Abraham González (governor)

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Governor Abraham Gonzalez Abraham Gonzalez 0293.jpg
Governor Abraham González

Abraham González de Hermosillo y Casavantes (June 7, 1864 March 7, 1913) was the provisional and constitutional governor of the Mexican state of Chihuahua during the early period of the Mexican Revolution. He was the political mentor to the revolutionary Pancho Villa, whom he had met and befriended before the revolution.

Governor of Chihuahua chief executive of the Mexican state of Chihuahua

According to the Political Constitution of the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, Executive Power in that Mexican state resides with a single individual, the Constitutional Governor of the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, who is chosen for a period of six years and cannot for any reason be re-elected. The term of governor begins on October 4 of the year of the election and finishes on October 3 after six years have elapsed. Gubernatorial elections are held two years prior to presidential elections.

Chihuahua (state) State of Mexico

Chihuahua, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Chihuahua, is one of the 31 states of Mexico. It is located in Northwestern Mexico and is bordered by the states of Sonora to the west, Sinaloa to the southwest, Durango to the south, and Coahuila to the east. To the north and northeast, it has a long border with the U.S. adjacent to the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas. Its capital city is Chihuahua City.

Mexican Revolution major nationwide armed struggle in Mexico between 1910 and 1920

The Mexican Revolution, also known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.

Contents

Family

González was born on his family's estates in Basúchil, in Guerrero Municipality, Chihuahua. [1] He was a member of one of the richest and best-educated families in the state [2] (the González family was believed to be descended from European nobility).[ citation needed ] He was educated at the University of Notre Dame, in Notre Dame, Indiana. [3] His paternal line is from Teocaltiche, Jalisco belonging to the González de Hermosillo y Gómez Rendón family [4] with Y-DNA matches with other González de Hermosillo families of Jalisco. [5]

Basúchil Town in Chihuahua, Mexico

Basúchil is a town in the municipality of Guerrero, State of Chihuahua, Mexico. It was founded in 1649 as a presidio to protect the jesuit mission in the Tarahumara Papigochi region a few miles to the west, now Cd. Guerrero. Basúchil was initially named La Villa de Aguilar by his founder Diego Guajardo Fajardo governor of the New Vizcaya, New Spain. In 1652 the town was destroyed and its inhabitants assassinated by an attack incited by the lider Tarahumara Teporaca, years later it was resettled and renamed Basúchil.. The Adolfo Lopez Mateos-Madera Highway passes on the east side.

Guerrero Municipality, Chihuahua Municipality in Chihuahua, Mexico

Guerrero is one of the 67 municipalities of Chihuahua, in northern Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Vicente Guerrero. The municipality covers an area of 5,603.6 km².

As with Francisco Madero, the scion of one of the richest landowning families in Coahuila and also educated abroad, Abraham González had suffered under the favoritism of Porfirio Díaz's political system. In Chihuahua, the dominant political clique was the Terrazas-Creel family, which had vast land holdings and strong political connections to Díaz. González "was unable to hold out against the competition of the large haciendas, primarily those belonging to the Terrazas-Creel clan." [6] After Madero wrote his book, The Presidential Succession of 1910 and the political movement of elites against Díaz's election grew, González became the head of the Anti-Re-electionist Club in Chihuahua. [7]

Political career

González was one of the main leaders of the Maderista Junta Revolucionaria Mexicana, the movement which opposed the re-election of dictator Porfirio Díaz in 1910. [8] González was president of the Benito Juárez Anti-Re-electionist Club and met with Francisco Madero in Chihuahua. At the time, Madero had not yet chosen his running mate, and when González asked who he preferred, Madero said Francisco Vázquez Gómez. González declared for Vázquez Gómez. [9] When Madero issued his Plan de San Luis Potosí, calling for rebellion against Díaz after the fraudulent 1910 election, he counted on González, among others, to rise up. [10]

Porfirio Díaz President of Mexico

José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori was a Mexican general and politician who served seven terms as President of Mexico, a total of 31 years, from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911. A veteran of the War of the Reform (1858–60) and the French intervention in Mexico (1862–67), Díaz rose to the rank of General, leading republican troops against the French-imposed rule of Emperor Maximilian. Seizing power in a coup in 1876, Díaz and his allies, a group of technocrats known as "Científicos", ruled Mexico for the next thirty-five years, a period known as the Porfiriato.

