Abe Saperstein

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Abe Saperstein
Abe Saperstein.jpeg
Saperstein, circa 1950s
Born(1902-07-04)July 4, 1902
DiedMarch 15, 1966(1966-03-15) (aged 63)
Chicago, Illinois, United States
Resting place Westlawn Cemetery
Norridge, Illinois, U.S.
OccupationCoach, basketball executive, businessman
Known forOwner of the Harlem Globetrotters and
Commissioner of the American Basketball League
AwardsElected to the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1971 Inducted into the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame and the National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame

Abraham Michael Saperstein (July 4, 1902 – March 15, 1966) was the founder, owner and earliest coach of the Harlem Globetrotters. Saperstein was a leading figure in black basketball and baseball in the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s and 1950s, primarily before those sports were racially integrated. [1] [2]

Harlem Globetrotters Exhibition basketball team

The Harlem Globetrotters are an exhibition basketball team. They combine athleticism, theater, and comedy in their style of play. Over the years, they have played more than 26,000 exhibition games in 123 countries and territories. The team's signature song is Brother Bones' whistled version of "Sweet Georgia Brown". Their mascot is an anthropomorphized globe named Globie. The team plays over 450 live events worldwide each year. The team is currently owned by Herschend Family Entertainment. The executive offices for the team are located in suburban Atlanta.

Contents

Saperstein revolutionized the game of basketball and took the Globetrotters from an unknown team touring small farm towns in the Midwestern United States during the height of the Great Depression to a powerhouse that went on to beat the best team in the all-white National Basketball Association. [3] He also introduced the three-point shot, which went on to become a mainstay of modern basketball. [4]

Midwestern United States region that includes parts of Canada and the United States

The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau. It occupies the northern central part of the United States. It was officially named the North Central Region by the Census Bureau until 1984. It is located between the Northeastern United States and the Western United States, with Canada to its north and the Southern United States to its south.

Great Depression 20th-century worldwide economic depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until the late-1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline.

Saperstein was elected to the Basketball Hall of Fame in 1971 and, at 5 ft. 3 in (1.65 m), is its shortest male member. [5] In 1979, he was inducted into the International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame [6] and 2005 was inducted into the National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame.

The International Jewish Sports Hall of Fame was opened July 7, 1981 in Netanya, Israel. It honors Jewish athletes and their accomplishments from anywhere around the world.

The National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame and Museum, in Commack, New York, is dedicated to honoring American Jewish figures who have distinguished themselves in sports.

Early life

Saperstein was born in the East End of London, England, to a Jewish family originally from Łomża, Poland. His family moved from London to Chicago in 1907, when Abe was five years old. They settled just north of the city's Jewish area, often called the “Poor Jews’ quarter” because of the many struggling immigrants living there. Saperstein's father, Louis, who had been an apprentice tailor in Poland, saw an ad for a tailor on Chicago's North Side in a predominantly German, Irish, and Swedish neighborhood. The ad warned, “No Jews allowed,” so Louis Saperstein changed his surname to the more German-sounding Schneider, which is German for 'tailor'. After buying the business from the owner several years later, Louis Saperstein dropped the facade and changed the name of the store to Louis Saperstein's Tailor Shop. [1]

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Łomża Place in Podlaskie, Poland

Łomża is a city in north-eastern Poland, approximately 150 kilometres to the north-east of Warsaw and 80 kilometres (50 mi) west of Białystok. It is situated alongside the Narew river as part of the Podlaskie Voivodeship since 1999. Previously, it was the capital of the Łomża Voivodeship from 1975 to 1998. It is the capital of Łomża County and has been the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Łomża since 1925.

At age 10, Abe Saperstein discovered a lifelong love of sports, playing basketball at the Wilson Avenue YMCA and second base for a parochial school team, though he attended the public Ravenswood Elementary School. At Lake View High School, he played nine different sports, including baseball, basketball, football, boxing, and track. Saperstein attended the University of Illinois, but dropped out to help support his family. He decided not to follow his father into tailoring. Instead, his dream was to pursue a career in sports, though he realized that his athletic abilities and height were not going to take him far. [1]

Lake View High School (Chicago)

Lake View High School is a public four-year high school located in the Lake View neighborhood on the north side of Chicago, Illinois, United States. Lake View is a part of the Chicago Public Schools district. While the current building opened in 1886, the school itself opened in 1874, dating to a time when the Lake View community was not a part of the city of Chicago. Lake View became a part of Chicago in 1889. Created when the Lake View area was its own township before it joined Chicago, the school is the oldest operating township secondary school in the state of Illinois.

Baseball Sport

Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat. The objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, and to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, and to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner legally advances around the bases in order and touches home plate. The team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner.

Basketball team sport played on a court with baskets on either end

Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play (overtime) is mandated.

Saperstein eventually landed a position working for the Chicago District Park as a playground supervisor at Welles Park, on Chicago's North Side. [7] There, after hours of watching kids play basketball, he decided to create his own team. The Chicago Reds were a semi-pro lightweight (135 lb limit) basketball team, and Saperstein played point guard.

