Abelardo L. Rodríguez
|43rd President of Mexico|
September 4, 1932 –November 30, 1934
|Preceded by||Pascual Ortiz|
|Succeeded by||Lázaro Cárdenas|
|Governor of Sonora|
September 13, 1943 –April 15, 1948
|Preceded by||Anselmo Macías Valenzuela|
|Succeeded by||Horacio Sobarzo|
|Secretary of Defense|
August 2, 1932 –September 4, 1932
|Preceded by||Plutarco Elías Calles|
|Succeeded by||Pablo Quiroga|
|Secretary of Economy|
January 20, 1932 –August 2, 1932
|Preceded by||Aarón Sáenz Garza|
|Succeeded by||Primo Villa Michel|
|Governor of the North District of the Federal Territory of Baja California|
|Preceded by||José Inocente Lugo|
|Succeeded by||José María Tapia|
|Military Commander of Northern Baja California|
Abelardo Rodríguez Luján
12 May 1889
|Died||13 February 1967 77) (aged|
La Jolla, California, U.S.
|Political party||National Revolutionary|
|Spouse(s)||Aída Sullivan (1904-1975)|
|Unit||Military Commander of the Baja California|
Abelardo Rodríguez Luján, commonly known as Abelardo L. Rodríguez (Spanish pronunciation: [aβeˈlaɾðo ˈele roˈðɾiɣes] ; May 12, 1889 – February 13, 1967) was the substitute president of Mexico from 1932–1934. He completed the term of Pascual Ortiz Rubio after his resignation, during the period known as the Maximato. This period was when former president Plutarco Elías Calles (el jefe Máximo) held considerable de facto political power, without being president himself. However, Rodríguez was more successful than his predecessor Ortiz Rubio in asserting presidential power against Calles's influence.
The President of Mexico, officially known as the President of the United Mexican States, is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces. The current President is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on December 1, 2018.
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi), the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the tenth most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity that is also the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana and León.
Pascual Ortiz Rubio was a Mexican politician and the President of Mexico from 1930 to 1932. He was one of three Mexican presidents to serve out the six-year term (1928-1934) of assassinated president-elect Álvaro Obregón, while former president Plutarco Elías Calles retained power in a period known as the Maximato. Calles was so blatantly in control of the government that Ortiz Rubio resigned the presidency in protest in September 1932.
Born in San José de Guaymas, Sonora, to a poor family, he worked early in his life in a hardware store, in a copper mine, and as a professional baseball player. He did not finish his primary studies in Nogales, Sonora, only having finished the 4th grade. He joined the Mexican Revolution in 1913 and began moving up the ranks soon after. He was a veteran of the campaign against the Yaqui. He became a Colonel in 1916, and at that rank signed the Plan de Agua Prieta,promulgated by Sonoran revolutionary generals Adolfo de la Huerta, Alvaro Obregón and Plutarco Elías Calles. The three generals rebelled against President Venustiano Carranza's government in 1920. In Baja California, the caudillo Esteban Cantú refused to recognize the interim administration of De la Huerta, so De la Huerta and Calles dispatched Rodríguez to oust Cantú, who went into exile. Rodríguez became Military Commander of northern Baja California in 1921, discharging Cantú's troops. During that period he closed most casinos and bars in the border town of Tijuana, which flourished under Cantú as a destination for vice tourism.
Guaymas is a city in Guaymas Municipality, in the southwest part of the state of Sonora, in northwestern Mexico. The city is 117 km south of the state capital of Hermosillo, and 242 miles from the U.S. border. The municipality is located on the Gulf of California and the western edge of the Sonoran Desert and has a hot, dry climate and 117 km of beaches. The municipality’s formal name is Guaymas de Zaragoza and the city’s formal name is the Heróica Ciudad de Guaymas.
Sonora, officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora, is one of 31 states that, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 federal entities of United Mexican States. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo. Sonora is bordered by the states of Chihuahua to the east, Baja California to the northwest and Sinaloa to the south. To the north, it shares the U.S.–Mexico border with the states of Arizona and New Mexico, and on the west has a significant share of the coastline of the Gulf of California.
