Abbassi Madani

Last updated
Abbassi Madani
Born28 February 1931  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Died24 April 2019  OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg (aged 88)
Doha   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg

Abbassi Madani (Arabic : عباسي مدني) (28 February 1931 [1] – 24 April 2019) was an Algerian politician who was the President of the Islamic Salvation Front. As its leader, he became the voice of a large part of the dispossessed Algerian youth. [2]

Algeria Country in North Africa

Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres (919,595 sq mi), Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, and the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory, Mauritania, and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. The country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 48 provinces and 1,541 communes (counties). It has the highest human development index of all the non-island African countries.

Islamic Salvation Front political party

The Islamic Salvation Front was an Islamist political party in Algeria. The party had two major leaders representing its two bases of its support. Abbassi Madani appealed to pious small businessmen, and Ali Belhadj appealed to the angry, often unemployed youth of Algeria.

Contents

Career

Madani was born at Diyar Ben Aissa, Sidi Okba, now in Biskra Province. In his youth he joined the National Liberation Front (FLN) and participated in the first day of the Algerian War of Independence, 1 November 1954, by planting a bomb at an Algiers radio facility, but was arrested by the French on 17 November 1954, and remained in jail until independence in 1962. [3] After studying for a doctorate in educational psychology in London from 1975 to 1978, [4] he became a professor of educational sciences at the University of Algiers. [3] Madani grew critical of the FLN's socialist orientation, and in 1989, after the Algerian Constitution was changed to allow multiparty democracy, he co-founded the democratic Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), which rapidly grew to enjoy success in the ensuing local elections. [5] Madani contended that the Islamic essence of November 1954 was betrayed by the Charters of Tripoli and Algeria, along with other charters upheld by Houari Boumediene and Chadli Bendjedid. [2]

Sidi Okba Commune in Biskra Province, Algeria

Sidi Okba is a commune in the Biskra Province, Algeria. It was named after the Muslim General Uqba ibn Nafi who died there in 683 AD. The nearest big city is Biskra which is located 18 km away.

Biskra Province Province in Algeria

Biskra is a province (wilaya) of Algeria. The capital city is Biskra. Tolga is one of the famous daïras of this wilaya. Other localities include Lichoua, Sidi Okba, Sidi Khaled, El-Kantara and Ouled Djellal.

National Liberation Front (Algeria) political party in Algeria

The National Liberation Front is a nationalist political party in Algeria. It was the principal nationalist movement during the Algerian War and the sole legal and the ruling political party of the Algerian state until other parties were legalised in 1989. The FLN was established in 1954 from a split in the Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties from members of the Special Organisation paramilitary; its armed wing, the National Liberation Army, participated in the Algerian War from 1954 to 1962. After the Évian Accords of 1962, the party purged internal dissent and ruled Algeria as a one-party state. After the 1988 October Riots and the Algerian Civil War (1991-2002) against Islamist groups, the FLN was reelected to power in the 2002 Algerian legislative election, and has generally remained in power ever since, although sometimes needing to form coalitions with other parties.

Political positions

Madani advocated, on the one hand, the "stepwise" introduction of Sharia (Islamic Law) and called Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the founder of the dominant religious movement in Saudi Arabia, the "avant-garde of the reform-oriented Muslim world". On the other hand, he declared that his party had no intention to impose the wearing of the veil or to ban women from driving. He named the liberal Muslim reformer Muhammad Abduh as part of the same "avant-garde" as Abd al-Wahab. In a 1990 interview he said he wanted to suppress "usury" in banking and to substantially reduce taxes, while he avoided answering a question about the financing of development projects.

Sharia, Islamic law or Sharia law is a religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. It is derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations. The manner of its application in modern times has been a subject of dispute between Muslim fundamentalists and modernists.

Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab was a religious leader and theologian from Najd in central Arabia who founded the movement now called Wahhabism. Born to a family of jurists, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab's early education consisted of learning a fairly standard curriculum of orthodox jurisprudence according to the Hanbali school of law, which was the school of law most prevalent in his area of birth. Despite his initial rudimentary training in classical Sunni Muslim tradition, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab gradually became opposed to many of the most popular Sunni practices such as the visitation to and the veneration of the tombs of saints, which he felt amounted to heretical religious innovation or even idolatry. Despite his teachings being rejected and opposed by many of the most notable Sunni Muslim scholars of the period, including his own father and brother, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab charted a religio-political pact with Muhammad bin Saud to help him to establish the Emirate of Diriyah, the first Saudi state, and began a dynastic alliance and power-sharing arrangement between their families which continues to the present day in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Al ash-Sheikh, Saudi Arabia's leading religious family, are the descendants of Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab, and have historically led the ulama in the Saudi state, dominating the state's clerical institutions.

