Abydos, Egypt

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Abydos
أبيدوس
AbydosFacade.jpg
Façade of the Temple of Seti I in Abydos
Egypt relief location map.jpg
Archaeological site icon (red).svg
Shown within Egypt
Alternative nameⲈⲃⲱⲧ; Abdju
Location El-Balyana, Sohag Governorate, Egypt
Region Upper Egypt
Coordinates 26°11′06″N31°55′08″E / 26.18500°N 31.91889°E / 26.18500; 31.91889 Coordinates: 26°11′06″N31°55′08″E / 26.18500°N 31.91889°E / 26.18500; 31.91889
TypeSettlement
History
Periods First Dynasty to Thirtieth Dynasty

Abydos (Arabic : أبيدوس; /əˈbdɒs/ Sahidic Coptic : ⲈⲃⲱⲧEbōt) is one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt, and also of the eighth nome in Upper Egypt. It is located about 11 kilometres (6.8 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10' N, near the modern Egyptian towns of el-'Araba el Madfuna and al-Balyana. In the ancient Egyptian language, the city was called Abdju (ꜣbḏw or AbDw). The English name Abydos comes from the Greek Ἄβυδος, a name borrowed by Greek geographers from the unrelated city of Abydos on the Hellespont.

Coptic language Latest stage of the Egyptian language

Coptic or Coptic Egyptian, is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century as an official language. Egyptian began to be written in the Coptic alphabet, an adaptation of the Greek alphabet with the addition of six or seven signs from Demotic to represent Egyptian sounds the Greek language did not have, in the 2nd century BC.

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Ta-wer

Ta-wer was the 8th Upper Egyptian ancient nome. Its capital was Thinis, another important town was Abydos. The exact borders of the nome are not known for sure, but the southern border might have been near Abu Tisht. The Northern border was most likely North of Hagarsa where there are Old Kingdom tombs, that are connected with the 8th nome.

Contents

Amy, Flinders Petrie's sister-in-law, buying antiquities at Abydos, c. 1899 Amy, Flinders Petrie's sister-in-law, buying antiquities at Abydos, c. 1899.jpg
Amy, Flinders Petrie's sister-in-law, buying antiquities at Abydos, c. 1899

Considered one of the most important archaeological sites in Egypt, the sacred city of Abydos was the site of many ancient temples, including Umm el-Qa'ab, a royal necropolis where early pharaohs were entombed. [1] These tombs began to be seen as extremely significant burials and in later times it became desirable to be buried in the area, leading to the growth of the town's importance as a cult site.

Egyptian temple Structures for official worship of the gods and commemoration of pharaohs in Ancient Egypt

Egyptian temples were built for the official worship of the gods and in commemoration of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt and regions under Egyptian control. Temples were seen as houses for the gods or kings to whom they were dedicated. Within them, the Egyptians performed a variety of rituals, the central functions of Egyptian religion: giving offerings to the gods, reenacting their mythological interactions through festivals, and warding off the forces of chaos. These rituals were seen as necessary for the gods to continue to uphold maat, the divine order of the universe. Housing and caring for the gods were the obligations of pharaohs, who therefore dedicated prodigious resources to temple construction and maintenance. Out of necessity, pharaohs delegated most of their ritual duties to a host of priests, but most of the populace was excluded from direct participation in ceremonies and forbidden to enter a temple's most sacred areas. Nevertheless, a temple was an important religious site for all classes of Egyptians, who went there to pray, give offerings, and seek oracular guidance from the god dwelling within.

Necropolis large ancient cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments

A necropolis is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments. The name stems from the Ancient Greek νεκρόπολις nekropolis, literally meaning "city of the dead".

Today, Abydos is notable for the memorial temple of Seti I, which contains an inscription from the nineteenth dynasty known to the modern world as the Abydos King List. It is a chronological list showing cartouches of most dynastic pharaohs of Egypt from Menes until Seti I's father, Ramesses I. [2]

Seti I second pharaoh of the 19th dynasty in ancient egypt

Menmaatre Seti I was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II. As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, and various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC to 1279 BC and 1290 BC to 1279 BC being the most commonly used by scholars today.

Abydos King List

The Abydos King List, also known as the Abydos Table, is a list of the names of seventy-six kings of Ancient Egypt, found on a wall of the Temple of Seti I at Abydos, Egypt. It consists of three rows of thirty-eight cartouches in each row. The upper two rows contain names of the kings, while the third row merely repeats Seti I's throne name and nomen.