Heroica Nogales, more commonly known as Nogales, is a city and the county seat of the Municipality of Nogales. It is located on the northern border of the Mexican state of Sonora. The city is abutted on its north by the city of Nogales, Arizona, across the U.S.-Mexico border.
In 1923, he became Governor of the North Territory of Baja California and continued as both Military Commander and Governor until 1929. He was invited to join the proposed uprising of General José Gonzalo Escobar in 1929. The Escobar Rebellion failed and Rodríguez demonstrated he was firmly in the camp of Plutarco Elias Calles.He continued one more year as Governor of northern Baja California. In 1932, he held two different cabinet positions, Minister of Industry and Commerce and Minister of War and Marine affairs under president Ortiz Rubio.
General Don José Gonzalo Escobar (1892-1969) was an officer in the Mexican Army and leader of the failed Escobar Rebellion in 1929, which challenged the political power of Plutarco Elías Calles.
The Escobar Rebellion was a conflict in northern Mexico in 1929 during the Maximato, between the government forces of President Emilio Portes Gil and rebel forces under the command of General José Gonzalo Escobar. After some initial success in taking over several key cities in the northern half of the country, the Escobar rebels were decisively defeated in a major battle at Jiménez, Chihuahua, and were eventually swept aside by the advancing government forces under the command of General Calles.
Since President Ortiz Rubio was determined to resign due to conflicts with Calles, the question of a replacement was in the key matter. The President signed his resignation on September 2, 1932 and it was conveyed to Congress the following day. Despite the resignation, the presidential cabinet met, significantly at the home of Calles in Cuernavaca. The President of the PNR General Manuel Pérez Treviño would convey names of those Calles had made known would be acceptable: Alberto J. Pani, Finance Minister; General Joaquín Amaro; and General Abelardo L. Rodriguez. Pani bowed out and suggested that Calles choose Rodríguez. However, four candidates were presented to Congress, with the name of General Juan José Ríos, Secretary of the Interior, added to the previous three. A groundswell of support gave the presidency to Rodríguez. Rodríguez was named by congress as President of Mexico on 4 September 1932.
General Manuel Pérez Treviño was a Mexican politician and was an important military and political leader during and after the Mexican Revolution.
Alberto José Pani Arteaga was a prominent politician, Mexican civil engineer, and expert in economic policy, who during the post-revolutionary period held various important positions. Among these were Secretary of Industry, Commerce and Labor; Secretary of Finance and Public Credit; Secretary of Foreign Affairs, as well as ambassador of Mexico in France and in Spain. Pani is considered the author of the modern Mexican financial system.
Joaquín Amaro Domínguez was a Mexican revolutionary general and military reformer. He served as Secretary of War in the cabinets of Presidents Plutarco Elías Calles, Emilio Portes Gil, and Pascual Ortiz Rubio, making him one of the longest-serving cabinet-level officials in Mexican history. His ambitious reforms of the fractious Mexican military transformed the armed forces from a political partisan to an armed force loyal to the president and government. He accomplished this "through a process of cultural reeducation that replaced an entrenched tradition of militarism with one emphasizing such values as discipline, duty, honor, and loyalty to the civilian government."
His cabinet included Emilio Portes Gil, who had served as interim president before the 1929 general election. Unlike the cabinet of his predecessor Ortiz Rubio, with multiple changes of personnel, Rodríguez's cabinet was a stable group on the whole.
Emilio Cándido Portes Gil was President of Mexico from 1928 to 1930, one of three to serve out the six-year term of president-elect General Álvaro Obregón, who was assassinated in 1928. Since the Mexican Constitution of 1917 forbade re-election of a serving president, the out-going president Plutarco Elías Calles could not formally become president. Portes Gil became president, but Calles, the "Jefe Máximo", retained effective political power during what is known as the Maximato.
