Abu l-Hasan Ali I

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Abu l-Hasan Ali I
Bey of Tunis
Reign1735 – 1756
Predecessor Al-Husayn I ibn Ali
Successor Muhammad I ar-Rashid
Born30 June 1688
Died22 September 1756
Dynasty Husainides
Religion islam

Abu l-Hasan Ali I (Arabic : أبو الحسن علي باش; 30 June 1688 – 22 September 1756), [1] also known as Ali Pasha and Ali Bey I, [2] ) was the second leader of the Husainid Dynasty and the ruler of Tunisia from 1735 to 1756.

Contents

Biography

He was a grandson of Ali Turki, governor of Kef, and the nephew of Husayn I Bey. After the latter came to power in 1705, he was appointed governor of Sousse and then named heir apparent (1706). In 1724 he obtained the title of pasha from the Ottoman sultan.

El Kef Place in Kef Governorate, Tunisia

El Kef, also known as Le Kef, is a city in northwestern Tunisia. It serves as the capital of the Kef Governorate.

Sousse City in Sousse Governorate, Tunisia

Sousse or Soussa is a city in Tunisia, capital of the Sousse Governorate. Located 140 km (87 mi) south of the capital Tunis, the city has 271,428 inhabitants (2014). Sousse is in the central-east of the country, on the Gulf of Hammamet, which is a part of the Mediterranean Sea. Its economy is based on transport equipment, processed food, olive oil, textiles, and tourism. It is home to the Université de Sousse.

An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone who is first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir.

Two years later, Husayn replaced him as heir with his son Muhammad; Ali therefore revolted, and, with the help of the dey of Algiers, defeated Husayn in 1735. [3] Soon after his entrance in Tunis, however, he was forced to pay a large indemnity to the Algerian troops camped under the city's walls, amounting to the load of 35 mules in silver, and to promise a yearly tribute of 50,000 rials to the dey.

Tunis Capital and largest city of Tunisia

Tunis is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia. The greater metropolitan area of Tunis, often referred to as Grand Tunis, has some 2,700,000 inhabitants.

The rial or piastre was the currency of Ottoman Tunis until 1891. It was subdivided into 16 kharub (caroub), each of 13 fals (burbe). The fals was further subdivided into 6 qafsi (burben). The nasri (asper) was worth 2 fals. The denomination was often either not given on coins or only indicated by a numeral. Some rial denominated coins have a numeral over the Arabic letter r, ر.

Husayn fled to Kairouan and tried to continue governing in Sousse and the Tunisian Sahel. Ali ordered his son Younes to besiege him. Husayn was captured and executed in 1740, but the latter's sons, Muhammad and Ali, fled and continued the civil war, one from Constantine and the other from Algiers.

Muhammad I ar-Rashid was the third leader of the Husainid Dynasty and the ruler of Tunisia from 1756 until his death.

Constantine, Algeria City in Constantine Province, Algeria

Constantine (Arabic: قسنطينة‎ Qusanṭīnah, also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria. During Roman times it was called Cirta and was renamed "Constantina" in honor of emperor Constantine the Great. It was the capital of the French department of Constantine until 1962. Located somewhat inland, Constantine is about 80 kilometres from the Mediterranean coast, on the banks of the tiny Rhumel River.

Algiers Capital City in Algiers Province, Algeria

Algiers is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the city's population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located on the Mediterranean Sea and in the north-central portion of Algeria.

In 1741 Ali conquered the island of Tabarka from the Republic of Genoa, deporting 1,500 Christians to Tunis. In the same year he sent an expedition against the French Cap Nègre, which was captured by his son Younes. [4]

Tabarka Place in Jendouba Governorate, Tunisia

Tabarka is a coastal town located in north-western Tunisia, close to the border with Algeria. Tabarka's history is a colorful mosaic of Berber, Punic, Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic, Genoese and Turkish culture. The town is dominated by an offshore rock on which is remains a Genoese castle. Nationalist leader Habib Bourguiba, later president of post-independence Tunisia, was exiled here by the French colonial authorities in 1952. Tourist attractions include its coral fishing, the Coralis Festival of underwater photography, and its annual jazz festival.

Republic of Genoa former state on the Apennine Peninsula between 1005–1797

The Republic of Genoa was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

Madrasa El Bachia Medersa El Bachia Tunis.jpg
Madrasa El Bachia

In his later years Ali had to face two rebellions. The first one was that led by Younes himself, who was able to seize Tunis, having the local authorities proclaim him bey. Ali besieged him in the citadel and forced him to flee to Algiers. The second came from the sons of Husayn, who were able to gain support from the dey of Algiers and invaded Tunisia with an army led by the dey of Constantine. The army reached Tunis, whose walls Ali had restored and strengthened with a ditch in the meantime. However, this did not prevent the Algerians from storming the city on 31 August 1756. Ali was deposed on 2 September and brought in chains to Algiers, where he was stripped naked and strangled twenty days later by partisans of his successor Muhammad I ar-Rashid.

See also

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References

  1. Buyers, Christopher (2010). "Tunisia: The Husainid Dynasty" . Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  2. Tunisia under the deys and the Husaynids in Abun-Nasr, Jamil M., ed. A History of the Maghrib in the Islamic Period. Cambridge University Press, 1987. p179
  3. Kissling, Hans-Joachim; Spuler, Bertold; Barbour, N.; Eaton, Richard Maxwell (1997). The Last Great Muslim Empires. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 133.
  4. Bonnichon, Philippe; Gény, Pierre (2012). Présences Françaises Outre-Mer, XVIe-XXIe Siècles. Paris: Académie des Sciences d'Outre-Mer. p. 167.


Regnal titles
Preceded by
Al-Husayn I ibn Ali at-Turki
Bey of Tunis
17351756
Succeeded by
Muhammad I ar-Rashid