Abdul Haq (cleric)

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Abdul Haq
عبد الحق
Maulana Abdul Haq of Akora Khattak.jpg
1st Chancellor of Darul Uloom Haqqania
In office
23 September 1947 7 September 1988
MNA for Peshawar Division
In office
14 April 1972 10 January 1974
In office
26 March 1977 5 July 1977
In office
20 March 1985 29 May 1988
Personal details
Born11 January 1912
Akora Khattak, British India
Died7 September 1988
Peshawar, Pakistan
Nationality Pakistani
Children Maulana Sami-ul-Haq (son)
Alma mater Darul Uloom Deoband
Occupation Islamic scholar, Politician, Teacher
Awards Sitara-i-Imtiaz
Honorary PhD in Divinity, University of Peshawar

Maulana Abdul Haq (Urdu : عبدالحق, Pashto : عبدالحق, ‘Abdul-Ḥaqq; 11 January 1912 7 September 1988) of Akora Khattak, sometimes referred to as Abdul Haq Akorwi (Urdu : عبدالحق اکوڑوی, ‘Abdul-Haqq Akoṛwī) was a Pakistani Islamic scholar and the founder, chancellor, and Shaykh al-Hadith of the Islamic seminary Darul Uloom Haqqania. He was involved in politics as a member of the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam. He served three times in the National Assembly of Pakistan and was an active proponent of the Khatm-i Nabuwwat movement.

Akora Khattak Place in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Akora Khattak or Sarai Akora is a town in Jehangira tehsil of Nowshera District in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Nowshera Cantonment is located to the east while Jahangira town is located west of Akora Khattak.

Pakistan federal parliamentary constitutional republic in South Asia

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

Darul Uloom Haqqania is an Islamic religious seminary located in Akora Khattak, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. The seminary propagates the Deobandi trend of Sunni Islam and was founded along the lines of Darul Uloom Deoband. It has been dubbed as The University of Jihad due to the methods and content of instruction along with the future occupations of its alumni.

Contents

Abdul Haq completed his religious education in India at Darul Uloom Deoband. He taught at Deoband for four years until difficulties arose due to the independence of Pakistan. In 1947, he founded Darul Uloom Haqqania in Akora Khattak, one of the first Islamic seminaries to be established in Pakistan. He taught hadith at the madrasah for the rest of his life and was well known by the title "Shaykh al-Hadith".

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Darul Uloom Deoband madrasah

The Darul Uloom Deoband is the Darul uloom Islamic school in India where the Deobandi Islamic movement began. It is located at Deoband, a town in Saharanpur district, Uttar Pradesh. The school was founded in 1866 by the ulema.

Partition of India partition of British India into the independent states of India and Pakistan in 1947

The partition of India in 1947 eventually accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan. The Dominion of India became, as of 1950, the Republic of India (India), and the Dominion of Pakistan became, as of 1956, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Pakistan). In 1971, the People's Republic of Bangladesh (Bangladesh) came into being after Bangladesh Liberation War. The partition involved the division of three provinces, Assam, Bengal and Punjab, based on district-wide Hindu or Muslim majorities. The boundary demarcating India and Pakistan came to be known as the Radcliffe Line. It also involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, and the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, as the British government there was called. The two self-governing countries of Pakistan and India legally came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947.

His son, Sami ul Haq, succeeded him as chancellor of Darul Uloom Haqqania. Abdul Haq's sermons have been published by his son in two volumes containing over 1,300 pages, entitled Da`wat-i Haq. [1]

Education

Abdul Haq was born in the city of Akora Khattak, Peshawar District, North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), British India, the son of Haji Maruf Gul, a local landlord, businessman, and religious scholar. According to family belief Abdul Haq was born in 1912 or 1914. [2] Muhammad Akbar Shah Bukhari, however, writes in Akabir Ulama-i Deoband that he was born on "7 Muharram al-Haram 1327 AH, Sunday, corresponding to January 1910". [3] This is an error since Sunday 7 Muharram 1327 corresponds to 31 January 1909, not 1910. Another source gives his date of birth as 7 Muharram 1330 AH [4] (c. 29 December 1911). His nasab (patronymic) is given as follows: Shaykhul-Ḥadīs̱ Mawlānā ‘Abdul-Ḥaqq ibn Akhūnzādah al-Ḥājj Mawlānā Muḥammad Ma‘rūf Gul ibn Akhūnzādah al-Ḥājj Mawlānā Mīr Aftāb ibn Akhūnzādah Mawlānā ‘Abdul-Ḥamīd ibn Mawlānā ‘Abdur-Raḥīm Akhūnkhel ibn Mawlānā ‘Abdul-Wāḥid Akhūnkhel. [4]

Peshawar District District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Peshawar District is a district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It is located about 160 km west of the Pakistan's capital Islamabad. The district headquarter is Peshawar, which is also the capital of Khyber Paktunkhwa.

Abdul Haq received his early education from his parents. Then for elementary religious studies he was sent to nearby places in Peshawar, Mardan, and Chhachh. [2] In Mardan he studied with Maulana Inayatullah and Maulana Abdul Jamil. [3] Until the age of 16 he had studied locally the books up to Mulla Hasan. [3] For higher studies he traveled further, studying first in madrasahs in Meerut, Amroha, Gulavati, and Calcutta before gaining admission to the prestigious Darul Uloom Deoband in Shawwal 1347 (March 1929). [2] [3] Abdul Haq writes of the difficulty he faced in admission, "I arrived at Deoband at such a time when the Bengali and Swati students had quarreled and there was no flexibility in admission policy for Pathan students. I also had to face the problem of admission." [5]

Mardan City in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Mardān is a city in the Mardan District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. Located in the Valley of Peshawar, Mardan is the second-largest city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, after the nearby city of Peshawar.