Cartouche oval with inscriptions

In Egyptian hieroglyphs, a cartouche is an oval with a horizontal line at one end, indicating that the text enclosed is a royal name. They came into common use during the beginning of the Fourth Dynasty under Pharaoh Sneferu, but earlier examples date to the mid Second Dynasty on Cylinder Seals of Seth-Peribsen. While the cartouche is usually vertical with a horizontal line, if it makes the name fit better it can be horizontal, with a vertical line at the end . The Ancient Egyptian word for it was shenu, and it was essentially an expanded shen ring. In Demotic, the cartouche was reduced to a pair of brackets and a vertical line.

The Great Temple and most of the ancient town are buried under the modern buildings to the north of the Seti temple. [3] Many of the original structures and the artifacts within them are considered irretrievable and lost; many may have been destroyed by the new construction.

History

Green glazed faience weight, inscribed for the high Steward Aabeni. Late Middle Kingdom. From Abydos, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London Green glazed faience weight, inscribed for the high Steward Aabeni. Late Middle Kingdom. From Abydos, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.jpg
Green glazed faience weight, inscribed for the high Steward Aabeni. Late Middle Kingdom. From Abydos, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
Abydos, EgyptAbydos, EgyptAbydos, Egypt
Abydos, Egypt
Name of Abydos
in hieroglyphs

Abydos was occupied by the rulers of the Predynastic period, [4] whose town, temple and tombs have been found there. The temple and town continued to be rebuilt at intervals down to the times of the Thirtieth Dynasty, and the cemetery was in continuous use. [5]

The pharaohs of the First Dynasty were buried in Abydos, including Narmer, who is regarded as the founder of the First Dynasty, and his successor, Aha. [6] It was in this time period that the Abydos boats were constructed. Some pharaohs of the Second Dynasty were also buried in Abydos. The temple was renewed and enlarged by these pharaohs as well. Funerary enclosures, misinterpreted in modern times as great 'forts', were built on the desert behind the town by three kings of the Second Dynasty; the most complete is that of Khasekhemwy. [7] [5]

Narmer Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Early Dynastic Period

Narmer was an ancient Egyptian king of the Early Dynastic Period, circa 3150-3100 BC. He probably was the successor to the Protodynastic king Ka, or possibly Scorpion. Some consider him the unifier of Egypt and founder of the First Dynasty, and in turn the first king of a unified Egypt.

Hor-Aha Egyptian pharaoh

Hor-Aha is considered the second pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt by some Egyptologists, others consider him the first one and corresponding to Menes. He lived around the 31st century BC and is thought to have had a long reign.

Discovered in 1991, excavation of the Abydos boats began in 2000 in which 14 boats were identified. They are located alongside the massive mud brick structure known as "Shunet ez-Zebib" attributed to the 2nd Dynasty Pharaoh Khasekhemwy. Shunet ez-Zebib is one of several such "enclosure wall" constructions at this site dating back to the 1st Dynasty, and is located nearly one mile from the early Dynasty royal cemetery of Umm el-Qa'ab.

Part of the Abydos King List SFEC-ABYDOS-2010-056.JPG
Part of the Abydos King List
Tomb relief depicting the vizier Nespeqashuty and his wife, KetjKetj, making the journey of the dead to the holy city of Abydos - from Deir el-Bahri, Late Period, Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Psammetichus I Journey of the dead to Abydos.jpg
Tomb relief depicting the vizier Nespeqashuty and his wife, KetjKetj, making the journey of the dead to the holy city of Abydos – from Deir el-Bahri, Late Period, Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Psammetichus I
Panel from the Osiris temple: Horus presents royal regalia to a worshipping pharaoh. SFEC-L-ABYDOS11.JPG
Panel from the Osiris temple: Horus presents royal regalia to a worshipping pharaoh.
The Osireion Osireion.jpg
The Osireion
Temple of Seti I, Abydos Abydos Seti I.jpg
Temple of Seti I, Abydos

From the Fifth Dynasty, the deity Khentiamentiu, foremost of the Westerners, came to be seen as a manifestation of the dead pharaoh in the underworld. Pepi I (Sixth Dynasty) constructed a funerary chapel which evolved over the years into the Great Temple of Osiris, the ruins of which still exist within the town enclosure. Abydos became the centre of the worship of the Isis and Osiris cult.

