Abdullah Tariki

Last updated

Abdullah Tariki
Abdullah al-Tariki.jpg
Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources
In office
December 1960 9 March 1962
Prime Minister King Saud
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded by Ahmed Zaki Yamani
Personal details
Born(1919-03-19)19 March 1919
Zulfi, Emirate of Nejd and Hasa
Died7 September 1997(1997-09-07) (aged 78)
Cairo, Egypt
Nationality Saudi Arabian
Alma mater Cairo University
University of Texas

Abdullah ibn Hamoud Tariki (19 March 1919 – 7 September 1997) (Arabic: عبدالله الطريقي), also known as Red Sheikh, [1] was a Saudi politician and government official. He was the first Saudi oil minister appointed by King Saud, and co-founder of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) along with Venezuelan minister Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonso.

OPEC international organization of petroleum-exporting countries

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries is an intergovernmental organisation of 14 nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members, and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria. As of September 2018, the then 15 member countries accounted for an estimated 44 percent of global oil production and 81.5 percent of the world's "proven" oil reserves, giving OPEC a major influence on global oil prices that were previously determined by the so called "Seven Sisters” grouping of multinational oil companies.

Contents

Early life and education

Tariki was born on 19 March 1919 in Al Zulfi (Arabic : الزلفي) in Najd. [2] He was the son of a camel owner who organized caravans between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. [3]

Najd Place

Najd or Nejd is a geographical central region of Saudi Arabia that alone accounts for almost a third of the population of the country. Najd consists of modern administrative regions of Riyadh, Al-Qassim, and Ha'il.

Kuwait Country in Western Asia

Kuwait, officially the State of Kuwait, is a country in Western Asia. Situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, it shares borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia. As of 2016, Kuwait has a population of 4.5 million people: 1.3 million are Kuwaitis and 3.2 million are expatriates. Expatriates account for 70% of the population.

Tariki received his early education in Kuwait and in Cairo. [4] He held a bachelor's degree in geology and chemistry, which he obtained from Cairo University in 1944. [2] He graduated from the University of Texas in 1947, earning a master's degree in petroleum engineering and geology. [2] [5] He was also trained at the Texas Oil Company after graduation. [2] [6]

Cairo City in Egypt

Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is one of the largest in Africa, the largest in the Middle East, and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture. Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC.

Cairo University public university with its main campus in Giza, Egypt

Cairo University is Egypt's premier public university. Its main campus is in Giza, immediately across the Nile from Cairo. It was founded on 21 December 1908; however, after being housed in various parts of Cairo, its faculties, beginning with the Faculty of Arts, were established on its current main campus in Giza in October 1929. It is the second oldest institution of higher education in Egypt after Al Azhar University, notwithstanding the pre-existing higher professional schools that later became constituent colleges of the university. It was founded and funded as the Egyptian University by a committee of private citizens with royal patronage in 1908 and became a state institution under King Fuad I in 1925. In 1940, four years following his death, the University was renamed King Fuad I University in his honor. It was renamed a second time after the Egyptian revolution of 1952. The University currently enrolls approximately 155,000 students in 22 faculties. It counts three Nobel Laureates among its graduates and is one of the 50 largest institutions of higher education in the world by enrollment.

Career and activities

After training in the US, Tariki returned to Saudi Arabia and worked at the ministry of finance office in Dammam from May 1953 to December 1954. [5] He served as an interpreter at the initial phase of his career at the ministry. [7] In December 1954, Tariki was appointed director-general of petroleum and mineral affairs in the ministry of finance and national economy. [5] [8]

Dammam Regional capital city in Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

Dammam is the capital of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The judicial and administrative bodies of the province, plus several government departments, are located in the city. Dammam is the largest city in the Eastern Province, and the sixth largest in Saudi Arabia, after Riyadh, Jeddah, Mecca, Medina and Taif. Like the other 12 regional capitals of Saudi Arabia, Dammam is not included within any governorate; instead, it is governed as a "municipality" headed by a mayor.

Tariki's work at the directorate involved processing the petroleum production statistics provided by Aramco, and analysis summaries were then presented to the Saudi royal family. In fact, Tariki was one of the earliest critics of Aramco, arguing that the US companies should consult more with Saudi officials in exploring, pumping and selling of oil. [9] He called for the nationalization of Arab oil. [10] To achieve this goal, he and Venezuela's mines minister Juan Pablo Perez Alfonso strongly supported the foundation of the OPEC and eventually became founding members of it in September 1960. [4] [11]

Venezuela Republic in northern South America

Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas. It has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, and 99,889 km2 of continental shelf. This marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has extremely high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species. There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east.

