Acapulco

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Acapulco
City and municipality
Acapulco de Juárez
Collage Acapulco.jpg
Top, from left to right: Acapulco Bay, The Huntress Diana Fountain, Fort of San Diego, the tourist area of Acapulco Diamante, the bay of Puerto Marques, Our Lady of Solitude Cathedral, La Quebrada, the Island of La Roqueta and panoramic view of the bay.
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Coat of arms
Mexico Guerrero location map.svg
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Acapulco
Location of Acapulco within Guerrero
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Acapulco
Acapulco (Mexico)
Coordinates: 16°51′49″N99°52′57″W / 16.86361°N 99.88250°W / 16.86361; -99.88250 Coordinates: 16°51′49″N99°52′57″W / 16.86361°N 99.88250°W / 16.86361; -99.88250
CountryFlag of Mexico.svg  Mexico
State Guerrero
FoundedMarch 12, 1550
Government
   Mayor Adela Román ( Morena logo (Mexico).svg )
Area
  Municipality1,880.60 km2 (726.10 sq mi)
  Urban
85 km2 (33 sq mi)
  Metro
3,538.5 km2 (1,366.2 sq mi)
Elevation
(of seat)
30 m (100 ft)
Population
(2012)
  Municipality687,608
  Density370/km2 (950/sq mi)
   Metro
1,021,000
Demonyms Acapulqueño (a)
Porteño (a)
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal codes
39300–39937
Area code(s) 744
Website Official website (in Spanish)

Acapulco de Juárez (Spanish:  [akaˈpulko ðe ˈxwaɾes] Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation  ), commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 380 kilometres (240 mi) south of Mexico City. Acapulco is located on a deep, semicircular bay and has been a port since the early colonial period of Mexico's history. [1] It is a port of call for shipping and cruise lines running between Panama and San Francisco, California, United States. [2] The city of Acapulco is the largest in the state, far larger than the state capital Chilpancingo. Acapulco is also Mexico's largest beach and balneario resort city. [3]

Municipalities are the second-level administrative divisions of Mexico, where the first-level administrative division is the state. As of the establishment of two new municipalities in Chiapas in September 2017, there are 2,448 municipalities in Mexico, not including the 16 delegaciones of Mexico City. The internal political organization and their responsibilities are outlined in the 115th article of the 1917 Constitution and detailed in the constitutions of the states to which they belong.

Guerrero State of Mexico

Guerrero, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guerrero, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 81 municipalities and its capital city is Chilpancingo and its largest city is Acapulco.

Contents

The city is one of Mexico's oldest beach resorts, which came into prominence in the 1940s through to the 1960s as a getaway for Hollywood stars and millionaires. [4] Acapulco was once a popular tourist resort, but due to a massive upsurge in gang violence and murder since 2014 it no longer attracts many foreign tourists, and most now only come from Mexico itself. It is the deadliest city in Mexico [5] and the third-deadliest city in the world, [6] and the US government has warned its citizens not to travel there. [7] In 2016 there were 918 murders, [5] and the homicide rate was one of the highest in the world: 103 in every 100,000. [8] [9] In September 2018 the city's entire police force was disarmed by the military, due to suspicions that it has been infiltrated by drugs gangs. [10] A health crisis has developed due to large quantities of uncollected refuse building up in the streets. [11]

The resort area is divided into three parts: The north end of the bay and beyond is the "traditional" area, which encompasses the area from Parque Papagayo through the Zócalo and onto the beaches of Caleta and Caletilla, the main part of the bay known as "Zona Dorada" ('golden zone' in Spanish), where the famous in the mid-20th century vacationed, and the south end, "Diamante" ('diamond' in Spanish), which is dominated by newer luxury high-rise hotels and condominiums.

The Zócalo is the common name of the main square in central Mexico City. Prior to the colonial period, it was the main ceremonial center in the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan. The plaza used to be known simply as the "Main Square" or "Arms Square", and today its formal name is Plaza de la Constitución. This name does not come from any of the Mexican constitutions that have governed the country but rather from the Cádiz Constitution which was signed in Spain in the year 1812. Even so, it is almost always called the Zócalo today. Plans were made to erect a column as a monument to Independence, but only the base, or zócalo was built. The plinth was buried long ago but the name has lived on. Many other Mexican towns and cities, such as Oaxaca, Mérida and Guadalajara, have adopted the word zócalo to refer to their main plazas, but not all.

The name "Acapulco" comes from Nahuatl language Aca-pōl-co, and means "where the reeds were destroyed or washed away". [12] The "de Juárez" was added to the official name in 1885 to honor Benito Juárez, former President of Mexico (1806–1872). The seal for the city shows broken reeds or cane. [1] The island and municipality of Capul, in the Philippines, derives its name from Acapulco; Capul. Acapulco was the eastern end of the trans-Pacific sailing route from Acapulco to Manila, in what was then a Spanish colony.