During the First Intermediate Period, the principal deity of the area, Khentiamentiu, began to be seen as an aspect of Osiris, and the deities gradually merged and came to be regarded as one. Khentiamentiu's name became an epithet of Osiris. King Mentuhotep II was the first to build a royal chapel. In the Twelfth Dynasty a gigantic tomb was cut into the rock by Senusret III. [5] Associated with this tomb was a cenotaph, a cult temple and a small town known as "Wah-Sut", that was used by the workers for these structures. [8] Next to the cenotaph at least two kings of the Thirteenth Dynasty were buried (in tombs S9 and S10) as well as some rulers of the Second Intermediate Period, such as Senebkay. An indigenous line of kings, the Abydos Dynasty, may have ruled the region from Abydos at the time.

New construction during the Eighteenth Dynasty began with a large chapel of Ahmose I. [9] The Pyramid of Ahmose I was also constructed at Abydos—the only pyramid in the area; very little of it remains today.

Thutmose III built a far larger temple, about 130 ft × 200 ft (40 m × 61 m). He also made a processional way leading past the side of the temple to the cemetery beyond, featuring a great gateway of granite. [9]

Seti I, during the Nineteenth Dynasty, founded a temple to the south of the town in honor of the ancestral pharaohs of the early dynasties; this was finished by Ramesses II, who also built a lesser temple of his own. [5] Merneptah added the Osireion, just to the north of the temple of Seti. [8]

Ahmose II in the Twenty-sixth Dynasty rebuilt the temple again, and placed in it a large monolith shrine of red granite, finely wrought. The foundations of the successive temples were comprised within approximately 18 ft (5.5 m). depth of the ruins discovered in modern times; these needed the closest examination to discriminate the various buildings, and were recorded by more than 4,000 measurements and 1,000 levellings. [10] [9]

The last building added was a new temple of Nectanebo I, built in the Thirtieth Dynasty. From the Ptolemaic times of the Greek occupancy of Egypt, that began three hundred years before the Roman occupancy that followed, the structures began to decay and no later works are known. [11] [5]

Cult centre

From earliest times, Abydos was a cult centre, first of the local deity, Khentiamentiu, and from the end of the Old Kingdom, the rising cult of Osiris and Isis.

A tradition developed that the Early Dynastic cemetery was the burial place of Osiris and the tomb of Djer was reinterpreted as that of Osiris.

Decorations in tombs throughout Egypt, such as the one displayed to the right, record journeys to and from Abydos as important pilgrimages made by individuals who were proud to have been able to make the vital trip.

Major constructions

Plan of Abydos Egypt and the Sudan; handbook for travellers (1914) (14597319359).jpg
Plan of Abydos

Great Osiris Temple

From the First Dynasty to the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, nine or ten temples were successively built on one site at Abydos. The first was an enclosure, about 30 ft × 50 ft (9.1 m × 15.2 m), enclosed by a thin wall of unbaked bricks. Incorporating one wall of this first structure, the second temple of about 40 ft (12 m) square was built with walls about 10 ft (3.0 m) thick. An outer temenos (enclosure) wall surrounded the grounds. This outer wall was made wider some time around the Second or Third Dynasty. The old temple entirely vanished in the Fourth Dynasty, and a smaller building was erected behind it, enclosing a wide hearth of black ashes. Pottery models of offerings are found in these ashes and were probably the substitutes for live sacrifices decreed by Khufu (or Cheops) in his temple reforms. [12]

At an undetermined date, a great clearance of temple offerings had been made and the modern discovery of a chamber into which they were gathered yielded the fine ivory carvings and the glazed figures and tiles that demonstrate the splendid work of the First Dynasty. A vase of Menes with purple hieroglyphs inlaid into a green glaze and tiles with relief figures are the most important pieces found. The noble statuette of Cheops in ivory, found in the stone chamber of the temple, gives the only portrait of this great pharaoh. [9]

The temple was entirely rebuilt on a larger scale by Pepi I in the Sixth Dynasty. He placed a great stone gateway to the temenos, an outer temenos wall and gateway, with a colonnade between the gates. His temple was about 40 ft × 50 ft (12 m × 15 m) inside, with stone gateways front and back, showing that it was of the processional type. In the Eleventh Dynasty Mentuhotep I added a colonnade and altars. Soon after, Mentuhotep II entirely rebuilt the temple, laying a stone pavement over the area, about 45 ft (14 m) square. He also added subsidiary chambers. Soon thereafter, in the Twelfth Dynasty, Senusret I laid massive foundations of stone over the pavement of his predecessor. A great temenos was laid out enclosing a much larger area and the new temple itself was about three times the earlier size. [9]