During Rodríguez's presidency, Calles was not as focused on political issues as before. Calles's health, which was never particularly good, declined. To compound Calles's personal woes was that his young second wife, Leonor Llorente de Calles, was diagnosed with a brain tumor in spring 1932, dying months later after surgery failed. "Calles's health and state of mind constituted the Achilles heel of this powerful leader."
Rodríguez still had to contend with the perception that although he held the title of President of the Republic, he was not the man in charge. That was seen to be Calles, the so-called Jefe Máximo de la Revolución. Not only was Calles touted in the press in the U.S. as the “Strong Man of Mexico,” but in March 1934 U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt wrote Calles a letter, “congratulating him on the ‘peace and the growing prosperity of Mexico, ’” which was to be delivered at a luncheon the ex-president was hosting for Josephus Daniels, the new U.S. ambassador to Mexico. President Rodríguez learned of the luncheon at Calles’s Cuernavaca home to which many Mexican and foreign dignitaries had already been invited by José Manuel Puig Casauranc. Rodríguez was adamant that the lunch be cancelled since Calles was "simply a private citizen." It was not the prerogative of an ex-president to host such an event. Guests were dis-invited on the pretext that Calles had taken ill. "The President maintained that if any such luncheon were to be given it should be given by him and that if a message should come from President Roosevelt it should come to the President of Mexico.”The Roosevelt letter to Calles was delivered, but Calles wrote in reply that he was not a part of the President’s government, but greatly esteemed him. The U.S. ambassador months later made another misstep, calling Calles “the strong man of Mexico” in an interview with the Mexican newspaper El Nacional. The ambassador was called out by President Rodríguez for that, and Daniels subsequently claimed he was misquoted. Ambassador Daniels wrote in his memoirs that he himself, Calles, and Puig Casauranc “knew that the man in Chapultepec Castle [the official presidential residence] was the President of Mexico.”
Calles still had considerable sway over Rodríguez's ministers, who often consulted with the ex-President when trying affect policy. Finance Minister Alberto J. Pani attempted to temper Rodríguez's adoption of deficit spending, and also objected to the government's anticlerical tendencies. Pani had long been an importance presence in politics, but Rodríguez forced his resignation from the cabinet. As a sop to Calles, who objected to ousting Pani, Rodríguez appointed Calles as Finanace Minister.
Rodríguez's government organized the Council of Primary Education in the Federal District and created cultural missions in rural areas. He also established agricultural schools and regional farm schools, as well as schools for teacher education. He also established the Technical Council of Rural Education.
Narciso Bassols was Minister of Education and pursued a policy that took control of education out of the hands of Mexican states and put it under federal control. At issue was the continued influence of the Catholic Church on students. Under Bassols, the proposition that the education should be explicitly advocate socialism was to be official policy. He moved to embed that in the Mexican Constitution. Many parents objected to sex education in the schools, and there was considerable resistance from the Church. Bassols increased teachers’ salaries and sought to undermine the influence of teacher groups. The President shifted Bassols from Education to the high-level post as Minister of the Interior, a position he then resigned. In Rodriguez’s view strong moves against the Catholic Church had the potential for causing problems for his successor as president.
Under Interim President Emilio Portes Gil, the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico and the Mexican government had come to an agreement that would end the Cristero War in 1929. The Catholic Church was displeased that there were continued anti-Catholic moves in parts of the country, especially Jalisco and Chiapas. Pope Pius XI issued an encyclical that objected to Mexican legislation detrimental to Catholic clergy. President Rodríguez strongly objected to the encyclical as full of falsehoods and “would incite the clergy to disobey the Mexican rulings.” The Vatican’s representative in Mexico, the Apostolic Delegate, Leopoldo Ruiz y Flores, tried to say that the Mexican government had misunderstood the pope’s message. Congress demanded his expulsion and he was put on a plane. Ruiz y Flores then called on Mexican Catholics not to be members of the PNR, since it was socialistic and atheistic. He called for action by the Catholic faithful. “Each Catholic should be converted into a school of Christian doctrine – into a real apostle—and we shall see that the persecution is converted into blessings from Heaven.”The strongly anticlerical Calles, whose policies while president had provoked the Cristero War, called for the expulsion of the papal representative as well as the archbishop of Mexico. The papal representative was already outside the country and would be arrested should he return. The President authorized Portes Gil, then Minister of the Interior, to draw up a recommendation, which he could discuss with Calles. Steps were taken against the high clerics, but there was no uprising of Catholics against the government, despite clerical calls for one.
