Abdulmejid I

Last updated
Abdulmejid I
عبد المجيد اول
Ottoman Caliph
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Kayser-i Rûm
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques
Knight of the Garter
Sultan Abdulmecid Pera Museum 3 b.jpg
A painting of Abdulmejid at the Pera Museum in Istanbul.
31st Ottoman Sultan (Emperor)
Reign2 July 1839  25 June 1861
Predecessor Mahmud II
Successor Abdülaziz
Born25 April 1823 [1] [2]
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Died25 June 1861(1861-06-25) (aged 38)
Istanbul, Ottoman Empire
Burial
Consorts Servetseza Kadın
Şevkefza Kadın
Verdicenan Kadın
Perestu Kadın
Zeynifelek Hanım
Nükhetsezâ Hanım
Tirimüjgan Kadın
Nesrin Hanım
Düzdidil Kadın
Gülcemal Kadın
Mahitab Kadın
Ceylanyar Hanım
Nergizev Hanım
Navekmisal Hanım
Bezmiara Kadın
Nalandil Hanım
Şayeste Hanım
Serfiraz Hanım
Gülüstü Hanım
Issuesee below
Full name
Abdul Mecid bin Mahmud
Dynasty Ottoman
Father Mahmud II
Mother Bezmiâlem Sultan
Religion Sunni Islam
Tughra Tughra of Abdulmecid I.JPG

Abdülmecid I (Ottoman Turkish : عبد المجيد اولAbdülmecîd-i evvel; 23/25 April 1823 25 June 1861) or Tanzimatçı Sultan Abdülmecid (Sultan Abdülmecid the Reorganizer) due to the Tanzimat reforms he conducted, he is also known as Abdulmejid and similar spellings, was the 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and succeeded his father Mahmud II on 2 July 1839. [3] His reign was notable for the rise of nationalist movements within the empire's territories. Abdulmejid wanted to encourage Ottomanism among the secessionist subject nations and stop the rise of nationalist movements within the empire, but failed to succeed despite trying to integrate non-Muslims and non-Turks more thoroughly into Ottoman society with new laws and reforms. He tried to forge alliances with the major powers of Western Europe, namely the United Kingdom and France, who fought alongside the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War against Russia. In the following Congress of Paris on 30 March 1856, the Ottoman Empire was officially included among the European family of nations. Abdulmejid's biggest achievement was the announcement and application of the Tanzimat (reorganization) reforms which were prepared by his father and effectively started the modernization of the Ottoman Empire in 1839. For this achievement, one of the Imperial anthems of the Ottoman Empire, the March of Abdulmejid, was named after him.

Ottoman Turkish, or the Ottoman language, is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, Arabic and Persian vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of the Ottoman vocabulary, while words of foreign origin heavily outnumbered native Turkish words.

Tanzimat Ottoman Empire reform period, 1839-1876

The Tanzimât was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Asia, Europe and Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Contents

Early life

Abdulmejid was born at the Beşiktaş Sahil Palace or at the Topkapı Palace, both in Istanbul. [4] His mother was his father's first wife in 1839, Valide Sultan Bezmiâlem, originally named Suzi (1807–1852), either a Circassian [5] or Georgian slave. [6] [7] [8]

Beşiktaş District in Marmara Region, Turkey

Beşiktaş is a district and municipality of Istanbul, Turkey, located on the European shore of the Bosphorus strait. It is bordered on the north by Sarıyer and Şişli, on the west by Kağıthane and Şişli, on the south by Beyoğlu, and on the east by the Bosphorus. Directly across the Bosphorus is the district of Üsküdar.

Topkapı Palace palace in Istanbul, Turkey; primary residence of the Ottoman sultans for approximately 400 years (1465–1856)

The Topkapı Palace, or the Seraglio, is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey. In the 15th century, it served as the main residence and administrative headquarters of the Ottoman sultans.

Circassians North Caucasian ethnic group

The Circassians, also known by their endonym Adyghe, are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russo-Circassian War in 1864. In its narrowest sense, the term "Circassian" includes the twelve Adyghe princedoms ; Abdzakh, Besleney, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Kabardian, Mamkhegh, Natukhai, Shapsug, Temirgoy, Ubykh, Yegeruqwai and Zhaney, each star on the Circassian flag representing each princedom. However, due to Soviet administrative divisions, Circassians were also designated as the following: Adygeans, Cherkessians, Kabardians and Shapsugians, although all the four are essentially the same people residing in different political units.

