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Flag of Acadia.svg
Modern Acadian flag adopted 1884
Total population
~500,000 – 2,000,000
Regions with significant populations
United States 901,260
Canada 300,000 [1] to more than 500,000 [2]
France 20,400
New Brunswick, Canada 108,375
Quebec, Canada 83,945
Nova Scotia, Canada 49,205
Ontario, Canada 83,945
Prince Edward Island, Canada 8,265
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 3,000
Brittany 3,000
Maine, United States 30,000
Louisiana, United States 815,260
Acadian French (a variety of French with over 300,000 speakers in Canada), [3] English, or both; In southeastern New Brunswick and other areas speak Chiac; those who have resettled to Quebec typically speak Quebec French or Joual.
Predominantly Roman Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
French (Poitevin-Saintongeais and Occitans), Cajuns, French-Canadians, Mi'kmaq, Métis

The Acadians (French : Acadiens [akadjɛ̃] , [akad͡zjɛ̃] ) are an ethnic group descended from the French who settled in the New France colony of Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries. Most Acadians live in the region of Acadia, as it is the region where the descendants of a few Acadians who escaped the Expulsion of the Acadians (aka The Great Upheaval / Le Grand Dérangement) re-settled. Most Acadians in Canada continue to live in majority French-speaking communities, notably those in New Brunswick where Acadians and Francophones are granted autonomy in areas such as education and health.


Acadia was one of the 5 regions of New France. Acadia was located in what is now Eastern Canada's Maritime provinces, as well as parts of Quebec and present-day Maine to the Kennebec River. It was ethnically, geographically and administratively different from the other French colonies and the French colony of Canada. As a result, the Acadians developed a distinct history and culture. [4] The settlers whose descendants became Acadians primarily came from the southwestern region of France, also known as Occitania, such as the rural areas of Poitou-Charentes and Aquitaine (Gascony). [5] In some cases Acadians intermarried with Indians of the region, such as Mi'kmaq and other Wabanaki tribes, and were considered Métis people. [6] [7]

During the French and Indian War, (known in Canada as The Seven Years War [8] ) British colonial officers suspected that Acadians were aligned with France, after finding some Acadians fighting alongside French troops at Fort Beauséjour. Though most Acadians remained neutral during the war, the British, together with New England legislators and militia, carried out the Great Expulsion (Le Grand Dérangement) of the Acadians between 1755 and 1764. They forcefully deported approximately 11,500 Acadians from the maritime region. Approximately one-third perished from disease and drowning. [9] In retrospect, the result has been described as an ethnic cleansing of the Acadians from Maritime Canada. [10] [11]

Most Acadians were deported to various British American colonies, where many were put into forced labour or servitude. [12] [13] Some Acadians were deported to England, some to the Caribbean, and some to France. After being expelled to France, many Acadians were eventually recruited by the Spanish government to migrate to Luisiana (present-day Louisiana). These Acadians settled into or alongside the existing Louisiana Creole settlements, sometimes intermarrying with Creoles, and gradually developed what became known as Cajun culture. [14]

In time, some Acadians returned to the Maritime provinces of Canada, mainly to New Brunswick. [15] The British prohibited them from resettling their lands and villages in what became Nova Scotia. Before the American Revolutionary War, the Crown settled Protestant European immigrants and New England Planters in former Acadian communities and farmland. After the war, it made land grants in Nova Scotia to Loyalists. British policy was to establish a majority culture of Protestant religions and to assimilate Acadians with the local populations where they resettled. [9]

Acadians speak a variety of French called Acadian French, which has a few regional accents (for example, Chiac in the southeast of New Brunswick, or Brayon in the northwest of New Brunswick). Most can also speak English. The Louisiana Cajun descendants tend to speak English, including Cajun English, and/or Louisiana French, a relative of Acadian French from Canada.

