Abda and Abdjesus
|Died||16 May, 366 or 375|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church, Orthodox Church, Syrian Church|
Abda and Abdjesus were two Christian bishops who were martyred at Kashkar under Shapur IIon 16 May, in either 366 AD or 375 AD. They were first placed between heavy boards to crush their bones, and later beheaded.
Christianity is a religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, Eucharist [Holy Communion], prayer, confession, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations have ordained clergy and hold regular group worship services.
A martyr is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party. This refusal to comply with the presented demands results in the punishment or execution of the martyr by the oppressor. Originally applied only to those who suffered for their religious beliefs, the term has come to be used in connection with people killed for a political cause.
Shapur II, also known as Shapur II the Great, was the tenth Shahanshah of the Sasanian Empire. The longest-reigning monarch in Iranian history, he reigned for his entire 70-year life from 309 to 379. He was the son of Hormizd II.
There may have been a political aspect to the persecution, since the king was attempting to establish Mazdeism as the state religion and judged Christians as the natural allies of the Romans.In 339-340 the king began the prosecution with the help of Jews and Magi of bishop of Seleucia and Ctesifonte, Simeone Bar Sabbã, having accused him in the friendly support of Roman Empire. The historian Sozomen wrote about 22 martyrs who were tortured together. In his book he mentioned Abdas and Abdjesus in 15-th and 16-th places in his list of martyrs. This information is worth of trusting because it was written in less than 100 years after their death. ll of the martyrs were first interrogated by the king but later he charged his brother Ardashir to continue. He urged the martyrs to deny Christ and worship the Sun, but they were firm in their faith.
Zoroastrianism, or Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest religions that remains active. It is a monotheistic faith, centered in a dualistic cosmology of good and evil and an eschatology predicting the ultimate destruction of evil. Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster, it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda, as its Supreme Being. Major features of Zoroastrianism, such as messianism, judgment after death, heaven and hell, and free will have influenced other religious systems, including Second Temple Judaism, Gnosticism, Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism.
Magi denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster. The earliest known use of the word Magi is in the trilingual inscription written by Darius the Great, known as the Behistun Inscription. Old Persian texts, pre-dating the Hellenistic period, refer to a Magus as a Zurvanic, and presumably Zoroastrian, priest.
Seleucia, also known as Seleucia-on-Tigris or Seleucia on the Tigris, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires. It stood on the west bank of the Tigris River opposite Ctesiphon, within the present-day Baghdad Governorate in Iraq.
Their feast day is commemorated on 16 May according to the Martyrologium Romanum, the Great Synaxaristes of the Orthodox Church , and in the Syrian Church as well. The biographical text Ausgewählte Akten Persischer Märtyrer by Oskar Braun also mentions the names of several of the other martyrs, including:
Synaxarion or Synexarion is the name given in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches to a compilation of hagiographies corresponding roughly to the martyrology of the Roman Church.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch, or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established by Severus of Antioch in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to Antioch by Saint Peter and Saint Paul in the 1st century as described in the Acts of the Apostles, and according to its tradition. It was then restructured by Severus of Antioch in Antioch in 518. The Church uses the Divine Liturgy of Saint James, associated with St. James, the "brother" of Jesus and patriarch among the Jewish Christians at Jerusalem. Syriac is the official and liturgical language of the Church based on Syriac Christianity. The primate of the church is the Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch currently H.H. Ignatius Aphrem II since 2014, seated in Cathedral of Saint George, Bab Tuma, Damascus, Syria.
Ausgewählte Akten Persischer Märtyrer is a book by Oskar Braun which was published in 1915 in Kempten. It contains biographical material regarding several saints, including:
Ajabel was the name of a priest martyred with Abda and Abdjesus in Kaskhar on May 16, 366, and several others. They are memorialized in the Christian Church with a feast on May 16.
Simeon is a given name, from the Hebrew שמעון, usually transliterated as Shimon. In Greek it is written Συμεών, hence the Latinized spelling Symeon.
May 15 - Eastern Orthodox Church calendar - May 17
Taq-e Bostan means "Arch of the Garden" or "Arch made by stone" is a site with a series of large rock reliefs from the era of Sassanid Empire of Persia (Iran), carved around the 4th century AD.
March 11 - Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar - March 13
Saint Aba was a priest who was martyred at Kashkar, Persia with Saints Abda and Abdjesus and approximately 48 others. They were put to death in the year 374 by the Persian ruler Shapur II. Aba's feast day is 16 May.
Saint Abdecalas was a Persian priest of advanced age who, together with another priest, Saint Ananias, and about a hundred other Christians, was killed under the Persian ruler Shapur II on Good Friday, 345. One of these others was also named Abdecalas.
Mar Shimun Bar Sabbae was an Assyrian Bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, from Persia, the de facto head of the Church of the East, until his death. He was bishop during the persecutions of King Shapur II of the Sasanian Empire of Iran, and was executed along with many of his followers. He is revered as a saint in various Christian communions.
Abdjesus is the name of several saints in the Christian church. It may refer to:
Desan was a bishop of the Christian Church.
Abdisho, a member of the Church of the East, was a deacon and martyr.
Barbaʿshmin was a fourth-century bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, primate of the Church of the East, and martyr. He succeeded Shahdost as bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon in 343, during the great persecution of Shapur II, and was martyred three years later, in 346. Like several other early bishops of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, he is included in the traditional list of patriarchs of the Church of the East, which also considers him a saint. His feast day is January 14.
Acepsimas of Hnaita was a bishop, martyr and saint.
Barhadbesciabas is venerated as a Christian martyr who was decapitated during the reign of Shapur II. A deacon of Arbela, in the Sassanid Empire, he was arrested by the governor of Arbela, Sapor Tamaspor, and put on the rack.
Metropolitanate of Fars was an East Syriac metropolitan province of the Church of the East between the sixth and twelfth centuries. It was centered in what is now Fars Province, the historic cradle of ancient Persian civilisation, and besides a number of centres in Fars region itself, this East Syriac ecclesiastical province also included a number of dioceses in Arabia and a diocese for the island of Soqotra.
Diocese of Kashkar, sometimes called Kaskar, was the senior diocese in the Church of the East's Province of the Patriarch. It see was in the city of Kashkar. The diocese is attested between the fourth and the twelfth centuries. The bishops of Kashkar had the privilege of guarding the patriarchal throne during the interregnum between the death of a patriarch and the appointment of his successor. As a result, they are often mentioned by name in the standard histories of the Nestorian patriarchs, so that a relatively full list of the bishops of the diocese has survived.
Shahdost was Bishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon and primate of the Church of the East from 341 to 343. He was martyred during the great persecution of Shapur II. Like several other early bishops of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, he is included in the traditional list of patriarchs of the Church of the East. He is considered a saint in some quarters.
Enosh was Patriarch of the Church of the East between 877 and 884.
Israel of Kashkar was briefly an anti-patriarch of the Church of the East in 877. His name is not included in most traditional lists of patriarchs of the Church of the East.
Abdisho may refer to:
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