Temple of Seti I

Egypt - Temple of Seti I, Abydus. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection S03 06 01 018 image 2401.jpg
Egypt – Temple of Seti I, Abydus. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
Views, Objects: Egypt. Abydos [selected images]. View 01: Egypt - Memnonium of Seti I. Wall Inscriptions, Abydos., n.d., New York. Brooklyn Museum Archives Brooklyn Museum - Egypt-Abydos (pd).jpg
Views, Objects: Egypt. Abydos [selected images]. View 01: Egypt – Memnonium of Seti I. Wall Inscriptions, Abydos., n.d., New York. Brooklyn Museum Archives
Egypt - Abydos. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection S03 06 01 018 image 2367.jpg
Egypt – Abydos. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection

The temple of Seti I was built on entirely new ground half a mile to the south of the long series of temples just described. This surviving building is best known as the Great Temple of Abydos, being nearly complete and an impressive sight. [9] A principal purpose of the temple was to serve as a memorial to king Seti I, as well as to show reverence for the early pharaohs, which is incorporated within as part of the "Rite of the Ancestors".

The long list of the pharaohs of the principal dynasties—recognized by Seti—are carved on a wall and known as the "Abydos King List" (showing the cartouche name of many dynastic pharaohs of Egypt from the first, Narmer or Menes, until Seti's time)- with the exception of those noted above. There were significant names deliberately left off of the list. So rare, as an almost complete list of pharaoh names, the Table of Abydos, rediscovered by William John Bankes, has been called the "Rosetta Stone" of Egyptian archaeology, analogous to the Rosetta Stone for Egyptian writing, beyond the Narmer Palette. [13]

There were also seven chapels built for the worship of the pharaoh and principal deities. These included three chapels for the "state" deities Ptah, Re-Horakhty, and (centrally positioned) Amun-Re and the challenge for the Abydos triad of Osiris, Isis and Horus. The rites recorded in the deity chapels represent the first complete form known of the Daily Ritual, which was performed daily in temples across Egypt throughout the pharaonic period. At the back of the temple is an enigmatic structure known as the Osireion, which served as a cenotaph for Seti-Osiris, and is thought to be connected with the worship of Osiris as an "Osiris tomb". [14] It is possible that from those chambers was led out the great Hypogeum for the celebration of the Osiris mysteries, built by Merenptah. [15] The temple was originally 550 ft (170 m) long, but the forecourts are scarcely recognizable, and the part still in good condition is about 250 ft (76 m) long and 350 ft (110 m) wide, including the wing at the side. [9] Magazines for food and offerings storage were built to either side of the forecourts, as well as a small palace for the king and his retinue, to the southeast of the first forecourt (Ghazouli, The Palace and Magazines Attached to the Temple of Sety I at Abydos and the Facade of This Temple. ASAE 58 (1959)).

Except for the list of pharaohs and a panegyric on Ramesses II, the subjects are not historical, but religious in nature, dedicated to the transformation of the king after his death. The temple reliefs are celebrated for their delicacy and artistic refinement, utilizing both the archaism of earlier dynasties with the vibrancy of late 18th Dynasty reliefs. The sculptures had been published mostly in hand copy, not facsimile, by Auguste Mariette in his Abydos, I. The temple has been partially recorded epigraphically by Amice Calverley and Myrtle Broome in their 4 volume publication of The Temple of King Sethos I at Abydos (1933–1958).

Ramesses II temple

The adjacent temple of Ramesses II was much smaller and simpler in plan; but it had a fine historical series of scenes around the outside that lauded his achievements, of which the lower parts remain. The outside of the temple was decorated with scenes of the Battle of Kadesh. His list of pharaohs, similar to that of Seti I, formerly stood here; but the fragments were removed by the French consul and sold to the British Museum. [9]

Tombs

Seti I, wearing the Deshret crown of Lower Egypt, with Prince Ramesses (later Ramesses II), ready to rope the sacred bull for sacrifice SFEC-ABYDOS-2010-060.JPG
Seti I, wearing the Deshret crown of Lower Egypt, with Prince Ramesses (later Ramesses II), ready to rope the sacred bull for sacrifice
Pyramidion of Nesnubhotep, top of a limestone chapel monument. A scarab and adoring baboons in relief. Dynasty XXVI, Abydos, Egypt. Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London Pyramidion of Nesnubhotep, top of a limestone chapel monument. A scarab and adoring baboons in relief. 26th Dynasty. From Abydos, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.jpg
Pyramidion of Nesnubhotep, top of a limestone chapel monument. A scarab and adoring baboons in relief. Dynasty XXVI, Abydos, Egypt. Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
A rare etched carnelian bead found in Abydos, tomb 197, thought to have been imported from the Indus Valley Civilisation through Mesopotamia, in an example of Egypt-Mesopotamia relations. Late Middle Kingdom of Egypt. London, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, ref. UC30334. Indus carnelian bead UC30334 Egypt Middle Kingdom London, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology.jpg
A rare etched carnelian bead found in Abydos, tomb 197, thought to have been imported from the Indus Valley Civilisation through Mesopotamia, in an example of Egypt-Mesopotamia relations. Late Middle Kingdom of Egypt. London, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, ref. UC30334.