Estimates of contemporary Acadian populations vary widely. The Canadian census of 2006 reported only 96,145 Acadians in Canada, based on self-declared ethnic identity. [16] However the Canadian Encyclopedia estimates that there are at least 500,000 of Acadian ancestry in Canada, which would include many who declared their ethnic identity for the census as French or as Canadian. [2]

Pre-deportation history

Acadia (1754) Acadia 1754.png
Acadia (1754)

During the early 17th century, [17] about 60 French families were established in Acadia. They developed friendly relations with the peoples of the Wabanaki Confederacy (particularly the regional Mi'kmaq), learning their hunting and fishing techniques developed for local conditions. [ citation needed ] The Acadians lived mainly in the coastal regions of the Bay of Fundy; they reclaimed farming land from the sea by building dikes to control water and drain certain wetlands. Living in a contested borderland region between French Canada and the British territories on New England and the coast, the Acadians often became entangled in the conflict between the powers. Their competition in Europe played out in North America as well. Over a period of 74 years, six wars (the four French and Indian Wars, Father Rale's War, and Father Le Loutre's War) took place in Acadia and Nova Scotia, in which the Wabanaki Confederacy and some Acadians fought to keep the British from taking over the region. While France lost political control of Acadia in 1713, the Mí'kmaq did not concede land to the British. Along with Acadians, the Mi'kmaq from time to time used military force to resist the British. That was particularly evident in the early 1720s during Dummer's War, but hostilities were brought to a close by a treaty signed in 1726.

The British had conquered Acadia in 1710. Over the next 45 years, the Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain. Many were influenced by Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre, who from his arrival in 1738 until his capture in 1755, preached against the "English devils". [18] Father Le Loutre led the Acadian people during the Acadian Exodus, as an act of defiance towards British demands and oppression. Acadians took part in various militia operations against the British and maintained vital supply lines to the French Fortress of Louisbourg and Fort Beausejour. [19] During the French and Indian War, the British sought to neutralize any military threat posed by the Acadians and to interrupt the vital supply lines which they provided to Louisbourg by deporting Acadians from Acadia. [20] [21]

The British founded the town of Halifax and fortified it in 1749 in order to establish a base against the French. The Mi'kmaq resisted the increased number of British (Protestant) settlements by making numerous raids on Halifax, Dartmouth, Lawrencetown, and Lunenburg. During the French and Indian War, the Mi'kmaq assisted the Acadians in resisting the British during the Expulsion of the Acadians. [22]

Many Acadians might have signed an unconditional oath to the British monarchy had the circumstances been better, while other Acadians would not sign because it was religious oath which denied the Catholic faith because the British Monarch was Head of the Church of England. [23] Acadians had numerous reasons against signing an oath of loyalty to the British Crown. The British monarch was the head of the Church of England. Acadian men feared that signing the oath would commit them to fighting against France during wartime. They also worried about whether their Mi'kmaq neighbours might perceive an oath as acknowledging the British claim to Acadia rather than that of the indigenous Mi'kmaq. Acadians believed that if they signed the oath, they might put their villages at risk of attack by the Mi'kmaq. [24]

Geographical distribution

Data from this section from Statistics Canada, 2021. [1]

Provinces & territories

Province / TerritoryPercent AcadiansTotal Acadians
Flag of Alberta.svg  Alberta 0.2%10,110
Flag of British Columbia.svg  British Columbia 0.1%7,025
Flag of Manitoba.svg  Manitoba 0.1%1,465
Flag of New Brunswick.svg  New Brunswick 14.3%108,375
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg  Newfoundland and Labrador 0.2%1,100
Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg  Northwest Territories 0.7%270
Flag of Nova Scotia.svg  Nova Scotia 5.1%49,205
Flag of Nunavut.svg  Nunavut 0.3%95
Flag of Ontario.svg  Ontario 0.2%34,125
Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg  Prince Edward Island 5.5%8,265
Flag of Quebec.svg  Quebec 1.0%83,945
Flag of Saskatchewan.svg  Saskatchewan 0.1%935
Flag of Yukon.svg  Yukon 0.7%260
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Total0.78%305,175


The Deportation of Acadians by Henri Beau La Deportation des Acadiens par Henri Beau.jpg
The Deportation of Acadians by Henri Beau
St. John River Campaign: A View of the Plundering and Burning of the City of Grimross (present-day Gagetown, New Brunswick) by Thomas Davies, 1758. This is the only contemporaneous image of the Expulsion of the Acadians. A View of the Plundering and Burning of the City of Grymross, by Thomas Davies, 1758.JPG
St. John River Campaign: A View of the Plundering and Burning of the City of Grimross (present-day Gagetown, New Brunswick) by Thomas Davies, 1758. This is the only contemporaneous image of the Expulsion of the Acadians.

