Académie Julian

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Académie Julian
Bashkirtseff - In the Studio.jpg
The Studio (1881) by Marie Bashkirtseff
Type Private art school
Active1867 (1867)–1968 (1968)
Founder Rodolphe Julian
Location,

The Académie Julian (French pronunciation:  [akademi ʒyljɑ̃] ) [1] was a private art school for painting and sculpture founded in Paris, France, in 1867 by French painter and teacher Rodolphe Julian (1839–1907) that was active from 1868 through 1968. [2] It remained famous for the number and quality of artists who attended during the great period of effervescence in the arts in the early twentieth century. [3] [4] After 1968, it integrated with ESAG Penninghen  [ fr ].

Contents

History

Rodolphe Julian (1839-1907), founder of the Academie Julian Rodolphe Julian (artist).jpg
Rodolphe Julian (18391907), founder of the Académie Julian
Teachers at Academie Julian c. 1892 Les professeurs de l'Academie Julian vers 1892.jpg
Teachers at Académie Julian c.1892

Rodolphe Julian established the Académie Julian in 1868 at the Passage des Panoramas, as a private studio school for art students. [5] The Académie Julian not only prepared students for the exams at the prestigious École des Beaux-Arts, but offered independent alternative education and training in arts. "Founded at a time when art was about to undergo a long series of crucial mutations, the Academie Julian played host to painters and sculptors of every kind and persuasion and never tried to make them hew to any one particular line". [2]

In 1880, women who were not allowed to enroll for study to the École des Beaux-Arts were accepted by the new Académie Julian. Foreign applicants who had been deterred from entering the Ecole des Beaux Arts by a vicious French language examination [1] were welcome at the Académie Julian. [6] Men and women were trained separately, and women participated in the same studies as men, including drawing and painting of nude models. [7] [8] "Human exchange went forward in an atmosphere that was collegial, easygoing and mutually supportive. It nurtured some of the best artists of the day". [2]

Académie Julian became popular as fertile ground with French as well as foreign students from diverse backgrounds from all over the world, [3] from the United Kingdom, [9] Canada, [10] Hungary, [11] and particularly the United States; [2] [12] [13] French art critic Egmont Arens wrote in 1924 that American art, at least for a period of time, reflected the teachings of Académie Julian. [14] In 1989, on the occasion of the exhibition at the Shepherd Gallery, in Manhattan, devoted to the Academie Julian in Paris as it existed between 1868 and 1939, John Russell wrote:

By my count, more than 50 nationalities were represented at the school during its glory years. To be at the Academie Julian was to be exposed to a kind of white magic that seems to have worked in almost every case. What was learned there stayed forever with alumnus and alumna, and it related as much to the conduct of life as to the uses of brush and chisel. – in The New York Times , John Russell: "An Art School That Also Taught Life", 19 March 1989. [2]

The South African painter Strat Caldecott (1886–1929) worked and studied at the Académie Julian in preparation for his admission to the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts. He vividly described the Académie Julian as: "A huge room, lighted from above, and smelling strongly of turpentine; tobacco-smoke, sweat and garlic, for the models were mostly children of the South. A room plastered to the full height of a man's reach with palette scrapings whose many colours mingled to make a warm grey background, hung with the prize studies of decades of concourse, furnished with a huge Godin stove, and tall grass-plaited stools, and a heavy mobile podium on which the model was posed each week by a quarreling agora of tousle-headed youths." [15]

The early success of the Académie was also secured by the famous and respected artists whom Rodolphe Julian employed as instructors: Adolphe William Bouguereau (1825–1905), Henri Royer, Jean-Paul Laurens, Gabriel Ferrier, Tony Robert-Fleury, Jules Lefebvre and other leading artists of that time trained in Academic art. [16] Eventually, Académie Julian students were granted the right to compete for the Prix de Rome , a prize awarded to promising young artists. [17] and participate in the major "Salons" or art exhibitions.