The ministry of petroleum and mineral resources was created in December 1960, and Tariki was appointed the first oil minister. [12] [13] Tariki joined Prince Talal bin Abdulaziz's camp, Free Princes Movement, in 1961, [14] and they accused Crown Prince Faisal, later King Faisal, of corruption. [12] Tariki became a powerful ally of the movement. [3] He claimed on evidence that Kamal Adham, who was the brother-in-law of Prince Faisal, got 2% of the profits of the Arabian Oil Company that had been cofounded by Saudi Arabia and Japan. [12]

The Free Princes Movement was a Saudi liberal political movement that existed from 1958 to 1964. Its members were known as the Young Najd, Free Princes, and Liberal Princes.

Faisal of Saudi Arabia King of Saudi Arabia

Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. He emerged as an influential royal politician under his father King Abdulaziz and brother King Saud. While crown prince in 1962, Faisal outlawed slavery in Saudi Arabia. With the help of other members of the royal family and his maternal relative, the grand mufti of Saudi Arabia, Faisal persuaded King Saud, who was increasingly becoming a figurehead, to abdicate in 1964 and became king himself.

Kamal Adham was a businessman and former director general of Saudi Arabia's Al Mukhabarat Al A'amah or the general intelligence directorate. He served as a royal counsellor to both King Faisal and King Khalid.

Tariki was removed from office by Prince Faisal in 1962. [4] [15] He was succeeded by Ahmed Zaki Yamani as oil minister. [12] Yamani sacked Tariki also from Aramco's board. [12]

Later years

Following his dismissal, Tariki went to exile and settled in Beirut. [10] [12] In January 1963, he and Lebanese oil expert Nicholas Sarkis founded an oil consulting firm in Beirut. [5] Tariki also launced a journal there, namely Arab Oil and Gas. [16] He could visit Saudi Arabia only after the death of King Faisal in 1975. [3] Later he settled in Cairo. [17]

Death

Tariki died of a heart attack on 7 September 1997 in Cairo at age 78. [18] [19] His body was taken to Saudi Arabia for burial. [17]

Honors

Related Research Articles

Economy of Saudi Arabia national economy

The economy of Saudi Arabia is one of the top twenty economies in the world (G20). It is dependent on oil as the country has the second-largest proven petroleum reserves, and it's the largest exporter of petroleum in the world. It also has the fifth-largest proven natural gas reserves and is considered an "Energy Superpower". With a total worth of US$34.4 trillion, Saudi Arabia has the second most valuable natural resources in the world.

Ibn Saud Founder of Saudi Arabia

Abdulaziz ibn Abdul Rahman ibn Faisal ibn Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al Saud, usually known within the Arab world as Abdulaziz and in the West as Ibn Saud, was the first monarch and founder of Saudi Arabia, the "third Saudi state".

Khalid of Saudi Arabia King of Saudi Arabia

Khalid bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was King of Saudi Arabia from 1975 to 1982. His reign saw both huge developments in the country due to increase in oil revenues and significant events in the Middle East.

Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, Second deputy prime minister, and the minister of defense

Sultan bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, called Sultan al-Khair in Saudi Arabia, was a Saudi nobleman and government official. A son of King Abdulaziz, he was Saudi Defense minister from 1963 to his death in 2011 and the Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia from 2005 to 2011.

Saud bin Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Saudi politician

Saud bin Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, also known as Saud Al Faisal, was a Saudi diplomat and statesman who served as Saudi Arabia's foreign minister from 1975 to 2015. A member of the Saudi royal family, he was the longest-serving foreign minister in world history since Klemens von Metternich.

Sudairi Seven powerful alliance of seven full brothers within the House of Saud

The Sudairi Seven, also spelled Sudairy or Sudayri, is the commonly used name for a powerful alliance of seven full brothers within the House of Saud. Their father King Abdulaziz 'Ibn Saud' had more sons with their mother Hussa Sudairi than he did with any of his other wives. They are also sometimes referred to as the Sudairi Clan or the Sudairi faction.

Ahmed Zaki Yamani former Saudi Arabian minister of oil

Ahmed Zaki Yamani is a Saudi Arabian politician who was Minister of Oil (Petroleum) and Mineral Resources from 1962 to 1986, and a minister in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) for 25 years.

Ali Al-Naimi Saudi Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources

Ali bin Ibrahim Al-Naimi was the Saudi Arabian Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources from 1995 to 2016.

Abdullah bin Faisal Al Saud Saudi prince

Abdullah bin Faisal Al Saud was a Saudi businessman and a senior member of House of Saud. He held several cabinet posts in the government of Saudi Arabia in the 1950s.

Mishaal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Saudi royal, head of the Allegiance council

Mishaal bin Abdulaziz al Saud was chairman of the Allegiance Council and a senior member of the House of Saud. He held different cabinet posts in the 1950s.

Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonzo Minister of Development of Venezuela

Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonzo, was a prominent Venezuelan diplomat, politician and lawyer primarily responsible for the inception and creation of OPEC.