In the Great Expulsion (known by French speakers as le Grand Dérangement), after the Battle of Fort Beauséjour beginning in August 1755 under Lieutenant Governor Lawrence, approximately 11,500 Acadians (three-quarters of the Acadian population in Nova Scotia) were expelled, families were separated, their lands and property confiscated, and in some cases their homes were burned. The Acadians were deported to separated locations throughout the British eastern seaboard colonies, from New England to Georgia, where many were put into forced labour or imprisoned.

After 1758, thousands were transported to France. Most of the Acadians who later went to Louisiana sailed there from France on five Spanish ships. These had been provided by the Spanish Crown, which was eager to populate their Louisiana colony with Catholic settlers who might provide farmers to supply the needs of New Orleans residents. The Spanish had hired agents to seek out the dispossessed Acadians in Brittany and kept this effort secret in order to avoid angering the French king. These new arrivals from France joined the earlier wave expelled from Acadia, and gradually their descendants developed the Cajun population (which included multiracial unions and children) and culture. They continued to be attached to French culture and language, and Catholicism.

Sculptor Louis-Philippe Hebert's sculpture of Evangeline at the Grand-Pre National Historic Site in Nova Scotia Grand Pre.JPG
Sculptor Louis-Philippe Hébert's sculpture of Evangeline at the Grand-Pré National Historic Site in Nova Scotia

The Spanish offered the Acadians lowlands along the Mississippi River in order to block British expansion from the east. Some would have preferred Western Louisiana, where many of their families and friends had settled. In addition, that land was more suitable to mixed crops of agriculture. Rebels among them marched to New Orleans and ousted the Spanish governor. The Spanish later sent infantry from other colonies to put down the rebellion and execute the leaders. After the rebellion in December 1769, Spanish Governor O'Reilly permitted the Acadians who had settled across the river from Natchez to resettle along the Iberville or Amite rivers closer to New Orleans. [25]

The British conducted a second and smaller expulsion of Acadians after taking control of the north shore of what is now New Brunswick. After the fall of Quebec and defeat of the French, the British lost interest in such relocations. Many Acadians gradually returned to British North America, settling in coastal villages that were not occupied by colonists from New England. A few of the Acadians in this area had evaded the British for several years, but the brutal winter weather eventually forced them to surrender. Some returnees settled in the region of Fort Sainte-Anne, now Fredericton, but were later displaced when the Crown awarded land grants to numerous United Empire Loyalists from the Thirteen Colonies after the victory of the United States in the American Revolution. Most of the descendants of Acadian returnees now live primarily on the eastern coast of New Brunswick, Canada.

Map of the Deportation/Expulsion of the Acadians (1755-1816) Acadian deportation map.jpg
Map of the Deportation/Expulsion of the Acadians (1755-1816)

In 2003, at the request of Acadian representatives, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada issued a Royal Proclamation acknowledging the deportation. She established 28 July as an annual day of commemoration, beginning in 2005. The day is called the "Great Upheaval" on some English-language calendars.


Present-day Acadian communities The Acadians.png
Present-day Acadian communities

The Acadians today live predominantly in the Canadian Maritime provinces (New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia), as well as parts of Quebec, Canada, and in Louisiana and Maine, United States.

In New Brunswick, Acadians inhabit the northern and eastern shores of New Brunswick. Other groups of Acadians can be found in the Magdalen Islands and the Gaspé Peninsula. Ethnic Acadian descendants still live in and around the area of Madawaska, Maine, where some of the Acadians first landed and settled in what is now known as the St. John Valley. There are also Acadians in Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia, at Chéticamp, Isle Madame, and Clare. East and West Pubnico, located at the end of the province, are the oldest regions that are predominantly ethnic Acadian.

Other ethnic Acadians can be found in the southern regions of New Brunswick, Western Newfoundland and in New England. Many of these communities have assimilated to varying degrees into the majority culture of English speakers. For many families in predominantly Anglophone communities, French-language attrition has occurred, particularly in younger generations.

