|Directed by||Hira Singh Khatri|
|Written by||Durga Shrestha |
|Starring|| Shiva Shankar |
Hari Prasad Rimal
Information Department of Government of Nepal
Aama (Nepali : आमा, transl. Mother) is an 1964 Nepalese film that was directed by Hira Singh Khatri in his debut. The film is written by Durga Shrestha and Chaitya Devi. Aama is produced by Mahendra of Nepal under the banner of Information Department of Government of Nepal (formally Royal Nepal Film Corporation). The film stars Shiva Shankar and Bhuwan Chand in the lead roles, alongside Basundhara Bhusal, Hira Singh Khatri and Hari Prasad Rimal in supporting roles. The film's plot follows a young man who returns home after serving in his country's army. Film director Hira Singh Khatri, was request by Mahendra of Nepal to direct Aama. The film's post-production and indoor filming were mainly done in Kolkata, India. It was released on 7 October 1964. After the release, Aama became the first Nepalese film to be produced in Nepal.
Nepali, also known as Nepalese, is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari. It is the official language of Nepal and one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. Also known by the endonym Khas kura, the language is also called Gorkhali or Parbatiya in some contexts, It is spoken mainly in Nepal and by about a quarter of the population in Bhutan. In India, Nepali has official status in the state of Sikkim, and significant number of speakers in the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Uttarakhand and West Bengal's Darjeeling district. It is also spoken in Burma and by the Nepali diaspora worldwide. Nepali developed in proximity to a number of Indo-Aryan languages, most notably the other Pahari languages and Maithili, and shows Sanskrit influence. However, owing to Nepal's location, it has also been influenced by Tibeto-Burman languages. Nepali is mainly differentiated from Central Pahari, both in grammar and vocabulary, by Tibeto-Burman idioms owing to close contact with this language group.
Hira Singh Khatri is the director of the first Nepali movie, Aama. After the success of the first movie, he directed two more movies for the Nepal government.
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev was King of Nepal from 1955 to 1972.Mahendra was born 11 June 1920 to King Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal. Although Tribhuvan was nominally king since 1911. Mahendra was captive in Narayanhity Royal Palace, virtually a gilded cage. In 1940 he married Indra Rajya Lakshmi Devi, daughter of General Hari Shamsher Rana. Mahendra had 3 sons, Birendra, Gyanendra, Dhirendra and three daughters Shanti, Sharada, and Shobha. Crown Princess Indra died in 1950. In 1952, Mahendra married Indra's younger sister, Ratna Rajya Lakshmi Devi. This marriage produced no children.
After the film's release in Nepal, it quickly became popular in the country. After the success of Aama, Khatri directed the films Hijo Aaja Bholi (1967), and Parivartan (1971) for the Nepalese government, both of which were used to convey patriotism to Nepalese citizens. Aama is regarded as one of the most important films in the history of Nepalese cinema.
Hijo Aaja Bholi it was the fourth Nepali film produced and the first under a private banner.This movie features Shreedhar Khanal, Bhuwan Chand ,Mitra Lal, Shanti Maskey and Uttam Nepali in the lead roles. Shreedhar Khanal also wrote the story, screenplay and dialogues. He was also the lyricist and the chief Assistant Director. When Hira Singh Khatri fell ill while shooting the major portions in the studios of Calcutta, Khanal took the responsibility on his shoulders to see the work was not disturbed.
Nepali cinema does not have a very long history, but the industry has its own place in the cultural heritage of the country. It is often referred to as "Nepali Chalchitra". This includes films in various languages of Nepal, most notably in Nepali, Maithili and Bhojpuri. The terms Nellywood and Kollywood are also used, as a portmanteau of "Kathmandu".
Harka Bahadur is an alcoholic who physically abuses his wife. One day later, his house is being repossessed due to non-payment of loan repayments, after which Harka Bahadur promises his wife he will give up drinking. Later that day, he returns to his house drunk and starts attacking his wife but dies after being struck by lightning. After his death, Harka's son Man Bahadur (Shiva Shankar) leaves his house to join the army.
A lightning strike or lightning bolt is an electric discharge between the atmosphere and an object. They mostly originate in a cumulonimbus cloud and terminate on the ground, called cloud to ground (CG) lightning. A less common type of strike, called ground to cloud (GC), is upward propagating lightning initiated from a tall grounded object and reaches into the clouds. About 25% of all lightning events worldwide are strikes between the atmosphere and earth-bound objects. The bulk of lightning events are intra-cloud (IC) or cloud to cloud (CC), where discharges only occur high in the atmosphere. Lightning strikes the average commercial aircraft at least once a year, but modern engineering and design means this is rarely a problem. The movement of aircraft through clouds can even cause lightning strikes.
Shiva Shankar Manandhar was a singer, music composer of Nepali songs and the chief actor in the first Nepali movie, Aama. For nearly a half century beginning from 1950 to late 1990, his name has probably been mentioned more often in books, journals, lectures and conversations about Nepalese music than any other musicians.