Muhammad Abduh Egyptian jurist

Muḥammad 'Abduh was an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, regarded as one of the key founding figures of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu’tazilism after the medieval Islamic school of theology based on rationalism, Muʿtazila. He also wrote, among other things, "Treatise on the Oneness of God", and a commentary on the Qur'an.

In 1990, the Algerian Government pushed a new electoral law which was unanimously condemned by all Algerian opposition parties. Protesting against this law, Dr. Abbassi helped organize a general strike and massive peaceful demonstrations in Algiers [6] .An attack by armed forces ended the protest with over 1000 casualties [7] . After the strike, Dr. Abbassi was arrested and sentenced to 12 years imprisonment following charges of threatening state security. [8] The UN Human Rights Committee investigated the arrest made by the military court of Blida, during its 89th session in New York in 2007 [9] . The committee concluded that the trial and sentencing of Dr. Abbassi by the military court constituted a violation of article 14 of the Covenant [10] .

United Nations Human Rights Council United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world

The United Nations Human Rights Council is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world. The UNHRC has 47 members elected for staggered three-year terms on a regional group basis. The headquarters of UNHRC is in Geneva, Switzerland.

Blida City in Blida Province, Algeria

Blida is a city in Algeria. It is the capital of Blida Province, and it is located about 45 km south-west of Algiers, the national capital. The name Blida, i.e. bulaydah, diminutive of the Arabic word belda, city.

Retirement

Politically, he was widely considered to represent the moderate wing of FIS, contrasted with Ali Belhadj's more hardline views. His positions included free markets, early Islamic education, Arabization of education and government, segregation of the sexes, and sharia-based law. He expressed support for democracy, but with the reservation that it could not override Sharia law.

In January 2011, Agence France-Presse announced, in connection with ongoing demonstrations in Algeria, that Madani had fled to Qatar. [11] Madani died on 24 April 2019. [12]

Agence France-Presse international news agency headquartered in Paris

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France. Founded in 1835 as Agence Havas, it is the world's oldest news agency.

Qatar Sovereign state in Western Asia

Qatar, officially the State of Qatar, is a country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Whether the sovereign state should be regarded as a constitutional monarchy or an absolute monarchy is disputed. Its sole land border is with neighbouring Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) monarchy Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Bahrain, an inlet of the Persian Gulf, separates Qatar from nearby Bahrain.

Related Research Articles

Algerian War war between France and the Algerian independence movement from 1954 to 1962

The Algerian War, also known as the Algerian War of Independence or the Algerian Revolution was fought between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front from 1954 to 1962, which led to Algeria gaining its independence from France. An important decolonization war, it was a complex conflict characterized by guerrilla warfare, maquis fighting, and the use of torture. The conflict also became a civil war between the different communities and within the communities. The war took place mainly on the territory of Algeria, with repercussions in metropolitan France.

The History of Algeria from 1962 to 1999 includes the period starting with preparations for independence and the aftermath of the independence war with France in the 1960s to the Civil War and the 1999 presidential election.

Algerian nationalism has been shaped by Algerian-French dichotomies; tensions between the French, the Berber and the Arabic language and culture; socialist as well as Islamic ideologies; and gendered symbols of nationhood—and continues to evolve in the present manifestations taking place in Algeria. It was inspired by people such as Ben Badis and Djamila Bouhired who were two of the many opposing French colonial rule in Algeria.

Articles related to Algeria include:

Chadli Bendjedid Algerian politician

Chadli Bendjedid was the third President of Algeria; his presidential term of office ran from 9 February 1979 to 11 January 1992.

Islam in Algeria

Islam is the majority religion in Algeria. The vast majority of citizens are Sunni Muslims belonging to Maliki school of jurisprudence, with a minority of Ibadi, most of whom live in the M'zab Valley region. Islam provides the society with its central social and cultural identity and gives most individuals their basic ethical and attitudinal orientation. Orthodox observance of the faith is much less widespread and steadfast than is identification with Islam. There are also Sufi philosophies which arose as a reaction to theoretical perspectives of some scholars.

Algerian Civil War 1991-2002 civil war in Algeria

The Algerian Civil War was a civil war in Algeria fought between the Algerian Government and various Islamic rebel groups from 26 December 1991 to 8 February 2002. The war began slowly as it first appeared the government had successfully crushed the Islamist movement, but armed groups emerged to fight jihad and by 1994, violence had reached such a level that it appeared the government might not be able to withstand it. By 1996–97 however it became clear that the violence and predation of the Islamists had lost its popular support, although fighting continued for several years after.

Mahfoud Nahnah was an Algerian politician who served as the leader of the Islamist political party Movement of Society for Peace in Algeria.

Larbi Ben Mhidi Algerian revolutionary

Larbi Ben M'hidi, commonly known as Si Larbi or simply as Ben M'hidi, was a prominent revolutionary leader during the Algerian war of independence. He is one of the six founding members of the Front de Libération Nationale that launched an armed revolt throughout Algeria and issued a proclamation calling for a sovereign Algerian state.