Abdulmejid received a European education and spoke fluent French, the first sultan to do so. [1] Like Abdülaziz who succeeded him, he was interested in literature and classical music. Like his father Mahmud II, he was an advocate of reforms and was lucky enough to have the support of progressive viziers such as Mustafa Reşit Pasha, Mehmet Emin Ali Paşa and Fuad Pasha. Throughout his reign he had to struggle against conservatives who opposed his reforms. Abdulmejid was also the first sultan to directly listen to the public's complaints on special reception days, which were usually held every Friday without any middlemen. Abdulmejid toured the empire's territories to see in person how the Tanzimat reforms were being applied. He travelled to İzmit, Mudanya, Bursa, Gallipoli, Çanakkale, Lemnos, Lesbos and Chios in 1844 and toured the Balkan provinces in 1846.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Abdülaziz Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Abdülaziz was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdulmejid I in 1861.

Mahmud II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until 1839

Mahmud II was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839.

Reign

When Abdulmejid succeeded to the throne, the affairs of the Ottoman Empire were in a critical state. At the time his father died, the news reached Istanbul that the empire's army had been defeated at Nizip by the army of the rebel Egyptian viceroy, Muhammad Ali. At the same time, the empire's fleet was on its way to Alexandria, where it was handed over to Muhammad Ali by its commander Ahmed Fevzi Pasha, on the pretext that the young sultan's advisers had sided with Russia. However, through the intervention of the European powers, Muhammad Ali was obliged to come to terms, and the Ottoman Empire was saved from further attacks while its territories in Syria, Lebanon and Palestine were restored. The terms were finalised at the Convention of London (1840). [1]

Battle of Nezib

The Battle of Nezib or Battle of Nisib or Battle of Nizib was fought on 24 June 1839 between Egypt and the Ottoman Empire. The Egyptians were led by Ibrahim Pasha, while the Ottomans were led by Hafiz Osman Pasha, with Helmuth von Moltke the Elder playing an advisory role, in command of the Ottoman artillery.

A viceroy is an official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roy, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty, though this term is not always applied. The adjective form is viceregal, less often viceroyal. The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term. Vicereine is more commonly used to indicate a viceroy's wife.

Muhammad Ali of Egypt Ottoman Albanian commander and Wali of Egypt and Sudan

Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha was an Ottoman Albanian commander who rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans' temporary approval. Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted. He also ruled Levantine territories outside Egypt. The dynasty that he established would rule Lower Egypt, Upper Egypt and Sudan until the 1952 coup d'état led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.

Sultan Abdulmejid (left) with Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Emperor Napoleon III of France The allies.jpg
Sultan Abdulmejid (left) with Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and Emperor Napoleon III of France
Dolmabahce Palace, the first European-style palace in Istanbul, was built by Abdulmejid between 1843 and 1856, at a cost of five million Ottoman gold pounds, the equivalent of 35 tons of gold. Fourteen tons of gold was used to adorn the interior ceiling of the palace. The world's largest Bohemian crystal chandelier, a gift from Queen Victoria, is in the centre hall. The palace has the largest collection of Bohemian and Baccarat crystal chandeliers in the world, and even the staircases are made of Baccarat crystal. DolmabahceMainGate.JPG
Dolmabahçe Palace, the first European-style palace in Istanbul, was built by Abdulmejid between 1843 and 1856, at a cost of five million Ottoman gold pounds, the equivalent of 35 tons of gold. Fourteen tons of gold was used to adorn the interior ceiling of the palace. The world's largest Bohemian crystal chandelier, a gift from Queen Victoria, is in the centre hall. The palace has the largest collection of Bohemian and Baccarat crystal chandeliers in the world, and even the staircases are made of Baccarat crystal.
During the reign of Abdulmejid, besides European style architecture and European style clothing adopted by the court, the Ottoman educational system was also mainly based on the European model. Abdulmejid.jpg
During the reign of Abdulmejid, besides European style architecture and European style clothing adopted by the court, the Ottoman educational system was also mainly based on the European model.