The Acadians who settled in Louisiana after 1764 became known as Cajuns for the culture they developed. They have had a dominant cultural influence in many parishes, particularly in the southwestern area of the state, which is known as Acadiana.


The Tintamarre in Caraquet, New Brunswick Tintamarre during National Acadian Day 2009, Caraquet New Brunswick.jpg
The Tintamarre in Caraquet, New Brunswick

Acadians are a vibrant minority, particularly in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada, and in Louisiana (Cajuns) and northern Maine, United States. Since 1994, Le Congrès Mondial Acadien has worked as an organization to unite these disparate communities and help preserve the culture.

In 1881, Acadians at the First Acadian National Convention, held in Memramcook, New Brunswick, designated 15 August, the Christian feast of the Assumption of Mary, as the national feast day of their community. On that day, the Acadians celebrate by having a tintamarre, a big parade and procession for which people dress up with the colors of Acadia and make a lot of noise and music. The national anthem of the Acadians is "Ave Maris Stella", adopted in 1884 at Miscouche, Prince Edward Island. The anthem was revised at the 1992 meeting of the Société Nationale de l'Acadie. The second, third and fourth verses were translated into French, with the first and last kept in the original Latin.

The Federation des Associations de Familles Acadiennes of New Brunswick and the Société Saint-Thomas d'Aquin of Prince Edward Island have resolved to commemorate 13 December annually as "Acadian Remembrance Day," in memory of the sinking of the Duke William and of the nearly 2,000 Acadians deported from Ile-Saint Jean who died in 1758 while being deported across the North Atlantic: from hunger, disease and drowning. [26] The event has been commemorated annually since 2004; participants mark the day by wearing a black star.

A picture of four Acadian women, 1895 Acadiennes (2).jpg
A picture of four Acadian women, 1895
Acadian woman making a rug, 1938 Acadian lady making rug 1938.jpg
Acadian woman making a rug, 1938


A statue of Longfellow's Evangeline - at St. Martinville, Louisiana Evangeline - Saint Martinville.jpg
A statue of Longfellow's Evangeline – at St. Martinville, Louisiana

American writer Henry Wadsworth Longfellow published Evangeline , an epic poem loosely based on the 1755 deportation. The poem became an American classic. Activists used it as a catalyst in reviving a distinct Acadian identity in both Maritime Canada and in Louisiana. Antonine Maillet's novel Pélagie-la-charette concerns the return voyage to Acadia of several deported families, starting 15 years after the Great Expulsion. In 1976, the Canadian-American rock group The Band released the song Acadian Driftwood, influenced by Longfellow's poem.

In the early 20th century, two statues were made of the fictional figure of "Evangeline" to commemorate the Expulsion: one was installed in St. Martinville, Louisiana and the other in Grand-Pré, Nova Scotia. The Acadian Memorial (Monument Acadien) has an eternal flame; [28] it honors the 3,000 Acadians who settled in Louisiana after the Expulsion. Monuments to the Acadian Expulsion have been erected at several sites in the Maritime Provinces, such as at Georges Island, Nova Scotia, and at Beaubears Island.


Flag of Acadiana.svg
Flag of the Acadiana region of Louisiana
Flag of the New England Acadians.svg
Flag of the New England Acadians

The flag of the Acadians is the French tricolour, with the addition of a golden star in the blue field. This symbolizes Saint Mary, Our Lady of the Assumption, patron saint of the Acadians and widely known as the "Star of the Sea". This flag was adopted in 1884 at the Second Acadian National Convention, held in Miscouche, Prince Edward Island.

Acadians in the diaspora have adopted other symbols. The flag of Acadians in Louisiana, known as Cajuns, was designed by Thomas J. Arceneaux of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. In 1974 it was adopted by the Louisiana legislature as the official emblem of the Acadiana region. The state has supported the culture, in part because it has attracted cultural and heritage tourism. [29]

In 2004 New England Acadians, who were attending Le Congrès Mondial Acadien in Nova Scotia, endorsed a design by William Cork for a New England Acadian flag. [30]

Prominent Acadians

Monument to Imprisoned Acadians at Bishops Landing, Halifax, overlooking Georges Island Acadian memorial Halifax.JPG
Monument to Imprisoned Acadians at Bishops Landing, Halifax, overlooking Georges Island

Contemporary Canadian figures

Figures in the U.S.