As player, manager, and coach of the Chicago Reds, Saperstein met Walter Thomas Ball, a legendary baseball player in the Negro leagues, who had a black baseball team he wanted to send on tour in Illinois and southern Wisconsin. He hired Saperstein as his booking agent. [1]

Harlem Globetrotters' career

Saperstein went on to become booking agent for several basketball teams as well, until branching out in the late 1920s to form his own team with some of the members of the Savoy Big Five. [1] [8] He called the team the New York Harlem Globetrotters. Although Saperstein's team had nothing to do with Harlem (they wouldn't play there until the 1960s), he chose the name to indicate that the players were black, as Harlem was the epicenter of African-American culture. Many of the towns where the Globetrotters played in their first few years were all white, and Saperstein didn't want other teams or spectators to be surprised that his team was black. [1]

The Globetrotters played their first game in Hinkley, Illinois. The team netted a grand total of $8, which was split evenly between the six members of the team, including Saperstein. Over the next several years, in the midst of the Great Depression, Saperstein served as the team's manager, driver, booking agent, PR director, and occasional substitute player. When a player was injured in a 1926 game, for example, Saperstein substituted into the game, prompting the Winona (Minnesota) News to report: "Four clean-limbed young colored men and a squat bandy-legged chap of Jewish extraction ... styled the Harlem Globetrotters, beat the Arcadia Military police...29 to 18.” [9]

During the early seasons, the Globetrotters needed to play every night just to make ends meet, because the team often netted less than $50 a night. Accommodations on the road were sparse and hotels often wouldn't allow blacks. On one occasion, when the players couldn't find a hotel in Des Moines, Iowa, they snuck up the fire escape and slept in Saperstein's room. [1] Saperstein was relentless in booking games; in the team's first seven years, the Globetrotters played more than 1,000 games, with Saperstein driving the players to tiny towns throughout the Midwest in his unheated Ford Model T.

From early on, the Globetrotters blended basketball with showmanship and ball-handling wizardry. But they were also extremely talented basketball players, winning most of their games. In 1940, the Globetrotters beat the legendary black basketball team, the New York Renaissance. [1]

An even bigger achievement came a few years later in the 1948 Globetrotters-Lakers game, when the Globetrotters defeated the Minneapolis Lakers, the best team in the all-white NBA, a league that had been formed two years earlier. The star of the Lakers was six-foot-ten George Mikan, nicknamed “Mr. Basketball.” Despite the Lakers’ significant height advantage and the team's billing as the best basketball team in the country, the underdog Globetrotters won the game 61-59, thanks to a dramatic long shot at the buzzer by Globetrotter Ermer Robinson. Afterward, in the locker room, the players hoisted Saperstein triumphantly on their shoulders.

The Globetrotters-Lakers game had taken place amid a sharp racial divide in sports. Many fans and team owners believed that black athletes weren't coachable or smart enough to learn complicated plays, and lacked the competitive fire necessary for premier athletes. [10] The victory, which was just shy of the Globetrotters’ 3000th victory in 21 seasons, proved that none of this was true and that African-American players had the skill and ability to play in the professional leagues. [3] [10]

In 1950, within two years of the Globetrotters-Lakers’ game, the NBA integrated. Chuck Cooper, who had been a Globetrotter briefly, became the first black player to sign a contract with the NBA. Another two of the first black NBA players also were Globetrotters – Nat "Sweetwater" Clifton and Hank DeZonie. [11]

Also in 1950, the Globetrotters played their first game in Madison Square Garden, marking the first time the venue sold out for a basketball game. [1] Following these successes, interest in the Globetrotters grew and Saperstein created two more teams in the United States, as well as an international squad. The Globetrotters have now played in more than 118 countries.[ citation needed ]

Even after the NBA integrated, top black players continued to play for the Globetrotters. In 1958, Wilt Chamberlain joined the Globetrotters for a year before going to the NBA and becoming its most dominant player. [12] In a 1999 interview, Wilt Chamberlain said, “The fraternity of the Globetrotters was one of the most rewarding times of my life. I almost did not go into the NBA.” [13]

Two feature-length movies have been made about the Globetrotters, The Harlem Globetrotters (1951) and Go, Man, Go (1954), the latter starring Dane Clark and Sidney Poitier. Several documentaries have also told the Globetrotters’ story, including The Harlem Globetrotters: The Team That Changed the World (2005), which featured Geese Ausbie, Larry Brown and Bill Bradley.