In compliance with his father's express instructions, Abdulmejid immediately carried out the reforms to which Mahmud II had devoted himself. In November 1839 an edict known as the Hatt-ı Şerif of Gülhane, also known as Tanzimat Fermanı was proclaimed, consolidating and enforcing these reforms. The edict was supplemented at the close of the Crimean War by a similar statute issued in February 1856, named the Hatt-ı Hümayun. By these enactments it was provided that all classes of the sultan's subjects should have their lives and property protected; that taxes should be fairly imposed and justice impartially administered; and that all should have full religious liberty and equal civil rights. The scheme met with strong opposition from the Muslim governing classes and the ulema, or religious authorities, and was only partially implemented, especially in the remoter parts of the empire. More than one conspiracy was formed against the sultan's life on account of it. [9]

Edict of Gülhane 1839 Ottoman edict that ushered in the Tanzimât period

The Gülhane Hatt-ı Şerif(Supreme Edict of the Rosehouse) or Tanzimât Fermânı(Imperial Edict of Reorganization) was a proclamation by Ottoman Sultan Abdülmecid I in 1839 that launched the Tanzimât period of reforms and reorganization in the Ottoman Empire. The 125th anniversary of the edict was depicted on a former Turkish postcard stamp.

Crimean War 1850s military conflict

The Crimean War was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which was a part of the Ottoman Empire. The French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense. It has widely been noted that the causes, in one case involving an argument over a key, have never revealed a "greater confusion of purpose", yet they led to a war noted for its "notoriously incompetent international butchery".

Ottoman Reform Edict of 1856 1856 edict of the Ottoman government and part of the Tanzimat reforms

The Imperial Reform Edict was a February 18, 1856 edict of the Ottoman government and part of the Tanzimat reforms. The decree from Ottoman Sultan Abdulmejid I promised equality in education, government appointments, and administration of justice to all regardless of creed. The decree is often seen as a result of the influence of France and Britain, which assisted the Ottoman Empire against the Russians during the Crimean War (1853–1856) and the Treaty of Paris (1856) which ended the war.

The most important reform measures promoted by Abdulmejid were:

Imperial anthems of the Ottoman Empire national anthem

The Ottoman Empire used anthems since its foundation in the late 13th century, but did not use a specific imperial or national anthem until the 19th century. During the reign of Mahmud II, when the military and imperial band were re-organized along Western lines, Giuseppe Donizetti was invited to head the process. Donizetti Pasha, as he was known in the Ottoman Empire, composed the first Western-style imperial anthem, the Mahmudiye Marşı.

Humanitarian aid material or logistical assistance provided for humanitarian purposes

Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help. It is usually short-term help until the long-term help by government and other institutions replaces it. Among the people in need are the homeless, refugees, and victims of natural disasters, wars and famines. Humanitarian aid is material or logistical assistance provided for humanitarian purposes, typically in response to humanitarian relief efforts including natural disasters and man-made disaster. The primary objective of humanitarian aid is to save lives, alleviate suffering, and maintain human dignity. It may therefore be distinguished from development aid, which seeks to address the underlying socioeconomic factors which may have led to a crisis or emergency. There is a debate on linking humanitarian aid and development efforts, which was reinforced by the World Humanitarian Summit in 2016. However, the approach is viewed critically by practitioners.I love pandas so much in 2019. Million people are going to die.7:11 5:55

Pound sterling official currency of the United Kingdom and other territories

The pound sterling, commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling also have currencies called the pound.

Another notable reform was that the turban was officially outlawed for the first time during Abdulmejid's reign, in favour of the fez. European fashions were also adopted by the Court. (The fez would be banned in 1925 by the same Republican National Assembly that abolished the sultanate and proclaimed the Turkish Republic in 1923).

Samuel Morse received his first ever patent for the telegraph in 1847, at the old Beylerbeyi Palace (the present Beylerbeyi Palace was built in 1861–1865 on the same location) in Istanbul, which was issued by Sultan Abulmejid who personally tested the new invention. [14]

When Kossuth and others sought refuge in Turkey after the failure of the Hungarian uprising in 1849, the sultan was called on by Austria and Russia to surrender them, but he refused. [1] He also would not allow the conspirators against his own life to be put to death. The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica says of him, "He bore the character of being a kind and honourable man, if somewhat weak and easily led. Against this, however, must be set down his excessive extravagance, especially towards the end of his life." [9]

In 1844 he created the Ottoman lira and in 1852 he instituted the Order of the Medjidie.