See also


  1. 1 2 "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". 9 February 2022.
  2. 1 2 "Acadian Culture". The Canadian Encyclopedia. 15 August 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2020.
  3. "File not found - Fichier non trouvé". Archived from the original on 25 July 2009. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  4. Landry, Nicolas; Lang, Nicole (2001). Histoire de l'Acadie. Les éditions du Septentrion. ISBN   978-2-89448-177-6.
  5. Griffiths, N.E.S. (2005). From Migrant to Acadian: A North American Border People, 1604-1755. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 47. ISBN   978-0-7735-2699-0.
  6. "Seven Years' War | The Canadian Encyclopedia". Retrieved 15 February 2023.
  7. 1 2 Lockerby, Earle (Spring 1998). "The Deportation of the Acadians from Ile St.-Jean, 1758". Acadiensis . XXVII (2): 45–94. JSTOR   30303223.
  8. John Faragher. Great and Noble Scheme, 2005.
  9. Cross, Dominick. "Acadian story brutal before it got better". The Advertiser. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  10. "The Hope and Despair of Acadian Exiles, 1755-1766". New England Historical Society. 8 January 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  11. Bernard, Shane K. (11 February 2010). Cajuns and Their Acadian Ancestors: A Young Reader's History. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN   978-1-60473-321-1.
  12. Han, Eunjung; Carbonetto, Peter; Curtis, Ross E.; Wang, Yong; Granka, Julie M.; Byrnes, Jake; Noto, Keith; Kermany, Amir R.; Myres, Natalie M. (7 February 2017). "Clustering of 770,000 genomes reveals post-colonial population structure of North America". Nature Communications. 8: 14238. Bibcode:2017NatCo...814238H. doi:10.1038/ncomms14238. ISSN   2041-1723. PMC   5309710 . PMID   28169989.
  13. "A scenic tour of New Brunswick's East Coast". WestJet Magazine. 21 August 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  14. "Canadian census, ethnic data" . Retrieved 18 March 2013. A note on interpretation: With regard to census data, rather than going by ethnic identification, some would define an Acadian as a French-speaking person living in the Maritime provinces of Canada. According to the same 2006 census, the population was 25,400 in New Brunswick; 34,025 in Nova Scotia; 32,950 in Quebec; and 5,665 in Prince Edward Island
  15. Hallowell, Gerald, ed. (2004). The Oxford companion to Canadian history . Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0195415599. OCLC   54971866.
  16. Parkman, Francis (1914) [1884]. Montcalm and Wolfe. France and England in North America. Little, Brown.
  17. Grenier, John (2008). The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710–1760. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN   978-0-8061-8566-8.
  18. Patterson, Stephen E. (1998). "Indian-White Relations in Nova Scotia, 1749–61: A Study in Political Interaction". In Buckner, Phillip Alfred; Campbell, Gail Grace; Frank, David (eds.). The Acadiensis Reader: Atlantic Canada Before Confederation. pp. 105–106. ISBN   9780919107441.
  19. Patterson, Stephen E. (1994). "1744–1763: Colonial Wars and Aboriginal Peoples". In Phillip Buckner; John G. Reid (eds.). The Atlantic Region to Confederation: A History. University of Toronto Press. p. 144. ISBN   978-1-4875-1676-5. JSTOR   10.3138/j.ctt15jjfrm.
  20. Faragher (2005), pp. 110–112.
  21. For the best account of Acadian armed resistance to the British, see Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 2008.
  22. Reid, John G. (2009). Nova Scotia: A Pocket History. Fernwood. p. 49. ISBN   978-1-55266-325-7.
  23. Holmes, Jack D.L. (1970). A Guide to Spanish Louisiana, 1762-1806. A. F. Laborde. p. 5.
  24. Pioneer Journal, Summerside, Prince Edward Island, 9 December 2009.[ full citation needed ]
  25. "Four Acadian Women | the Argyle Township Court House Archives".
  26. "Acadian Memorial - The Eternal Flame" . Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  27. "Acadian Flag". Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  28. "A New England Acadian Flag". Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  29. Scott, Shawn; Scott, Tod (2008). "Noel Doiron and East Hants Acadians". The Journal of Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society. 11: 45.