In the late 19th century the term L'art pompier had entered the scene as a derisive term for the traditional academic art espoused by the Académie's instructors. As a result, the Académie Julian embraced a more liberal regime pushing a less conservative, more sincere approach to art [1] which corresponded to the Secessionist art movement in Germany and the Vienna Secession in Austria. It was followed and fully articulated by the Nabis, an avant-garde movement [18] that participated in paving the way to modern art in 1888–1889. [5]

Over time, Académie Julian opened schools in other locations. In addition to the original school at Passage des Panoramas, studios were at no. 5 Rue de Berri in the 8th arrondissement, no. 31 Rue du Dragon in the 6th arrondissement, no. 51, rue Vivienne in the 2nd arrondissement for female student artists, overseen by painter Amélie Beaury-Saurel, Julian's spouse. Subsequent faculty included former students (Edgar Chahine, for example).

Académie Julian remained open during World War I, albeit with a lesser number of students. By contrast during World War II, after the 1941 exhibition Vingt jeunes peintres de tradition française [19] considerations on "degenerate art" by the German military administration forced the school to close. In 1946 some of the studios were sold.

For his services to the arts, Rodolphe Julian, described by the Anglo-Irish novelist and critic George Moore as a kind of Hercules, dark-haired, strong, with broad shoulders, short legs, a soft voice and all the charm of the Midi was awarded the Legion of Honour. [2] [20]

The artist records still extant are those of the men's section, covering the 1870–1932 period, and those of the women's section, covering the 1880–1907 period.

In 1968, an important year in France's history with the May events, particularly in relation to education, the Académie Julian integrated with ESAG Penninghen. [21]

Notable faculty and alumni of the Académie Julian

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 "académie - oi".
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Russell, John (19 March 1989). "ART VIEW; An Art School That Also Taught Life" via The New York Times.
  3. 1 2 "Academie Julian: Paris Art School Founded by Rodolphe Julian". www.visual-arts-cork.com.
  4. Vallin, Gérard. "Elèves et professeurs de l'Académie Julian" [Students and Faculty of the Académie Julian]. academie julian (in French). Retrieved 30 September 2016.[ self-published source ]
  5. 1 2 Tate Gallery, "Académie Julian."
  6. "Women of the Academie Julian - Paris - French Art". Scribd.
  7. Collier, Peter (30 March 1994). Artistic Relations: Literature and the Visual Arts in Nineteenth-century France. Yale University Press. ISBN   0300060092.
  8. Farmer, J David. "Overcoming All Obstacles: The Women of the Académie Julian – An Exhibition Organized by the Dahesh Museum". California Art Club Newsletter. No. April/May 2000. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
  9. David Charles Rose (2015). Oscar Wilde's Elegant Republic: Transformation, Dislocation and Fantasy in fin-de-siècle Paris. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 37. ISBN   978-1-4438-8360-3.
  10. (fr) and (en) papyrus.bib, University of Montreal
  11. (fr) Sophie Barthélémy, Musée d'art moderne (Céret, France), Musée Matisse (Le Cateau-Cambrésis, France), Musée des beaux-arts de Dijon, Fauves hongrois, 1904-1914
  12. Lubow, Arthur. "Americans in Paris". Smithsonian.
  13. Marshall, Bill (30 March 2019). France and the Americas. ABC-CLIO. ISBN   9781851094110.
  14. (fr)La Renaissance de l'art français et des industries de luxe, 1924
  15. Scholtz, J de P (1970). Strat Caldecott 1886-1929. Cape Town: A.A. Balkema. OCLC   946503726.
  16. (in French) Gallica, French-archives, Les plaisirs et les curiosités de Paris, 1889, p. 193
  17. Chilvers, Ian, ed. (2004). "Académie," Oxford Dictionary of Art, p. 5–6. , p. 5, at Google Books
  18. artuk.org, student Ludwig Meidner (...) was unaffected by avant-garde developments there.
  19. Oxfrord index Peintres de Tradition Française
  20. "JULIAN, Rodolphe (1839 - 1907), Painter, engraver, illustrator : Benezit Dictionary of Artists - oi". oxfordindex.oup.com. doi:10.1093/benz/9780199773787.article.b00096321.
  21. penninghen.com, historique, From Académie Jullian to ESAG Penninghen

Bibliography

Coordinates: 48°52′16″N2°20′30″E / 48.87111°N 2.34167°E / 48.87111; 2.34167