Ownership of other sports teams

Saperstein was a leading figure in the black baseball leagues as well. At various times, he owned the Chicago Brown Bombers, the Birmingham Black Barons, and the Cincinnati Crescents baseball teams. [14] [15] He also created several new leagues, including the Negro Midwest League and, in partnership with Olympic track and field star Jesse Owens, the West Coast Negro Baseball League. [2] When Saperstein's friend Bill Veeck took ownership of the Cleveland Indians in the late 40s, he hired Saperstein as his chief scout for African-American players. At Saperstein's suggestion, Veeck eventually signed Luke Easter, Minnie Minoso, Suitcase Simpson, Satchel Paige, and Larry Doby, the American Leagues's first black player. [16] [17]

Saperstein also founded the white New York Nationals baseball team and the Boston Brownskins, a basketball team that served as a minor league club for the Globetrotters. [18] He also booked games for the Hong Wah Kues, a basketball team of Chinese Americans from San Francisco. Started in 1939 with six players, the Hong Wah Kues became known for their speed and quick passing. They played the Harlem Globetrotters once, and lost. [19]

He had ambitions of owning a team in the National Basketball Association and hoped to start a team in California. That hope was dashed when the NBA approved the move of the Lakers from Minneapolis to L.A. The NBA also did not award the Warriors to Saperstein when the team moved from Philadelphia to San Francisco. [20] Instead of sitting on the sidelines, Saperstein started the American Basketball League in 1961 and served as its commissioner, as well as owner of the league's Chicago Majors team. To differentiate the ABL from the NBA – and to promote the new league – Saperstein introduced a widened free throw lane and the three-point shot, both of which were later adopted by the NBA, although the ABL lasted only a season and a half. [21] The NBA adopted the three-point shot in 1979.

Legacy

In a time of racial segregation and bigotry in professional sports, Saperstein proudly showcased the talents of the nation's best black basketball players. [9] Four years after the all-white National Basketball Association (originally called the Basketball Association of America) was formed, black players were finally allowed into the league.

As the integrated NBA became recognized as the country's highest level of basketball, Saperstein focused the Globetrotters on entertainment, creating a popular act that played to audiences worldwide. In the years following World War II, the Globetrotters embarked on a “goodwill tour.” Among the more memorable of those games took place in Berlin's Olympic Stadium and featured Jesse Owens, who was traveling with the team. Owens returned to the stadium where he had won four gold medals 15 years earlier, after which Hitler famously refused to shake his hand.

Although Saperstein worried about bringing the team into the racially charged atmosphere of Berlin, Owens and the Globetrotters were greeted by 75,000 cheering fans. [1] The mayor of Berlin greeted Owens and famously said, "In 1936, Hitler refused to shake your hand. Today, I give you both of mine."

As the movement for civil rights progressed, some alleged that Saperstein did not do enough to advance the equality of his black players. In the 50s and 60s, some players resented that, due to the prejudice of hotel owners, they continued to be housed in “colored” hotels in black neighborhoods, while players on Saperstein's white teams supposedly stayed in first-class hotels. There was also discontent among some Globetrotters that Saperstein reportedly paid white players on his other teams higher salaries. [1] [22] Others criticized the Globetrotters for their on-court antics, saying they played into racial stereotypes. [23] In 1978, however, Jesse Jackson said: “They did not show blacks as stupid. On the contrary, they were shown as superior…they were able to turn science into an art form.” [1] Meadowlark Lemon, who played with the Globetrotters from 1954 until 1979, also came to the Globetrotters's defense, saying that the team had “done more for the perception of black people, and the perception of America, than almost anything you could think of.” [24]

Personal life

Abe Saperstein and Sylvia Franklin at their wedding in 1934 Abe Saperstein wedding.jpg
Abe Saperstein and Sylvia Franklin at their wedding in 1934

Saperstein was the eldest of nine children, several of whom were involved with the Globetrotters. In the early years, Saperstein's then-teenage brother Harry worked as a typist and secretary, sending out press releases and game schedules. His sister Fay, the youngest sibling, helped Abe with paperwork for years and ran the New York office in the 1950s. After Abe's death in March 1966, his brother Morry Saperstein assisted in running the business before it was sold to a group of Chicago businessmen for $3.7 million and eventually moved from Chicago to New York City. [1]

On May 6, 1934, Saperstein married Sylvia Franklin from Chicago. They had two children, Jerry and Eloise. Jerry ran the international unit of the Globetrotters in the 1960s, founded the New York Sets, a charter franchise of World Team Tennis, and owned the San Francisco Shamrocks of the Pacific Hockey League. [25] [26] He then served as the first vice president at Madison Square Garden Corporation, reporting directly to the then-Chairman Sonny Werblin. Jerry has two sons, Adam and Lanier Saperstein, who live in the New York area. Eloise established a non-profit organization, the Abe Saperstein Foundation, designed to advance opportunities through sports for Chicago's youth, and she also was the first woman ever certified as an NBA player representative. She died on July 15, 2018, at the age of 81. Eloise is survived by her three children, Lonni, Avi and Abra, who live in the Chicago area.

Saperstein was a tireless worker, taking off just one day a year, Yom Kippur. He continued to work right up until his death from a heart attack in March 1966. “He had more energy than the Grand Coulee Dam,” wrote Chuck Menville in The Harlem Globetrotters: An Illustrated History. The news of Saperstein's death came as a shock to the Globetrotters. The team's star, Meadowlark Lemon, was on the road in Charlotte, North Carolina at the time. “My mouth went dry,” Lemon said. “The boys cried. I had to force myself to be funny. I did it only because Abe would have wanted the show to go on.” [16] Saperstein is buried in the Westlawn Cemetery in Norridge, Illinois, near Chicago.

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