The Ottoman Empire received the first of its foreign loans on 25 August 1854 during the Crimean War. This major foreign loan was followed by those of 1855, 1858 and 1860, which culminated in default and led to the alienation of European sympathy from the Ottoman Empire and indirectly to the later dethronement and death of Abdulmejid's brother Abdülaziz. [9]

His success in foreign relations was not as notable as his domestic accomplishments. His reign started off with the defeat of his forces by the Viceroy of Egypt and the subsequent signing of the Convention of London (1840), which saved his empire from a greater embarrassment. The Ottomans successfully participated in the Crimean War and were winning signatories at the Treaty of Paris (1856). His attempts at strengthening his base in the Balkans failed in Bosnia and Montenegro, and in 1861 he was forced to give up Lebanon by the Concert of Europe. [1]

He restored the Hagia Sophia between 1847 and 1849, and was responsible for the construction of the Dolmabahçe Palace. He also founded the first French Theatre in Istanbul. [1]

He was made the 717th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1856 and the 52nd Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword.

Death

Abdulmejid died of tuberculosis (like his father) at the age of 38 on 25 June 1861 in Istanbul, and was buried in Yavuz Selim Mosque, and was succeeded by his younger half-brother Sultan Abdülaziz, son of Pertevniyal Sultan.

Family

The Crimean War medal issued by Abdulmejid to British, French and Sardinian allied personnel involved in the Crimean War (Sardinian issue) Turkish crimea medal.jpg
The Crimean War medal issued by Abdulmejid to British, French and Sardinian allied personnel involved in the Crimean War (Sardinian issue)
Abdulmejid in his youth, by David Wilkie, 1840. Sultan Abdulmecid I.jpg
Abdulmejid in his youth, by David Wilkie, 1840.

Abdulmejid married nineteen times and had forty-four children. He left several sons, of whom four eventually succeeded to the throne. His marriages were:

The turbe of Abdulmejid is located inside the Yavuz Selim Mosque in Fatih, Istanbul. Istanbul - Yavuz Selim Camii - Mart 2013 - r3.JPG
The türbe of Abdulmejid is located inside the Yavuz Selim Mosque in Fatih, Istanbul.

In fiction

Related Research Articles

Mehmed VI 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Mehmed VI Vahideddin, who is also known as Şahbaba among his relatives, was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from July 4, 1918 until November 1, 1922 when the Ottoman Empire dissolved after World War 1 and became the nation of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. The brother of Mehmed V, he became heir to the throne after the 1916 suicide of Abdülaziz's son Şehzade Yusuf Izzeddin as the eldest male member of the House of Osman. He acceded to the throne after the death of Mehmed V. He was girded with the Sword of Osman on 4 July 1918, as the thirty-sixth padishah. His father was Sultan Abdulmejid I and mother was Gülüstü Hanım, an ethnic Abkhazian, daughter of Prince Tahir Bey Çaçba and his wife Afişe Lakerba, originally named Fatma Çaçba. Mehmed was removed from the throne when the Ottoman sultanate was abolished in 1922.

Murad V Ottoman Sultan

Murad V (21 September 1840 – 29 August 1904) was the 33rd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire who reigned from 30 May to 31 August 1876.

Ahmed Nihad Ottoman prince

Ahmed Nihad, 38th Head of the Imperial House of Osman from 1944 to 1954, was the 38th and second post-imperial head of the Imperial House of Osman.

Anchabadze, also known as Achba, is an Abkhaz-Georgian family, and the oldest surviving noble house originating in Abkhazia.

Gülüstü Hanım Wife of Ottoman Sultan

Gülüstü Hanım ; was the nineteenth wife of Sultan Abdulmejid I. She was the mother of Mehmed VI, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.

Şevkefza Kadın Valide Sultan

Şevkefza Kadın was the fourth wife of Sultan Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman Empire. She held the position of Valide Sultan from 30 May 1876 to 31 August 1876, when her son Şehzade Murad ascended the throne as Murad V.

Tirimüjgan Kadın was the second wife of Sultan Abdulmejid I, and the mother of Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire.

Gülcemal Kadın was the sixth wife of Sultan Abdulmejid I, and the mother of Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire.