Khalid A. Al-Falih CEO of Saudi Aramco

Khalid A. Al-Falih, is Minister of Energy, Industry and Mineral Resources of Saudi Arabia and chairman of Saudi Aramco. He has previously served as the Saudi Arabian Health Minister and Aramco's CEO.

Ministry of Interior (Saudi Arabia) authority in Saudi Arabia

The Ministry of Interior is the Interior ministry of Saudi Arabia and is the responsible authority for national security, naturalization, immigration and customs in Saudi Arabia. It was founded in 1951 after the combined ministerial body covering financial and interior affairs were separated.

Hisham Mohieddin Nazer was Saudi Arabia's oil minister and the first Saudi board chairman of ARAMCO, which was later called Saudi Aramco. He was one of the significant people in developing the domestic policy of Saudi Arabia. He also served as Saudi ambassador to Egypt from 2005 to 2011.

Ministry of Energy, Industry and Mineral Resources

The Ministry of Energy, Industry and Mineral Resources is one of the governmental bodies of Saudi Arabia and part of the cabinet. The ministry has the function of developing and implementing policies concerning petroleum and related products.

Descendants of Ibn Saud Wikimedia list article of the descendants of Ibn Saud

Ibn Saud (1875–1953), the founder and first king of Saudi Arabia, was very young when he first married. However his wife died shortly after their marriage. Ibn Saud remarried at eighteen and his firstborn child was Turki. He had 45 sons of whom 36 survived to adulthood and had children of their own. He also had many daughters. His number of wives is put at 22.

References

  1. "Irresistible Libyan Crude". Middle East Online. 10 April 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Neal, Joe (May 1961). "A Sheikh of Arabia". The Alcalde. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 Kai Bird (20 April 2010). Crossing Mandelbaum Gate: Coming of Age Between the Arabs and Israelis, 1956-1978. Simon and Schuster. p. 125. ISBN   978-1-4391-7160-8 . Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  4. 1 2 3 Ibrahim, Youssef M."Sheik Abdullah al-Tariki, 80, First Saudi Arabian Oil Minister," New York Times. 16 September 1997.
  5. 1 2 3 4 Duguid, Stephen (July 1970). "A Biographical Approach to the Study of Social Change in the Middle East: Abdullah Tariki as a New Man". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 1 (3): 195–220. doi:10.1017/s0020743800024168. JSTOR   162327.
  6. Robert Vitalis (2007). America's Kingdom: Mythmaking on the Saudi Oil Frontier. Stanford University Press. p. 23. ISBN   978-0-8047-5446-0 . Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  7. Hertog, Steffen (2007). "Shaping the Saudi state: Human agency's shifting role in the rentier state formation" (PDF). International Journal of Middle East Studies. 39 (4): 539–563. doi:10.1017/S0020743807071073 . Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  8. Hertog, Steffen (2008). "Petromin: the slow death of statist oil development in Saudi Arabia" (PDF). Business history. 50 (5): 645–667. doi:10.1080/00076790802246087 . Retrieved 16 September 2013.
  9. "Saudi oil ministers past and present". Reuters. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  10. 1 2 Sukrī M. Ġānim (1986). OPEC: The Rise and Fall of an Exclusive Club. KPI. p. 28. ISBN   978-0-7103-0175-8 . Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  11. M. S. Vassiliou (2 March 2009). Historical Dictionary of the Petroleum Industry. Scarecrow Press. p. 364. ISBN   978-0-8108-6288-3 . Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 M. S. Vassiliou (24 September 2009). The A to Z of the Petroleum Industry. Scarecrow Press. p. 496. ISBN   978-0-8108-7066-6 . Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  13. Yitzhak Oron, Ed. Middle East Record Volume 2, 1961. The Moshe Dayan Center. p. 419. GGKEY:4Q1FXYK79X8. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  14. Vijay Prashad (2007). The Darker Nations- A Biography of the Short-Lived Third World. LeftWord Books. p. 275. ISBN   978-81-87496-66-3 . Retrieved 13 September 2013.
  15. Henderson, Simon (1994). "After King Fahd" (Policy Paper). Washington Institute. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  16. Brandon Roy Wolfe-Hunnicutt (2011). The End of the Concessionary Regime: Oil and American Power in Iraq, 1958-1972. Stanford University. p. 153. STANFORD:TM772ZZ7352. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  17. 1 2 "Former Saudi oil minister dies". Associate Press. Cairo. 10 September 1997. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
  18. Obituary: "Abdullah ibn Hamoud Al Tariki," Washington Post. 12 September 1997.
  19. "Abdullah Al Tariki, 80, A Co-founder Of Opec". Chicago Tribune. London. 21 September 1997. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  20. Terzian, Pierre. (1985). OPEC, the Inside Story: The Inside Story, p. 31.