A few years later, Man returns home after serving in a foreign army for two years but cannot find his mother. After hearing about his mother's death, Man decides to leave Nepal but his neighbours persuade him to stay in the village and serve the community, saying that "service to the motherland is equally virtuous as service to a mother". Man Bahadur says he will remain in Nepal to help his country's growing economy.
Credits adapted from Films Of Nepal.
Bhuwan Chand is a Nepali actress. She is known for Aama, the first Nepali feature film which was produced in 1964. Owing to her lead role in the first feature film produced in Nepal, which was produced by the Nepal government, she is known as the first actress of Nepal. Her other works include Hijo, Aaja, Bholi (1967), Manko Baandh (1973), Sindoor (1980), Jivan Rekha, Ke ghar ke dera (1987), Pachchis Basanta (1988) and Santideep (1989) among others.
Basundhara Bhusal is a Nepali movie and theater actor. She was one of the actresses in the first Nepali movie Aama. Since then, she has acted in at least 135 feature films and 60 TV programs. She started her career in theater, acting in plays at the Rastriya Nachghar since the 1960s.
Hari Prasad Rimal sometimes known as, father of Nepali Radio drama was a Nepalese actor,singer and film director. He is known for being the first person to sing on Radio Nepal and he has acted on Nepal's first film Aama.
Mahendra of Nepal requested prominent film director Hira Singh Khatri, who was mainly working in Indian cinema, to direct Aama, which was made to promote the panchayat political system in Nepal.In the early years of Nepalese cinema there was no professional infrastructure in the country to produce, distribute, and present Nepalese cinema. There were no professional actors so the director chose Nepalese singer-songwriter Shiva Shankar and theatrical performer Bhuwan Chand. Shiva Shankar was chosen to play the lead actor in the film because the director's original choice for the role was home sick. The leading female actor Bhuwan Chand remembered being "very excited" about acting in the film; she said it "was one of the incidences of my life I can never forget". At the age of fourteen, Hari Prasad Rimal also made his acting debut in Aama.
The cinema of India consists of films produced in the nation of India. Cinema is immensely popular in India, with as many as 1,600 films produced in various languages every year. Indian cinema produces more films watched by more people than any other country; in 2011, over 3.5 billion tickets were sold across India, 900,000 more than Hollywood. Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Kochi, Bangalore and Hyderabad are the major centres of film production in India.
Panchayat was the political system of Nepal from 1960 to 1990. It was based on the Panchayat system of self-governance historically prevalent in the Indian subcontinent.
Homesickness is the distress caused by being away from home. Its cognitive hallmark is preoccupying thoughts of home and attachment objects. Sufferers typically report a combination of depressive and anxious symptoms, withdrawn behavior and difficulty focusing on topics unrelated to home.
Filming on the project lasted between three and four months, and the post-production work, which was completed in Kolkata, India, took about six months.Most of the scenes were filmed in a single take. Bhuwan Chand was paid about 5,000 rupees ($45.01 as of April 2019). Chand told Kathmandu Craze , "the director of the film had asked for cameramen's opinion and he responded in my favour. So it was cameraman Dev and of course the director who were responsible for me receiving the part."
Post-production is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, radio production and photography. Post-production includes all stages of production occurring after shooting or recording individual program segments.
Kolkata is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. According to the 2011 Indian census, it is the seventh most populous city; the city had a population of 4.5 million, while the suburb population brought the total to 14.1 million, making it the third-most populous metropolitan area in India. Kolkata Megalopolis is the area surrounding Kolkata Metropolitan city with additional population. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River approximately 80 kilometres (50 mi) west of the border with Bangladesh, it is the principal commercial, cultural, and educational centre of East India, while the Port of Kolkata is India's oldest operating port and its sole major riverine port. The city is widely regarded as the "cultural capital" of India, and is also nicknamed the "City of Joy". Recent estimates of Kolkata Metropolitan Area's economy have ranged from $60 to $150 billion making it third most-productive metropolitan area in India, after Mumbai and Delhi.
A Nepalese Rupee is the official currency of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. The Nepalese rupee is subdivided into 100 paisa. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Nepal Rastra Bank, the central bank of Nepal. The Nepalese rupee was introduced in 1932, when it replaced the Nepalese mohar at the rate 2:1.
The film premiered on 7 October 1964, in the Kathmandu Valley.Upon release, the film met with success. Sunita of Films Of Nepal wrote, "Aama took the nation by storm". After the success of the film, director Hira Singh Khatri went on to direct Hijo Aaja Bholi (1967), and Parivartan (1971), films which were used to convey patriotism to Nepalese citizens. Aama became an important film in history of Nepalese cinema, after becoming the first Nepalese film to be produced in Nepal. Following its release, the leading actors became publicly prominent. Kathmandu Films, wrote "This [Aama] was the most important event in history of filming in Nepal".