Şehzade Mehmed Selaheddin only son of Sultan Mehmed Murad V

Şehzade Mehmed Selaheddin was the only son of Sultan Mehmed Murad V, 33rd Sovereign of the House of Osman, and his second wife Reftarıdil Kadın. He educated privately and became 3rd Velihad from 13 August 1909 and Major-General of the Imperial Ottoman Army. He received the Collar of the Hanedan-ı-Ali-Osman and the Nişan-ı-Ali-Imtiyaz.

Düzdidil Kadın was the third wife of Sultan Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman Empire.

Servetseza Kadın Wife of Ottoman Sultan

Servetseza Kadın, meaning "Worthy of riches", was the first wife and chief consort of Sultan Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman Empire.

Mahitab Kadın was the tenth wife of Sultan Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman Empire.

Bedrifelek Kadın Wife of Ottoman Sultan

Bedrifelek Kadın was the second wife and chief consort of Sultan Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire.

Verdicenan Kadın Wife of Ottoman Sultan

Verdicenan Kadın was the wife of Sultan Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman Empire.

Nükhetseza Hanım was a consort of Sultan Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman Empire.

Şehzade Mehmed Selim

Şehzade Mehmed Selim was an Ottoman prince, the son of Sultan Abdul Hamid II and his wife Bedrifelek Kadın.

Ceylanyar Hanım was the fifteenth wife of Sultan Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman Empire.

Nergizev Hanım was the twelfth wife of Sultan Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman Empire.

Nalandil Hanım was the fourteenth wife of Sultan Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman Empire.

Nesrin Hanım was the eleventh wife of Sultan Abdulmejid I of the Ottoman Empire.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abdulmecid I". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. p. 22. ISBN   978-1-59339-837-8.
  2. There are sources that state his birth date as the 23rd of April.
  3. Chambers Biographical Dictionary, ISBN   0-550-18022-2, page 3
  4. Since when is it called istanbul ?:Since 1453 and before the city is writen استان, a-sitan or i-stan in Arabian sources and also later writen as استانبول, a-stan-bol or i-stan-bul. Also the Commander of the City was called Commander of Istanbul (Ayrıca Osmanlı Ordusu’nda İstanbul'un merkez ordu komutanı için resmen İstanbul ağası ve İstanbul'un en yüksek sivil hakimi için resmen İstanbul efendisi sıfatları kullanılırdı)
  5. "Putnam's Monthly Magazine of American Literature, Science and Art Volume 0005 Issue 30 (June 1855)".
  6. "Gürcistan Dostluk Derneği".
  7. Bezmiâlem Valide Sultan, Bezmiâlem Vakıf Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Hastanesi Archived June 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  8. The Private World of Ottoman Women by Godfrey Goodwin, 2007, p.157
  9. 1 2 3 4 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abd-ul-Mejid"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 36–37.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 Christine Kinealy (2013), Charity and the Great Hunger in Ireland: The Kindness of Strangers, p. 115
  11. 1 2 "Measuring Worth - Purchase Power of the Pound".
  12. Kazi, Tehmina (7 October 2011). "The Ottoman empire's secular history undermines sharia claims - Tehmina Kazi".
  13. http://faith-matters.org/images/stories/fm-publications/the-tanzimat-final-web.pdf
  14. Istanbul City Guide: Beylerbeyi Palace Archived October 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 Harun Açba (2007). Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924. Profil. ISBN   978-9-759-96109-1.
  16. Açba, Harun (2007). "Bölüm 2: Sultan I. Abdülhamid Han Ailesi". Kadınefendiler: Son Dönem Osmanlı Padişah Eşleri (in Turkish) (1 ed.). Istanbul: Prolil Yayıncılık. p. 28. Retrieved 24 Apr 2016.
  17. Açba, Harun (2007). "Bölüm 2: Sultan I. Abdülhamid Han Ailesi". Kadınefendiler: Son Dönem Osmanlı Padişah Eşleri (in Turkish) (1 ed.). Istanbul: Prolil Yayıncılık. p. 36. Retrieved 24 Apr 2016.
  18. "The Bellini Card". 18 January 2013.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Abdül Mecid I at Wikimedia Commons

Wikisource-logo.svg Works written by or about Abdülmecid I at Wikisource

Abdulmejid I
Born: 23 April 1823 Died: 25 June 1861
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mahmud II
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
2 July 1839 25 June 1861
Succeeded by
Abdülâziz
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Mahmud II
Caliph of the Ottoman Caliphate
2 July 1839 25 June 1861
Succeeded by
Abdülâziz