Abdulsalami Abubakar

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General

Abdulsalami A. Abubakar
Abdulsalami Abubakar detail DF-SC-02-04323.jpg
Abubakar at the UN on 24 September 1998
11th Head of State of Nigeria
In office
9 June 1998 29 May 1999
Vice PresidentVice-Adm. Mike Akhigbe as Chief of General Staff
Preceded by Sani Abacha
Succeeded by Olusegun Obasanjo
Chief of Defence Staff
In office
1997–1998
Preceded by Oladipo Diya
Succeeded by Al-Amin Daggash
Personal details
Born (1942-06-13) 13 June 1942 (age 76)
Minna, Northern Region, British Nigeria
(now Minna, Niger State, Nigeria)
Political partynone (military)
Spouse(s) Fati Lami Abubakar
ChildrenSix
Alma mater Technical Institute, Kaduna
OccupationSoldier
Military service
AllegianceFlag of Nigeria.svg  Nigeria
Branch/service NAF LOGO.jpg Nigerian Air Force
Flag of the Nigerian Army Headquarters.svg Nigerian Army
Years of service1963–1966 (Air Force)
1966–1999 (Army)
Rank General

Abdulsalami Abubakar ( /ˌɑːbdəlsəˈlæmiˌɑːbuˈbɑːkɑːr/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); born June 13, 1942) is a retired Nigerian Army General who was Military Head of State from 9 June 1998 until 29 May 1999. He succeeded Sani Abacha upon Abacha's death. During his leadership, Nigeria adopted a modified version of the 1979 constitution, which provided for multiparty elections. He transferred power to president-elect Olusegun Obasanjo on 29 May 1999. He is the current Chairman of the National Peace Committee.

Nigerian military juntas of 1966–79 and 1983–98

The Nigerian military juntas of 1966–79 and 1983–98 were a pair of military dictatorships in Nigeria that were led by the Nigerian military, having a chairman or president in charge.

Sani Abacha Military leader, politician

Sani Abacha was a Nigerian Army officer and dictator who served as the de facto President of Nigeria from 1993 until his death in 1998. He is also the first Nigerian soldier to attain the rank of a full star General without skipping a single rank.

Olusegun Obasanjo Nigerian politician

Olusegun Mathew Okikiola Aremu Obasanjo, GCFR, Ph.D. (; Yoruba: Olúṣẹ́gun Ọbásanjọ́[olúʃɛ̙́ɡũ ɒ̙básandʒɒ̙́]; born 5 March 1937) is a former Nigerian Army general who was President of Nigeria from 1999 to 2007. Obasanjo was a career soldier before serving twice as his nation's head of state. He is known by some as Nigeria's political maradona. He served as a military ruler from 13 February 1976 to 1 October 1979, and as a democratically elected president from 29 May 1999 to 29 May 2007. From July 2004 to January 2006, Obasanjo also served as Chairperson of the African Union.

Contents

Early life

Abubakar was born on 13 June 1942 to his father Abubakar Jibrin and his mother Fatikande Mohammed, in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. From 1950-1956 he attended Minna Native Authority Primary school. From 1957-1962, he had his secondary school education at Government College, Bida, Niger state. From January to October 1963 he studied at Kaduna Technical College.

Minna LGA and city in Niger State, Nigeria

Minna is a city in west-central Nigeria. It is the capital of Niger State, one of Nigeria's 36 federal states. It consists of 2 major ethnic groups: the Nupe and the Gbagyi

Niger State State in Nigeria

Niger or Niger State is a state in Central Nigeria and the largest state in the country. The state capital is Minna, and other major cities are Bida, Kontagora, and Suleja. It was formed in 1976 when the then North-Western State was bifurcated into Niger State and Sokoto State. It is home to Ibrahim Babangida and Abdulsalami Abubakar, two of Nigeria's former military rulers. The Nupe, Gbagyi, Kamuku, Kambari, Dukawa, Hausa and Koro form the majority of numerous indigenous tribes of Niger State.

Military careers

Air force career

Abubakar is a member of the pioneering sets of officer cadets who enlisted into the Nigerian Air force on 3 October 1963. From 1964- 1966, he was flown to Uetersen, Western Germany with a team of officer cadets, for Basic and Advance Military Training. When he returned to Nigeria in 1966 he was seconded to the Nigeria Army. [1]

Uetersen Place in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

Uetersen is a city in the district of Pinneberg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is situated approximately 7 km (4.3 mi) south of Elmshorn, and 30 km (19 mi) northwest of Hamburg at the small Pinnau River, close to the Elbe river. Uetersen is home to the Rosarium Uetersen, the oldest and largest rose garden in Northern Germany, created in 1929.

Army career

After joining the army in 1966 as an officer cadet, Abubakar attended the emergency combatant short service course two. In October 1967, Abubakar was commissioned second lieutenant, infantry division, Nigerian army.