The royal necropolises of the earliest dynasties were placed about a mile into the great desert plain, in a place now known as Umm El Qa'ab "The Mother of Pots" because of the shards remaining from all of the devotional objects left by religious pilgrims.

The earliest burial is about 10 ft × 20 ft (3.0 m × 6.1 m) inside, a pit lined with brick walls, and originally roofed with timber and matting. Others tombs also built before Menes are 15 ft × 25 ft (4.6 m × 7.6 m). The probable tomb of Menes is of the latter size.

Afterward, the tombs increased in size and complexity. The tomb-pit was surrounded by chambers to hold offerings, the sepulchre being a great wooden chamber in the midst of the brick-lined pit. Rows of small pits, tombs for the servants of the pharaoh, surrounded the royal chamber, many dozens of such burials being usual. [9] Some of the offerings included sacrificed animals, such as the asses found in the tomb of Merneith. Evidence of human sacrifice exists in the early tombs, such as the 118 servants in the tomb of Merneith, but this practice was changed into symbolic offerings later.

By the end of the Second Dynasty the type of tomb constructed changed to a long passage with chambers on either side, the royal burial being in the middle of the length. The greatest of these tombs with its dependencies, covered a space of over 3,000 square metres (0.74 acres), however it is possible for this to have been several tombs which abutted one another during construction; the Egyptians had no means of mapping the positioning of the tombs.[ citation needed ] The contents of the tombs have been nearly destroyed by successive plunderers; but enough remained to show that rich jewellery was placed on the mummies, a profusion of vases of hard and valuable stones from the royal table service stood about the body, the store-rooms were filled with great jars of wine, perfumed ointments, and other supplies, and tablets of ivory and of ebony were engraved with a record of the yearly annals of the reigns. The seals of various officials, of which over 200 varieties have been found, give an insight into the public arrangements. [18] [9]

A cemetery for private persons was put into use during the First Dynasty, with some pit-tombs in the town. It was extensive in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Dynasties and contained many rich tombs. A large number of fine tombs were made in the Eighteenth to Twentieth Dynasties, and members of later dynasties continued to bury their dead here until the Roman period. Many hundreds of funeral steles were removed by Auguste Mariette's workmen, without any details of the burials being noted. [19] Later excavations have been recorded by Edward R. Ayrton, Abydos, iii.; Maclver, El Amrah and Abydos; and Garstang, El Arabah. [9]

"Forts"

Some of the tomb structures, referred to as "forts" by modern researchers, lay behind the town. Known as Shunet ez Zebib, it is about 450 ft × 250 ft (137 m × 76 m) over all, and one still stands 30 ft (9.1 m) high. It was built by Khasekhemwy, the last pharaoh of the Second Dynasty. Another structure nearly as large adjoined it, and probably is older than that of Khasekhemwy. A third "fort" of a squarer form is now occupied by a convent of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria; its age cannot be ascertained. [20] [9]

Hieroglyphs in the Temple of Seti I

The retouched and eroded hieroglyphs in the Temple of Seti I which are said to represent modern vehicles - a helicopter, a submarine, and a zeppelin or plane. Hieroglif z Abydos.jpg
The retouched and eroded hieroglyphs in the Temple of Seti I which are said to represent modern vehicles – a helicopter, a submarine, and a zeppelin or plane.

Some of the hieroglyphs carved over an arch on the site have been interpreted in esoteric and "ufological" circles as depicting modern technology.