The government issued the Agrarian Code, which brought together scattered legislation on agrarian matters. Rodríguez renewed efforts to distribute landed estates into the hands of peasants, which had slowed under the Calles administration. He promoted the activities of the National Agricultural Credit Bank. For labor, he enacted a minimum wage that was tied to the cost of living in each state. He created the Department of Labor and promoted the trade union movement and protected the workers against management. He established regulations of the Federal Board of Conciliation and Arbitration were issued and created the Federal Office of Labor Defense, of Agencies of Placements, of Dangerous and Unhealthy Work, of Labor Hygiene, of the Federal Labor Inspection and of Preventive Measures of Accidents. He was a supporter of cooperativism, considering it as a means for the national wealth to be distributed more evenly, pressing congress to issue the Cooperatives Act. Important for future actions about Mexico’s petroleum industry was Rodríguez’s creation of a private company, Petromex, tied to the government which guarded supply for domestic use and could compete with foreign investors in the industry.
Calles had initiated an ambitious program of road building, which continued in the 1930s under Rodríguez. Roads were a way to link important centers within Mexico as well as with the United States in the north and Guatemala in the south, as well as make connections between remote areas of Mexico and the larger nation. Road building was a form of state building.Construction on the Pan-American Highway saw progress, with a map issued in 1933 showing the route.
During his presidency, he improved the organization and operation of common justice, issuing the Organic Law of the District and Territorial Courts. The federal codes were reviewed and the Federal Law on Criminal Procedures was issued. He organized the Office of the Attorney General, determining the functions of the Federal Public Ministry, which carried out the study of the Law of Protection and issued the Personal Identification, Nationality and Naturalization, Foreign Service and General Mercantile Companies. He also implemented laws related to private charity and monopolies. He issued the Limited Liability and Public Interest Corporation Law. He enacted the Code of Military Justice.
He established the National Economic Council and created the National Financial bank. He founded the Bank of the Pacific, the Mexican Bank of the West and the Central Mexican Credit. He reformed the Law of Secretaries of State, transforming the Department of Commerce, Commerce and Labor, into the Secretariat of the National Economy, which was responsible for establishing the bases of state interventionism and directed economy.
After his term ended on November 30, 1934, Rodríguez returned to private life. When Lázaro Cárdenas became president of Mexico in 1934, initially as a protegé of Calles, then as his political enemy, Rodríguez was aligned with Calles. Cárdenas closed casinos in northern Mexico, depriving Rodríguez and Calles of a significant source of income.In 1943, he was elected Governor of Sonora. While governor he taxed Chinese casinos and "recreation centers," a euphemism for opium dens. The income allowed the government to not tax "productive enterprises." Rodríguez himself became a wealthy man from casino income.
He promoted university education, establishing Sonora's state university. He resigned from his governorship in April 1948, citing health reasons. He returned to his work in business; he started more than 80 companies and participated in approximately 126 other companies. He died in La Jolla, California, on February 13, 1967.
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The Maximato was a transitional period in the historical and political development of Mexico from 1928 to 1934. Named after former president Plutarco Elías Calles's sobriquet el Jefe Máximo, the Maximato was the period when Calles continued to exercise power and exert influence, but did not hold the presidential office. The six-year period was the term that president-elect Alvaro Obregón would have served had he not been assassinated directly after the July 1928 elections. There needed to be some kind of political solution to the presidential succession crisis. Calles could not hold the presidency again, due to restrictions on re-election without an interval out of power, but he remained the dominant figure in Mexico.
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