Abdul Qadeer Khan

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[P]akistan's motivation for nuclear weapons arose from a need to prevent "nuclear blackmail" by India. Had Iraq and Libya been nuclear powers, they wouldn't have been destroyed in the way we have seen recently. ... If (Pakistan) had an [atomic] capability before 1971, we [Pakistanis] would not have lost half of our country after a disgraceful defeat.

Abdul Qadeer Khan, statement on 16 May 2011, published in Newsweek [71]

During his work on the nuclear weapons program and onwards, Khan faced heated and intense criticism from his fellow theorists, most notably Pervez Hoodbhoy who contested his scientific understanding in quantum physics. [72] In addition, Khan's false claims that he was the "father" of the atomic bomb project since its inception and his personal attacks on Munir Ahmad Khan caused even greater animosity from his fellow theorists, and most particularly, within the general physics community, such as the Pakistan Physics Society. [73] [72]

In spite of the proliferation controversy and his volatile personality, Khan remained a popular public figure and has been as a symbol of national pride with many in Pakistan who see him as a national hero. [70] [59] While Khan has been bestowed with many medals and honours by the federal government and universities in Pakistan, Khan also remains the only citizen of Pakistan to have been honoured twice with the Nishan-e-Imtiaz. [74] [75]

Abdul Qadeer Khan

Abdul Qadeer Khan.jpg
Khan in 2017
Born(1936-04-01)1 April 1936
Died10 October 2021(2021-10-10) (aged 85)
Islamabad, Pakistan
NationalityPakistani
Alma mater University of Karachi
Delft University of Technology
Catholic University of Louvain
D. J. Sindh Government Science College [1]
Known for Pakistan's nuclear weapons program, gaseous diffusion, martensite and graphene morphology
TitleMohsin-e-Pakistan [1] [2]
Awards Nishan-e-Imtiaz Ribbon.png Nishan-i-Imtiaz (1996; 1999)
Nishan-e-Imtiaz Ribbon.png Hilal-i-Imtiaz (1989)
Scientific career
Fields Metallurgical Engineering
Institutions Khan Research Laboratories
GIK Institute of Technology
Hamdard University
Urenco Group
Thesis The effect of morphology on the strength of copper-based martensites  (1972)
Doctoral advisor Martin J. Brabers [3]
Science Advisor to the Presidential Secretariat
In office
1 January 2001 31 January 2004

Publications

Selected research papers and patents

Nuclear and material physics

  • Dilation investigation of metallic phase transformation in 18% Ni maraging steels, Proceedings of the International Conf. on Martensitic Transformations (1986), The Japan Institute of Metals, pp. 560–565.
  • The spread of Nuclear weapons among nations: Militarization or Development, pp. 417–430. (Ref. Nuclear War Nuclear Proliferation and their consequences "Proceedings of the 5th International Colloquium organised by the Group De Bellerive Geneva 27–29 June 1985", Edited by: Sadruddin Aga Khan, Published by Clarendon Press-Oxford 1986).
  • Flow-induced vibrations in Gas-tube assembly of centrifuges. Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology, 23(9) (September 1986), pp. 819–827.
  • Dimensional anisotropy in 18% of maraging steel, [77] Seven National Symposium on Frontiers in Physics, written with Anwar-ul-Haq, Mohammad Farooq, S. Qaisar, published at the Pakistan Physics Society (1998).
  • Thermodynamics of Non-equilibrium phases in Electron-beam rapid solidification, [69] Proceedings of the Second National Symposium on Frontiers in Physics, written with A. Tauqeer, Fakhar Hashmi, publisher Pakistan Physics Society (1988).

Books

See also

Related Research Articles

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Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was a Pakistani barrister and politician who served as the ninth prime minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the fourth president of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. He was also the founder of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979.

Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction Pakistani nuclear weapons program

Pakistan is one of nine states to possess nuclear weapons. Pakistan began development of nuclear weapons in January 1972 under Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan with a commitment to having the bomb ready by the end of 1976. Since PAEC, consisting of over twenty laboratories and projects under nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan, was falling behind schedule and having considerable difficulty producing fissile material, Abdul Qadeer Khan was brought from Europe by Bhutto at the end of 1974. As pointed out by Houston Wood, "The most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is the production of fissile material"; as such, this work in producing fissile material as head of the Kahuta Project was pivotal to Pakistan developing the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb by the end of 1984.

The Urenco Group is a British nuclear fuel company operating several uranium enrichment plants in Germany, the Netherlands, United States, and United Kingdom. It supplies nuclear power stations in about 15 countries, and states that it had a 29% share of the global market for enrichment services in 2011. Urenco uses centrifuge enrichment technology.

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Khan Research Laboratories

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Samar Mubarakmand

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Kahuta City in Rawalpindi District, Pakistan

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Shaukat Hameed Khan

Shaukat Hameed KhanPP, PhD, FPAS, is a Pakistani optical physicist and a visiting professor of physics at the Comsats University in Islamabad. Khan is known for his understanding in spark gap and plasma-induced Lasers in ionized environment.

Munir Ahmad Khan Pakistani physicist

Munir Ahmad Khan, NI, HI, FPAS, was a Pakistani nuclear reactor physicist who is credited, among others, with being the "father of the atomic bomb program" of Pakistan for their leading role in developing their nation's nuclear weapons during the successive years after the war with India in 1971.