From 1967-1968, Abubakar was general staff officer two, second garrison, and commanding officer, 92 infantry battalion from 1969-1974. Between 1974 and 1975, he was made brigade major, 7th infantry brigade.

In 1975 he served as commanding officer, 84 infantry battalion. In 1978-1979, Abubakar was commanding officer for the 145 infantry battalion (NIBATT II), United Nations Interim force, Lebanon.

In 1979 he was made assistant adjutant general 3rd Infantry division, Nigeria. From 1980-1982, Abubakar was chief instructor at the Nigerian Defence Academy.

In 1982 he was appointed as the colonel of administration and quartering, 1st mechanised division. A position he held up until 1984.

From 1985-1986, Abubakar was the commander 3rd mechanised brigade. He served as the military secretary of the army, 1986–1988.

Abubakar was made general officer commanding 1st mechanised division 1990-1991. Between 1991-1993, he was the principal staff officer, as the army chief of plan and policy, Defence Headquarters.

From 1993-1998, the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, General Sani Abacha appointed Abubakar as the Chief of Defence Staff, Defence Headquarters.

Upon Abacha’s death on 8 June 1998, Abubakar took power as the military president of Nigeria and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces on 9 June 1998.

In May 1999 General Abubakar, handed over power to the newly elected civilian president, Olusegun Obasanjo and retired from the army. [2]

Presidency

Seal of the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Seal of the President of Nigeria.svg
Seal of the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria

Nigeria had been ruled by military leaders since Muhammadu Buhari seized power from Shehu Shagari in a 1983 coup. [3] Although democratic elections had been held in 1993, they were annulled by General Ibrahim Babangida. Reported to have had an initial reluctance to accepting the position, [4] Abubakar was sworn in as president on 9 June 1998 after the unexpected death of Abacha. He declared a weeklong period of national mourning. [5]

Muhammadu Buhari Nigerian president

Muhammadu Buhari is a Nigerian politician currently serving as the President of Nigeria, in office since 2015. He is a retired major general in the Nigerian Army and previously served as the nation's head of state from 31 December 1983 to 27 August 1985, after taking power in a military coup d'état. The term Buharism is ascribed to the Buhari military government.

Shehu Shagari President of Nigeria

Shehu Usman Aliyu Shagari, was a Nigerian politician who served as the first and only President of Nigeria's Second Republic (1979–1983), after the handover of power by General Olusegun Obasanjo's military government. Shagari also served seven times in a ministerial or cabinet post as a federal minister and federal commissioner from 1958–1975.

A few days after assuming office, Abubakar promised to hold elections within a year and transfer power to an elected president. [3] He established the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), appointing former Supreme Court Justice Ephraim Akpata as chairman. [6] The INEC held a series of elections first for Local Government Areas in December 1998, then for State Assemblies and Governors, National Assemblies and finally for the President on 27 February 1999. Although efforts were made to ensure that the elections were free and fair, there were widespread irregularities that drew criticism from foreign observers. [7]

Surprising some critics of the country's military, [4] Abubakar kept his word and transferred power to elected president Obasanjo on 29 May 1999. During his administration Nigeria adopted a new constitution May 5, 1999, which went into effect when Olusegun Obasanjo became president. [3]

Legacy

Abubakar's legacy is mixed. A lecture circuit at Chicago State University in Chicago, Illinois, United States featuring him encountered opposition, because he had supported Abacha's government. [8] (Abacha's administration was notorious for its human rights abuses). [8] [9] He was also sued in that country by other Nigerians who claimed he was responsible for the death of 1993 president-elect Moshood Kashimawo Olawale Abiola, who died in custody after being prevented by the military from taking office, and for the violation of the rights of others during his administration. [10]

Abubakar helped in the Liberian peace movement by presiding over the 2003 peace talks between Charles Taylor and the opposing rebels. This is seen in the movie Pray the Devil Back to Hell.

Personal life

Abubakar is married to Fati and they have six children together. [4]

Awards

Abudulsalami Abubakar has received several awards and medals. In alphabetical order they include:

Bibliography

See also

Related Research Articles

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Brigadier-General Dominic Obukadata Oneya was Administrator of Kano State, Nigeria from August 1996 to August 1998 during the military regime of General Sani Abacha, then Administrator of Benue State from August 1998 to May 1999 during the transitional regime of General Abdulsalami Abubakar, handing over power to the elected executive governor George Akume on 29 May 1999. Later, he became Chairman of the Nigeria Football Association.

Brigadier General Samuel Bature Chamah was Administrator of Katsina State in Nigeria from August 1996 to August 1998 during the military regime of General Sani Abacha, and then of Kebbi State from August 1998 to May 1999 during the transitional regime of General Abdulsalami Abubakar, handing over power to the elected civilian governor Adamu Aliero on 29 May 1999.