The carvings are often thought to be a helicopter, a battle tank or submarine, and a fighter plane (some interpret this as a U.F.O.) However, these conjectures are largely based in pseudoarchaeology, and the picture often claimed as "evidence" has been retouched (see right). [21] [22]

See also

Notes

  1. "Tombs of kings of the First and Second Dynasty". Digital Egypt. UCL. Archived from the original on 6 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-15.
  2. Misty Cryer (2006). "Travellers in Egypt – William John Bankes". TravellersinEgypt.org. Archived from the original on 2016-08-14.
  3. "Abydos town". Digital Egypt. UCL. Archived from the original on 4 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-15.
  4. William Flinders Petrie, Abydos, ii. 64
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Chisholm 1911, p. 81.
  6. Wilkinson (1999), p. 3
  7. "The Funerary Enclosures of Abydos". Digitial Egypt. UCL. Retrieved 2008-01-15.
  8. 1 2 Harvey, EA24, p.3
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Chisholm 1911, p. 82.
  10. Petrie, Abydos, ii.
  11. Petrie, Abydos, i. and ii.
  12. Chisholm 1911, pp. 81-82.
  13. Misty Cryer, "Travellers in Egypt – William John Bankes" (2006), TravellersinEgypt.org, web: TravEgypt-WJB Archived 2006-08-30 at the Wayback Machine : re-discovered Table of Abydos.
  14. Caulfield, Temple of the Kings
  15. Murray, The Osireion at Abydos
  16. Grajetzki, Wolfram (2014). "TOMB 197 AT ABYDOS, FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR LONG DISTANCE TRADE IN THE MIDDLE KINGDOM". Ägypten und Levante / Egypt and the Levant. 24: 159–170. doi:10.1553/s159. JSTOR   43553796.
  17. Stevenson, Alice (2015). Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology: Characters and Collections. UCL Press. p. 54. ISBN   9781910634042.
  18. Petrie, Royal Tombs, i. and ii.
  19. Mariette, Abydos, ii. and iii.
  20. Ayrton, Abydos, iii.
  21. "Pharaoh's Helicopter?". catchpenny.org.
  22. ""Helicopter Hieroglyph" Explained!". tripod.com.

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God's Wife of Amun was the highest-ranking priestess of the Amun cult, an important religious institution in ancient Egypt. The cult was centered in Thebes in Upper Egypt during the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth dynasties. The office had political importance as well as religious, since the two were closely related in ancient Egypt.

Merneith ancient Egyptian queen

Merneith was a consort and a regent of Ancient Egypt during the First Dynasty. She may have been a ruler of Egypt in her own right, based on several official records. If this was the case, she may have been the first female pharaoh and the earliest queen regnant in recorded history. Her rule occurred around 2950 BC for an undetermined period. Merneith’s name means "Beloved by Neith" and her stele contains symbols of that ancient Egyptian deity. She may have been Djer's daughter and was probably Djet's senior royal wife. The former meant that she would have been the great-granddaughter of unified Egypt's first pharaoh, Narmer. She was also the mother of Den, her successor.

Valley of the Kings Necropolis in ancient egypt

The Valley of the Kings, also known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings, is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, rock cut tombs were excavated for the pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom.

Tuya (queen) Ancient Egyptian queen consort

Tuya was the wife of Pharaoh Seti I of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt and mother of Tia, Ramesses II, Nebchasetnebet, and perhaps Henutmire.

Great Hypostyle Hall

The Great Hypostyle Hall is located within the Karnak temple complex, in the Precinct of Amon-Re. It is one of the most visited monuments of Ancient Egypt. The structure was built around the 19th Egyptian Dynasty. Its design was initially instituted by Hatshepsut, at the North-west chapel to Amun in the upper terrace of Deir el-Bahri. The name refers to hypostyle architectural pattern.

Paser (vizier) vizier and High Priest of Amun

The Ancient Egyptian Noble Paser was vizier, in the reigns of Seti I and Ramesses II, during the 19th dynasty. He would later also become High Priest of Amun.

Ramesses II Egyptian pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt

Ramesses II, also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the New Kingdom. His successors and later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor".

Pyramid of Ahmose Smooth-sided pyramid

The Pyramid of Ahmose was built not as a tomb, but a cenotaph for pharaoh Ahmose I at the necropolis of Abydos, Egypt. It was the only royal pyramid built in this area. Today only a pile of rubble remains, reaching a height of about 10 m.

Articles related to ancient Egypt include:

Yuny (viceroy of Kush) Viceroy of Kush

Yuni served as Head of the-stable-of-Seti-I, Charioteer of His Majesty, and Chief of the Medjay before becoming Viceroy during the reign of Seti I. He would use some of these titles simultaneously. On a stela from Abydos -now in the Cairo Museum - the inscription reads:

Cavern deities of the underworld

The Cavern deities of the underworld were ancient Egyptian minor deities charged with punishing the damned souls by beheading and devouring them.

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