Ali Belhadj is an Algerian Islamist activist and preacher and cofounder of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) political party, the winner of the June 1990 local elections and the 1991 Algerian legislative election.

Zohra Drif Algerian politician

Zohra Drif Bitat is a retired Algerian lawyer, moudjahid, and the vice-president of the Council of the Nation, the upper house of the Algerian Parliament. Drif was born in Tissemselt, Algeria, part of the state of Tiaret, where her grandfather was an imam and her father served as a lawyer and judge in Tiaret. She is best known for her activities on behalf of the National Liberation Front (FLN) during the Algerian War of Independence.

2007 Algerian legislative election election

Legislative elections were held in Algeria on 17 May 2007. 24 political parties and around 100 independent lists with a total of more than 12,000 candidates competed for the 389 seats in the National People's Assembly. While most Algerians voted on May 17, immigrants from Algeria to other countries and Algerians living in the Sahara and other nomads and semi-nomads voted on May 16 due to the distance from Algiers, the country's capital.

Elements of both sides in the Algerian War of Independence—the French Armed Forces and the opposing Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN)—used deliberate torture during that conflict (1954–1962), creating an ongoing public controversy. Pierre Vidal-Naquet, a French historian, confessed that there were "hundreds of thousands of instances of torture" by the French military in Algeria. The FLN engaged in the use of torture against pro-French and uncommitted members of the Algerian population in retaliation for the French's use of torture.

Rachid Mesli is a French Algerian human rights lawyer and activist, living in Geneva and acting as the Director of the Legal Department of Alkarama.

Dr. Mourad Dhina is an Algerian physicist and activist living in Switzerland. Mourad was a member of FIS or Front Islamique du Salut. He supported the uprise of the Islamists during the Algerian dark decade of the 1990’s. His views align with extremists Islamists. Mourad is the executive director of the Alkarama NGO.

Sadek Hadjeres Algerian politician

Sadek Hadjerès is an Algerian communist.

2010–12 Algerian protests protest

The 2010–12 Algerian protests was a series of protests taking place throughout Algeria, lasting from 28 December 2010 to early 2012. The protests had been inspired by similar protests across the Middle East and North Africa. Causes cited by the protesters included unemployment, the lack of housing, food-price inflation, corruption, restrictions on freedom of speech and poor living conditions. While localized protests were already commonplace over previous years, extending into December 2010, an unprecedented wave of simultaneous protests and riots, sparked by sudden rises in staple food prices, erupted all over the country starting in January 2011. These were quelled by government measures to lower food prices, but were followed by a wave of self-immolations, most of them in front of government buildings. Opposition parties, unions, and human rights organisations then began to hold weekly demonstrations, despite these being illegal without government permission under the ongoing state of emergency; the government suppressed these demonstrations as far as possible, but in late February yielded to pressure and lifted the state of emergency. Meanwhile, protests by unemployed youth, typically citing unemployment, hogra (oppression), and infrastructure problems, resumed, occurring almost daily in towns scattered all over the country.

Emirate of Abdelkader

The Emirate of Abdelkader, Emir Abdelkader Resistance, or Emir Abdelkader State, was founded by Emir Abdelkader with the allegiance of the Algerian people to resist the French invasion.

References

  1. http://www.worldcourts.com/hrc/eng/decisions/2007.03.28_Abbassi_v_Algeria.htm
  2. 1 2 Evans, Martin; Phillips, John (2007). Algeria: Anger of the Dispossessed. Yale University Press. pp. 147–148. ISBN   0-300-10881-8.
  3. 1 2 Lamchichi, Abderrahim (1992). L'islamisme en Algérie. Editions L'Harmattan. p. 208. ISBN   978-2-296-27234-7.
  4. Cheurfi, Achour (2001). La classe politique algérienne: de 1900 à nos jours : dictionnaire biographique. Casbah éditions. p. 15. ISBN   978-9961-64-292-4.
  5. Esposito, John L. (ed.). "Madani, Abbasi". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam . Oxford Islamic Studies Online.
  6. "Madani, Abbasi - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2019-04-23.
  7. "Communication ABBASSI MADANI".
  8. "Communication ABBASSI MADANI".
  9. "Abbassi v. Algeria, Comm. 1172/2003, U.N. Doc. A/62/40, Vol. II, at 105 (HRC 2007)". www.worldcourts.com. Retrieved 2019-04-23.
  10. "UN Human Rights Committee condemns Algeria in Abbassi Madani case | Alkarama Foundation". www.alkarama.org. Retrieved 2019-04-23.
  11. Nureldine, Fayez (20 January 2011). "Algeria's former Islamist number two charged". Radio France Internationale . Agence France-Presse.
  12. "Décès de Abbassi Madani, président de l'ex-FIS" (in French). 24 April 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2019.

Bibliography