Navy Commander (retired) Walter Feghabo served as the first Military Administrator of Ebonyi State in Nigeria between October 1996 and August 1998 after Ebonyi State was created from parts of Enugu State and Abia State during the military regime of General Sani Abacha. He was then appointed administrator of Delta State in August 1998 during the transitional regime of General Abdulsalami Abubakar, handing over to the elected civilian governor James Ibori on 29 May 1999. In June 1999, all former military administrators in the Abacha and Abubakar regimes were retired by the Federal Government, including Walter Feghabo.

Colonel Umar Farouk Ahmed was Military Administrator of Cross River State, Nigeria during the military regime of General Sani Abacha. He was then appointed administrator of Kaduna State in August 1998 during the transitional regime of General Abdulsalami Abubakar, handing over power to the elected civilian governor Ahmed Mohammed Makarfi in May 1999. Shortly after, he was retired by the Federal Government, along with all other former military ministers, governors and administrators.

Aliyu Mohammed Gusau is a retired Lieutenant General of the Nigerian army, who served in many senior level security, defence, and military roles. He was most recently the Minister of Defence, and served as National Security Adviser to two different presidents, Chief of Army Staff, headed different intelligence agencies, and was Commandant of the Nigerian Defence Academy.

Colonel (retired) Musa Mohammed was the Administrator of Yobe State, Nigeria from August 1998 to May 1999 during the transitional regime of General Abdulsalami Abubakar. Later he became the Minister of Sports and Social Development from July 2003 to July 2005 during the administration of President Olusegun Obasanjo.

Abdullahi Mohammed is a retired Nigerian Army Major General, who served as Chief of Staff to Presidents Olusegun Obasanjo and Umaru Musa Yar'Adua, National Security Adviser to General Abdusalami Abubakar, Director General of the National Security Organization, and Governor of Benue-Plateau State, Nigeria from July 1975 to February 1976 during the military regime of General Murtala Mohammed.

Colonel (retired) Jibril Bala Yakubu was the first Administrator of Zamfara State after it was created from part of Sokoto State in October 1996, holding office until the return to democracy in May 1999 during the military regimes of Generals Sani Abacha and Abdulsalami Abubakar. As Zamfara administrator, Yakubu created five Emirates in the state and eleven new District Councils. After handing over to the civilian governor Sani Yerima in May 1999, as a former military administrator he was required to retire from the army.

Major-General Patrick Aziza was the first military Governor of Kebbi State, Nigeria after it was split off from Sokoto State on 27 August 1991 during the military regime of General Ibrahim Babangida.

General Abdulsalami Abubakar became head of state in Nigeria on 9 June 1998 after the death of General Sani Abacha. Abubakar replaced or transferred the military administrators of most of the states, and instructed the new team to prepare for a smooth transition to democracy in May 1999. The elected president Olusegun Obasanjo required all former military administrators to retire from the military in June 1999.

Aliyu Ismaila Gwarzo was the National Security Advisor of Nigerian military ruler Sani Abacha. He has been linked to theft of $2.45 billion from the Central Bank of Nigeria.

References

  1. "nigeria abdulsalami abubakar biography and profile".
  2. Obotetukudo, Solomon (2011). The Inaugural Addresses and Ascension Speeches of Nigerian Elected and Non elected presidents and prime minister from 1960 -2010. University Press of America. p. 121.
  3. 1 2 3 "Nigeria". The World Factbook Online. Central Intelligence Agency. 31 May 2007. Archived from the original on 2 May 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2007.
  4. 1 2 3 "Abdulsalami Abubakar". Online Nigeria. Devace Nigeria. Archived from the original on 15 February 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  5. "Successor to General Sani Abacha appointed". IFEX Alerts. International Freedom of Expression Exchange. 9 June 1998. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  6. "INEC History". Independent National Electoral Commission. Archived from the original on 15 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
  7. "OBSERVING THE 1998–99 NIGERIA ELECTIONS" (PDF). Carter Center, NDI. Summer 1999. Retrieved 14 February 2010.
  8. 1 2 Akande, Laolu. "NCP, North America, protests Abdulsalami Lecture Series". National Conscience Party. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  9. "Interview with Abubakar". Online News Hour. MacNeil/Lehrer Productions. 21 October 1998. Archived from the original on 15 February 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  10. Aboyade, Funke. "'Conflicting Court Orders in Abdulsalami Case Avoidable'". Thisday Online. Leaders & Company Limited. Archived from the original on 15 February 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
Political offices
Preceded by
Sani Abacha
Chairman of the Provisional Ruling Council of Nigeria
1998–1999
Succeeded by
Olusegun Obasanjo
as President of Nigeria
Preceded by
Sani Abacha
Chairman of the Economic Community of West African States
1998–1999
Succeeded by
Gnassingbé Eyadéma