BossNepal wrote, "The title of the movie did justice to it ... Aama (mother) gives us a glimpse of what to expect and meets people's expectations as well. It goes perfectly with the theme of the movie". The reviewer also said, "Aama deserves a watch". Philip Cryan Marshall of Migyul wrote, "Aama was clearly a nation-building tool", and "The image of the mother, a universal symbol of national unity, was used to forward themes of nationalization. Characters ... were dressed in distinct garbs of the nation – men in daura suruwal and dhaka topi and women draped in saree and cholo fariya".
The Kingdom of Nepal, also known as the Kingdom of Gorkha or Gorkha Empire or the self designated Asal Hindustan, was a Hindu kingdom on the Indian subcontinent, formed in 1768, by the unification of Nepal. Founded by King Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkhali monarch of Rajput origin from medieval India, it existed for 240 years until the abolition of the Nepalese monarchy in 2008. During this period, Nepal was formally under the rule of the Shah dynasty, which exercised varying degrees of power during the kingdom's existence.
Chhetri, historically called Kshettriya or Kshetriya, are Nepali speakers of Khas Rajput community some of whom trace their origin to migration from medieval India. Chhetri was a caste of administrators, governor and military elites in medieval Khas Kingdom and Gorkha Kingdom. The nobility of Gorkha Kingdom were mainly based from Chhetri families and they had a strong presence in civil administration affairs. The bulk of Prime Ministers of Nepal before democratization of Nepal belonged to this caste as a result of old Gorkhali aristocracy. Gorkha-based aristocratic Chhetri families were Pande dynasty, Basnyat dynasty, Thapa dynasty and Kunwars.
Hari Bansha Acharya is a Nepalese actor, comedian, singer and writer. He is one of the most successful and respected comedians in the Nepalese entertainment industry. He is known for his method acting. Himself and Madan Krishna Shrestha make up the comedy duo MaHa Jodi, one of the best comedy duos ever lived. He is also known for his performance in the 1997 patriotic drama film Balidaan. His performance in this movie by him is considered to be one of the best male lead performance ever in Nepali film history and one of the iconic character ever. He is also writer and actor of hit Nepali film 'Shatru Gatey'.
Kaji was a title and position used by nobility of Gorkha Kingdom (1559–1768) and Kingdom of Nepal between 1768–1804. Many other contemporary kingdoms used the same title for their ministers.
The Nepalese Ministry of Foreign Affairs abbreviated as MoFA is responsible for conducting external affairs of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. Ministry of Foreign Affairs represents other line ministries and the Government of Nepal while dealing with other states. Currently Minister for Foreign Affairs of Nepal, the Rt. Hon. Pradeep Gyawali, is leading the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Shankar Das Bairagi is serving as Foreign Secretary of Nepal.
Nepal Praja Parishad was the first attempt to form an organization to lead the revolution against the Rana dynasty in Nepal. It was founded in 1939 when they received the support of additional people including Dharma Bhakta Mathema among others. The organization's head office was kept in Dharma Bhakta Mathema's house in OmBahal.
The National Film Awards is the most prominent and prestigious award of Nepali cinema in the presence of Head of Nation. In, 2005, it was started with the first National Film Award, in the presence of His Majesty's King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev. The event is held at the residence of the president of Nepal and the president gives the awards to the winners in various categories. It is yearly organised by Film Development Board,Nepal.
The Biratnagar Jute Mill Strike of March 1947 was a labour strike in Biratnagar, Nepal, by workers and laborers of Biratnagar Jute Mill, Ltd. The strike was initially against the management regarding labor rights, but gradually turned into a nationwide anti-regime movement.
Bir Bhadra Thapa or Birabhadra Thapa also spelled Virabhadra or Virbhadra, was a politician, courtier and military officer in the Gorkha Kingdom during the 18th century. His grandson Bhimsen Thapa went on to become the Mukhtiyar of Nepal and founder of Thapa dynasty.
"Melancholy" is an environmentally-themed song sung by 365 Nepali artists. This song was intended to promote an environmental message by breaking the Guinness World Records for "Most Vocal Solos in a Song Recording", which it successfully did. It was written, music composed and directed by environmentalist Nipesh Dhaka. The song was recorded as a single on 19 May 2016. The recording sessions were inaugurated by Prime Minister Khadga Prasad Oli at 8 am and continued until 6 pm. The song was released on 2 September 2017 by President Bidya Devi Bhandari at Army Officer's Club, Kathmandu.
Khatri is a common surname belonging to Punjabi Khatri caste and Nepalese Chhetri caste. Nepalese family name K.C. stands as Khatri Chhetri.
Shanti Maskey, was a Nepali actress who acted in more than 50 films. She was one of the first actors of Nepali film industry. She was a recipient of Gorkha Dakshin Bahu, the second highest award awarded by the Kingdom of Nepal. Her notable films include Jiwan rekha, Sindur, Ke ghar ke dera, Kanchhi, Pachyaura, Manko bandh, Santan and Kasturi, among others. She had participated in the struggle for democracy in 1951. She was a singer and a stage actor before she started her film career.