Anwar Ali, is a Pakistani physicist and a computer programmer who served as the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) from 2006 till 2009. His scientific career is spent at the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission as a computational physicist and played a key scientific role his nation's secret nuclear deterrent program.

Project-706 Military unit

Project-706, also known as Project-726 was a codename of a project to develop Pakistan's first atomic bomb using uranium. At the same time, Pakistani nuclear technology scientists and engineers gained expertise in the use of reactor-grade plutonium and successfully produced weapons grade plutonium by the early 1980s.

Lieutenant-General Zahid Ali AkbarHI(M), SBt, PE, was an engineering officer in the Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers, who oversaw the civil construction of the Army GHQ in Rawalpindi, and later directing the Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL), a top secret research facility developing the clandestine atomic bomb program in the 1970s. Promoted to the rank of Major General and later Lieutenant General by President Zia ul Haq, post-retirement he was targeted for political reasons by General Pervez Musharraf and forced to make a 200 million plea bargain in a corruption case in 2015 to avoid continued political persecution.

Chagai-II is the codename assigned to the second atomic test conducted by Pakistan, carried out on 30 May 1998 in the Kharan Desert in Balochistan Province of Pakistan. Chagai-II took place two days after Pakistan's first successful test, Chagai-I, which was carried out on 28 May 1998 in the Ras Koh area in Chagai District, Balochistan, Pakistan.

Tasneem Mohammad Shah, SI, TI, is a Pakistani scientist and a prominent mathematician who has made pioneering and instrumental research and contributions to the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) at Dr. A. Q. Khan Research Laboratories (KRL). Trained as an applied mathematician, his contributions include differential geometry, numerical analysis, information security, CFD-DEM model, hydrodynamics, computer science, fluid mechanics, Vacuum Technology and CFD-DEM.

Ghulam Dastagir Alam

Ghulam Dastagir Alam Qasmi, was a Pakistani theoretical physicist and professor of mathematics at the Quaid-e-Azam University. Alam is best known for conceiving and embarking on research on the gas centrifuge during Pakistan's integrated atomic bomb project in the 1970s, and he also conceived the research on charge density, nuclear fission, and gamma-ray bursts throughout his career.

Syed Ali Nawab Pakistani general

Major-General Syed Ali Nawab(HI 1979, SBt, TPk, PE), was an engineering officer in the Pakistan Army Corps of EME, and a mechanical engineer with an MIMechE from UK and two bachelor's degrees, one in Electrical Engineering, and the other in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics from Aligarh Muslim University (AMU). He was known for his classified works in the development of atomic bomb at PAEC and the Engineering Research Laboratories (ERL) in the 1970s.

References

Citations

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  74. Abdul Qadeer Khan (HI, NI & Bar) remains the only Pakistani who got the Nishan-i-Imtiaz, the highest civil award twice. He also got the Hilal-i-Imtiaz, along with Munir Ahmad Khan, in 1989. A
  75. Shabbir, Usman, Remembering Unsung Heroes: Munir Ahmed Khan, Defence Journal, 27 June 2004
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Bibliography

  • Burr, William. "The 'Labors of Atlas, Sisyphus, or Hercules'? US Gas-Centrifuge Policy and Diplomacy, 1954–60." The International History Review 37.3 (2015): 431–457.
  • Khan, Abdul Qadeer (2010). "§Sehar Honay Tak: Dr. A.Q. Khan gave us the sense of security, Javed Hashmi.". In Khan, Abdul Qadeer (ed.). Sehar Honay Tak. Islamabad, Pakistan: Ali Masud books publication. pp. 1–158.
  • Upadhyaya, Gopal S. (2011). "§Dr. A.Q. Khan of Pakistan". Men of Metals and Materials: My Memoires. Bloomington, Indiana, United States: iUniverse.com. pp. 138–140.
  • Rahman, Shahid (1998). "§Dr. A. Q. Khan: Nothing Succeed like Success". In Rahman, Shahid (ed.). Long Road to Chagai. Islamabad, Pakistan: Printwise publication. pp. 49–60. ISBN   969-8500-00-6.
  • Fitzpatrick, Mark (2007). "§Dr. A. Q. Khan and the rise and fall of proliferation network". Nuclear black markets. London, United Kingdom: International Institute for Strategic Studies. ISBN   978-0-86079-201-7.
  • Kan, Shirley A. (2009). "§A.Q. Khan's nuclear network". China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy issues. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service (CRS). pp. 5–6.
  • (BIIP), Bureau of International Information Programs (2005). "§A.Q. Khan and the nuclear market". In Cooney, Thomas E.; Denny, David Anthony (eds.). E=mc²: Today's Nuclear Equation. Washington, DC: United States: Judith S. Seagal. pp. 1–40 [30–33].
  • Bernstein, Jeremy (2008). Physicists on Wall Street and other essays on science and society. New York: Springer. ISBN   978-0387765068.

Anecdotes

Written by Abdul Qadeer Khan

Online books

Government offices
Preceded by
Science Advisor to the Presidential Secretariat
1 January 2001 – 31 January 2004
Succeeded by