Francisco Vázquez Gómez Minister of Public Instruction of Mexico

Francisco Vázquez Gómez served as personal physician to Mexican president Porfirio Díaz, as Minister of Public Instruction to President Francisco León de la Barra and as a running mate to Francisco I. Madero during the 1910 presidential elections. Prior to this Vázquez Gómez had been a supporter of Bernardo Reyes, another presidential hopeful with strong ties to Díaz' regime.

During the early phases of the Revolution, González was appointed provisional governor of the State of Chihuahua on October 1910 by Francisco Madero. After the success of the Madero revolution in 1911, González was appointed interim governor in June 1911 pending elections. He was elected governor in his own right in August 1911. [8]

In October 1911, González obtained a leave of absence, approved by the Chihuahua legislature, from the office of governor so that he could serve on Madero’s cabinet in Mexico City. On November 6, 1911, he was sworn in as the Minister of Internal Affairs (Secretaría de Gobernación). As one of the Madero cabinet ministers who had served in the revolution against Díaz, González was a target of the conservative press. [11] He served in this capacity until February 1912, when he returned to Chihuahua due to the seriousness of the Pascual Orozco rebellion against Madero. He served as governor of the state until his arrest and murder by officials of the Victoriano Huerta regime in March 1913. [8]

Pascual Orozco Mexican general and politician

Pascual Orozco Vázquez was a Mexican revolutionary leader who rose up with Francisco I. Madero late 1910 to depose Porfirio Díaz. Sixteen months later he revolted against the Madero government and ultimately sided with the coup d'état that deposed Madero.

Victoriano Huerta Mexican military officer and 35th President of Mexico

José Victoriano Huerta Márquez was a Mexican military officer and 35th President of Mexico.

The funeral organized by Villa and filmed (by arrangement with Villa) by the Mutual Film Corporation AbrahamGonzalesFuneral.jpg
The funeral organized by Villa and filmed (by arrangement with Villa) by the Mutual Film Corporation

Murder and Hero's Reburial

After the assassination of President Francisco I. Madero and Vice-President José María Pino Suárez during La decena trágica , González was forced to resign from his post as governor and arrested on February 25, 1913, on orders of General Antonio Rábago, a subordinate of Victoriano Huerta. During González's incarceration, he was held in the same complex in the Federal Palace of Chihuahua that had housed Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla prior to his execution a century before, during the war for Mexico's independence. [12] On 7 March, he was taken aboard a train on the pretense of being transferred to Mexico City. He was then removed from the train and murdered [13] in Bachimba Canyon, about 40 miles (65 km) south of Chihuahua, Chihuahua on direct orders from Huerta., [14] who had been responsible for ordering the murders of Madero and Pino Suárez in order to assume power.

His nephew, Colonel Fernando González y González and Pancho Villa later recovered González's remains and gave him a hero's funeral in the city of Chihuahua. [15] He is buried in the Rotunda of Illustrious Chihuahuans under the Angel of Liberty monument in the Plaza Mayor in Chihuahua City. [14]

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Events from the year 1913 in Mexico.

References

  1. de Martinez, Irene Brandtner y Nava (2008) "Chihuahua Governor Abraham González, a Descendant of New Mexicans" La Herencia 58: p. 34
  2. Staff (7 March 2008) "XCV Aniversario Luctuoso de Abraham González" Archived June 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine .El Ágora, in Spanish
  3. "Biographical Files - Notre Dame Alumni". Notre Dame Archives. University of Notre Dame. Retrieved 2008-01-14.
  4. "Abraham González Casavantes" Sanchiz (IIH-UNAM) + Gayol (CEH-ColMich)
  5. "Nueva Galicia DNA project"
  6. Friedrich Katz, The Secret War in Mexico. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1981, p. 37.
  7. Katz, The Secret War in Mexico, p. 37.
  8. 1 2 3 Beezley, William H. (1973) Insurgent governor: Abraham Gonzalez and the Mexican Revolution in Chihuahua University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, ISBN   0-8032-0821-9
  9. Stanley R. Ross, Francisco I. Madero: Apostle of Democracy. New York: Columbia University Press 1955, p. 91.
  10. Ross, Francisco I. Madero, p. 120.
  11. Ross, Francisco I. Madero, p. 221.
  12. http://www.advantagemexico.com/chihuahua/
  13. Rubén Osorio Zúniga, "Abraham González Casavantes" in Encyclopedia of Mexico, vol. 1, p. 607. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn 1997.
  14. 1 2 Abraham González Casavantes, accessed November 2010
  15. Osorio Zúniga, "Abraham González Casavantes" p. 607.

Further reading

Preceded by
Miguel Ahumada
Governor of Chihuahua
1911 - 1913
Succeeded by
Antonio Rábago