randolph Receiving the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1964 from President Lyndon B. Johnson.

Legacy

Randolph had a significant impact on the Civil Rights Movement from the 1930s onward. The Montgomery Bus Boycott in Alabama was directed by E.D. Nixon, who had been a member of the BSCP and was influenced by Randolph's methods of nonviolent confrontation. [4] Nationwide, the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s used tactics pioneered by Randolph, such as encouraging African Americans to vote as a bloc, mass voter registration, and training activists for nonviolent direct action. [29]

In buildings, streets, and trains

A. Philip Randolph Pullman Porter Museum, Chicago Randolph Museum.jpg
A. Philip Randolph Pullman Porter Museum, Chicago

Arts, entertainment, and media

+ 1994 Documentary A. Philip Randolph: For Jobs and Freedom, PBS

Other

See also

Footnotes

  1. Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. A Budget for All Americans pdf
  3. 1 2 "Spartacus Educational". Spartcus School. Archived from the original on August 5, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Pfeffer, Paula F. (2000). "Randolph; Asa Philip". American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
  5. Paula F. Pfeffer, A. Philip Randolph, Pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1990, p. 8.
  6. Scott, Daryl (June 1999). ""Immigrant Indigestion" A. Philip Randolph: Radical and Restrictionist". Center for Immigration Studies. Archived from the original on October 31, 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Asa Philip Randolph". Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia: 280. 2010. Retrieved August 28, 2011.(subscription required)
  8. Your History online, accessed August 17, 2010
  9. Crisis, November 1951, p626
  10. Alan Derickson, "'Asleep and Awake at the Same Time': Sleep Denial among Pullman Porters," Labor: Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas 5: 3 (Fall 2008): 13–44
  11. 1 2 Lubell, Samuel (1956). The Future of American Politics (2nd ed.). Anchor Press. p. 232.
  12. Current Biography, 1940, pp. 671–72
  13. Harris, William H. (1982). The Harder We Run: Black Workers since the Civil War. New York. p. 92.
  14. Foner, Eric (February 1, 2012). Give Me Liberty!: An American History (3 ed.). W. W. Norton & Company. p. 697. ISBN   0-393-93553-1.
  15. Pfeffer (1990), A. Philip Randolph, p. 58.
  16. 1 2 Melvyn Dubofsky. "Rustin, Bayard"; American National Biography Online, February 2000.
  17. "Negroes to Fight Employment Bias." New York Times (1923–Current File), June 13, 1942, (accessed February 27, 2013).
  18. "Urban League Lauds U. S. Action in Strike." New York Times (1923–Current File), August 14, 1944, (accessed February 27, 2013).
  19. "Labor Hall of Fame Honoree (1989): A. Philip Randoph". US Department of Labor. Archived from the original on May 10, 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
  20. "About the Leadership Conference". civilrights.org. Archived from the original on October 27, 2010. Retrieved October 28, 2010.
  21. 1 2 Jervis Anderson, Bayard Rustin: Troubles I've Seen: A Biography. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, p. 244.
  22. "National Press Club Luncheon Speakers, A. Philip Randolph, August 26, 1963". Library of Congress . Retrieved October 20, 2016.
  23. 1 2 3 4 Taylor, Cynthia (2005). A. Philip Randolph: The Religious Journey of an African American Labor Leader. NYU Press. ISBN   978-0-8147-8287-3. Archived from the original on March 29, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  24. Humanist Manifesto II, 1973, archived from the original on November 8, 2011
  25. The Associated Press (May 17, 1979). "A. Philip Randolph Is Dead; Pioneer in Rights and Labor". New York Times. New York. Retrieved January 14, 2017.
  26. John Brown to James Brown -- The Little Farm Where Liberty Budded, Blossomed, and Boogied, p. 97.
  27. "Eugene V. Debs Award". Eugene V. Debs Foundation Website. Eugene V. Debs Foundation. September 18, 2017.
  28. "A. Philip Randolph inducted into Civil Rights Hall of Fame by Gov. Scott". First Coast Press. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  29. Pfeffer (1990), A. Philip Randolph, p. 305.
  30. "M540: New York City High School 540". NYC School Portals.
  31. "Edward Waters College Unveils Exhibit to Honor A. Philip Randolph". First Coast News. Multimedia Holdings Corporation. February 25, 2006. Archived from the original on January 23, 2013. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
  32. Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 255. ISBN   1-57392-963-8.
  33. Rourke, Mary (September 12, 2008). "L.A. sculptor whose subject was African Americans". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
  34. "Boston Cultural Sites". SoulOfAmerica. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
  35. "African American Subjects on United States Postage Stamps" (PDF).
  36. Hendrickson III, Kenneth E., ed. The encyclopedia of the industrial revolution in world history. Vol. 3. Rowman & Littlefield, 2014. p770-771

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The Order of Sleeping Car Conductors (OSCC) was a labor union that represented white sleeping car conductors in the United States and Canada between 1918 and 1942, when it merged with the Order of Railway Conductors.

Rosina Tucker

Rosina Tucker (1881–1987) was an American labor organizer, civil rights activist, and educator. She is best known for helping to organize the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first African-American trade union. At the age of one hundred, Tucker narrated an award-winning documentary about the union, Miles of Smiles, Years of Struggle.

Milton P. Webster

Milton Price Webster (1881-1965) was an American trade unionist, best remembered as a top leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP). As lead official for the union in contract negotiations, Webster was influential in securing a collective bargaining agreement with the Pullman Company — the first national contract won by any black-led American trade union.