Chhachh Place in Punjab, Pakistan

Chhachh or Chach is a region consisting of an alluvial plain extending from Attock District of Punjab, Pakistan, southwest of Topi and Swabi.

Meerut Metropolitan City in Uttar Pradesh, India

Meerut, is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is an ancient city, with settlements dating back to the Indus Valley civilisation having been found in and around the area. The city lies 70 km (43 mi) northeast of the national capital New Delhi, and 453 km (281 mi) northwest of the state capital Lucknow.

He completed daurah of hadith, the final stage of the Dars-i Nizami curriculum, under the supervision of Sayyid Husain Ahmad Madani, receiving his sanad-i faraghat (graduate degree) in 1352 AH (1933/1934). [2] [3] [5] Other teachers included Maulana Rasul Khan Hazarvi, Maulana Muhammad Ibrahim Baliyawi, and Mufti Muhammad Shafi Deobandi. [3]

Dars-i Nizami is a study curriculum or system used in traditional Islamic institutions (madrassas) and Dar Ul Ulooms, which originated in the Indian subcontinent in the 18th century and can now also be found in parts of South Africa, Canada, the United States, the Caribbean and the UK.

Teaching career

Abdul Haq returned to Akora Khattak and, on the instruction of his father, opened a small madrasah in a mosque adjacent to his house in order to provide a basic and religious education to the children in the area. In 1937 he began a primary school which was inaugurated by Husain Ahmad Madani. Soon, the number of students increased and other teachers were appointed. [2] [5]

Abdul Haq was later offered a teaching post at Darul Uloom Deoband by Madani. After consulting with his father, he joined Darul Uloom Deoband in Shawwal 1362 AH (October 1943). [2] [5]

Maulana Abdul Haq was the founder member of Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), New Delhi, India. He was elected as a member of foundation committee of Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi which was headed by Sheikhul Hind Maulana Mahmood Hasan. Such committee has several other members such as Maulana Abdul Bari Farang Mahli, Maulana Mufti Kifayatullah, Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, Maulana Hussein Ahmad Madani etc.

In 1947, Abdul Haq had returned to Akora Khattak during the Ramadan vacation. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, his father did not agree to him returning to Deoband, despite Madani's persuasion and promise of security. Consequently, Abdul Haq founded Darul Uloom Haqqania in Akora Khattak on 23 September 1947. [5] In the first year, many madrasah students who were unable to return to India came to Darul Uloom Haqqania to complete daurah of hadith with Maulana Abdul Haq. [3] At first he was the sole teacher and had to teach all the books of the Dars-i Nizami curriculum himself, but over time the number of students grew and other teachers joined. Abdul Haq continued to teach hadith at the school until his death in 1988. [2] [5]

Abdul Haq also served as the convener of Wifaq al-Madaris al-Arabiya. [1]

Politics

Abdul Haq joined other Islamic graduates in forming the Pakistani political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI), which endeavored for the implementation of Islamic law in the country. [5]

Abdul Haq was elected to the National Assembly of Pakistan in three consecutive elections, his election campaigns being led by his son, Sami ul Haq. [6] In 1970, running on the JUI ticket, Abdul Haq was elected to the 5th National Assembly, defeating Ajmal Khattak of the National Awami Party and Nasrullah Khan Khattak of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP). [5] [7] In the 1977 general election, he was elected to the 6th National Assembly, running on the ticket of the Pakistan National Alliance, a nine-party alliance including JUI. He again defeated Nasrullah Khan Khattak, then Chief Minister of NWFP and provincial president of the PPP. [5] [8] He was elected to the 7th National Assembly in the 1985 general election, which was held on a non-party basis. [9]

Khatme Nabuwwat movement

Abdul Haq was active in the Khatme Nabuwwat movement. In his lectures he stressed the importance of the concept of finality of prophethood and argued against the interpretations of Quranic verses and hadiths used by Ahmadis to support their beliefs. He was one of the signatories of the resolution moved on 30 June 1974 in the National Assembly in support of declaring Ahmadis as non-Muslims in Pakistan. [2] [10] [11]

Soviet–Afghan War

When the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979, Abdul Haq declared the Afghan resistance to be a jihad and an ideological struggle between Islam and communism. [5] The fatwa stating this was issued by Darul Uloom Haqqania. [12] Abdul Haq made monetary contributions in support of the Afghan Mujahideen and prayed for their success. On many occasions he expressed his desire to fight, but he was unable due to his old age and failing health. [5]

Sufism

Abdul Haq was a disciple of Haji Sahib Turangzai. He gave bay'ah at the hands of other eminent Sufis including Husain Ahmad Madani, Khawaja Abdul Malik Siddiqi, and the Faqir of Ipi. [2]

Awards and achievements

In October 1978, Abdul Haq was awarded an honorary PhD in Divinity from the University of Peshawar for services rendered in the cause of Islam. In August 1981, he received the Sitara-i-Imtiaz from the President of Pakistan, General Zia-ul-Haq, for his religious, educational, and scholarly achievements. [2]

Death

Abdul Haq died on 7 September 1988, at the age of 74 or 76, in Khyber Teaching Hospital in Peshawar, NWFP, Pakistan. [2] [5]

See also

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References

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