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Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755), also known as the Indian War, the Mi'kmaq War and the Anglo-Mi'kmaq War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia. On one side of the conflict, the British and New England colonists were led by British officer Charles Lawrence and New England Ranger John Gorham. On the other side, Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre led the Mi'kmaq and the Acadia militia in guerrilla warfare against settlers and British forces. At the outbreak of the war there were an estimated 2500 Mi'kmaq and 12,000 Acadians in the region.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Acadian Exodus</span> Flight and Relocation of Acadians during Father Le Loutres War

The Acadian Exodus happened during Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755) and involved almost half of the total Acadian population of Nova Scotia deciding to relocate to French controlled territories. The three primary destinations were: the west side of the Mesagoueche River in the Chignecto region, Isle Saint-Jean and Île-Royale. The leader of the Exodus was Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre, whom the British gave the code name "Moses". Le Loutre acted in conjunction with Governor of New France Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière who encouraged the Acadian migration. A prominent Acadian who transported Acadians to Ile St. Jean and Ile Royal was Joseph-Nicolas Gautier. The overall upheaval of the early 1750s in Nova Scotia was unprecedented. Present-day Atlantic Canada witnessed more population movements, more fortification construction, and more troop allocations than ever before in the region. The greatest immigration of the Acadians between 1749 and 1755 took place in 1750. Primarily due to natural disasters and British raids, the Exodus proved to be unsustainable when Acadians tried to develop communities in the French territories.

Daniel LeBlanc was an early settler of the Port Royal area of Acadia, in what is now Canada and the United States, and ancestor to many LeBlancs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Military history of Nova Scotia</span> Provincial military history

Nova Scotia is a Canadian province located in Canada's Maritimes. The region was initially occupied by Mi'kmaq. The colonial history of Nova Scotia includes the present-day Canadian Maritime provinces and the northern part of Maine, all of which were at one time part of Nova Scotia. In 1763 Cape Breton Island and St. John's Island became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province was established in 1784. During the first 150 years of European settlement, the colony was primarily made up of Catholic Acadians, Maliseet and Mi'kmaq. During the latter seventy-five years of this time period, there were six colonial wars that took place in Nova Scotia. After agreeing to several peace treaties, this long period of warfare ended with the Halifax Treaties (1761) and two years later when the British defeated the French in North America (1763). During these wars, Acadians, Mi'kmaq and Maliseet from the region fought to protect the border of Acadia from New England. They fought the war on two fronts: the southern border of Acadia, which New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. The other front was in Nova Scotia and involved preventing New Englanders from taking the capital of Acadia, Port Royal, establishing themselves at Canso.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Acadian cuisine</span> Cuisine of the Acadian people

Acadian cuisine comprises the traditional dishes of the Acadian people. It is primarily seen in the present-day cultural region of Acadia. Acadian cuisine has been influenced by the Deportation of the Acadians, proximity to the ocean, the Canadian winter, bad soil fertility, the cuisine of Quebec, American cuisine, and English cuisine, among other factors.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Military history of the Acadians</span>

The military history of the Acadians consisted primarily of militias made up of Acadian settlers who participated in wars against the English in coordination with the Wabanaki Confederacy and French royal forces. A number of Acadians provided military intelligence, sanctuary, and logistical support to the various resistance movements against British rule in Acadia, while other Acadians remained neutral in the contest between the Franco–Wabanaki Confederacy forces and the British. The Acadian militias managed to maintain an effective resistance movement for more than 75 years and through six wars before their eventual demise. According to Acadian historian Maurice Basque, the story of Evangeline continues to influence historic accounts of the expulsion, emphasising Acadians who remained neutral and de-emphasising those who joined resistance movements. While Acadian militias were briefly active during the American Revolutionary War, the militias were dormant throughout the nineteenth century. After confederation, Acadians eventually joined the Canadian War efforts in World War I and World War II. The most well-known colonial leaders of these militias were Joseph Broussard and Joseph-Nicolas Gautier.


Further reading