Nahuatl, known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family. Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by about 1.7 million Nahua peoples, most of whom live in central Mexico.

Benito Juárez President of Mexico during XIX century

Benito Pablo Juárez García was a Mexican lawyer and president of Mexico, of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.

President of Mexico Head of state of the country of Mexico

The President of Mexico, officially known as the President of the United Mexican States, is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces. The current President is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on December 1, 2018.

History

Pre-Columbian

A 1628 relief atlas of Acapulco Bay. Puerto de Acapulco Boot 1628.png
A 1628 relief atlas of Acapulco Bay.

By the 8th century around the Acapulco Bay area, there was a small culture which would first be dominated by the Olmecs, then by a number of others during the pre-Hispanic period and before it ended in the 1520s. At Acapulco Bay itself, there were two Olmec sites, one by Playa Larga and the other on a hill known as El Guitarrón. Olmec influence caused the small spread-out villages here to coalesce into larger entities and build ceremonial centers. [1]

Later, Teotihuacan influence made its way here via Cuernavaca and Chilpancingo. Then Mayan influence arrived from the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and through what is now Oaxaca. This history is known through the archaeological artifacts that have been found here, especially at Playa Hornos, Pie de la Cuesta,and Tambuco. [1]

Teotihuacan pre-Columbian Mesoamerican city located in a sub valley of the Valley of Mexico

Teotihuacan, , is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico 40 kilometres (25 mi) northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas. After the collapse of Teotihuacan central Mexico was dominated by the Toltecs of Tula until about 1150 CE. At its zenith, perhaps in the first half of the 1st millennium CE, Teotihuacan was the largest city in the pre-Columbian Americas, with a population estimated at 125,000 or more, making it at least the sixth largest city in the world during its epoch. The city covered 8 square miles; 80 to 90 percent of the total population of the valley resided in Teotihuacan. Apart from the pyramids, Teotihuacan is also anthropologically significant for its complex, multi-family residential compounds, the Avenue of the Dead, and its vibrant murals that have been well-preserved. Additionally, Teotihuacan exported fine obsidian tools that are found throughout Mesoamerica. The city is thought to have been established around 100 BCE, with major monuments continuously under construction until about 250 CE. The city may have lasted until sometime between the 7th and 8th centuries CE, but its major monuments were sacked and systematically burned around 550 CE.

Cuernavaca City and Municipality in Morelos, Mexico

Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. The city is located around a 90 min drive south of Mexico City using the Federal Highway 95D.

Maya civilization Mesoamerican former civilization

The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system. The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador. This region consists of the northern lowlands encompassing the Yucatán Peninsula, and the highlands of the Sierra Madre, running from the Mexican state of Chiapas, across southern Guatemala and onwards into El Salvador, and the southern lowlands of the Pacific littoral plain.

In the 11th century, new waves of migration of Nahuas and Coixas came through here. These people were the antecedents of the Aztecs. In the later 15th century, after four years of military struggle, Acapulco became part of the Aztec empire during the reign of Ahuizotl (1486–1502). It was annexed to a tributary province named Tepecuacuilco. However, this was only transitory, as the Aztecs could only establish an unorganized military post at the city's outskirts. The city was on territory under control of the Yopes, who continued defending it and living there until the arrival of the Spanish in the 1520s. [1] [13]

16th century

There are two stories about how Acapulco bay was discovered by Europeans. The first states that two years after the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, Hernán Cortés sent explorers west to find gold. The explorers had subdued this area after 1523, and Captain Saavedra Cerón was authorized by Cortés to found a settlement here. The other states that the bay was discovered on December 13, 1526 by a small ship named the El Tepache Santiago captained by Santiago Guevara. [1] The first encomendero was established in 1525 at Cacahuatepec, which is part of the modern Acapulco municipality. In 1531, a number of Spaniards, most notably Juan Rodriguez de Villafuerte, left the Oaxaca coast and founded the village of Villafuerte where the city of Acapulco now stands. Villafuerte was unable to subdue the local native peoples, and this eventually resulted in the Yopa Rebellion in the region of Cuautepec. Hernán Cortés was obligated to send Vasco Porcayo to negotiate with the indigenous people giving concessions. The province of Acapulco became the encomendero of Rodriguez de Villafuerte who received taxes in the form of cocoa, cotton and corn. [1]

Codex Tudela: "Acapulco's Yope Indian, at the South Sea" Yope Acapulco.png
Codex Tudela: "Acapulco's Yope Indian, at the South Sea"
View of Acapulco, 1879, oil painting by Carl Saltzmann Carl Saltzmann - View of Acapulco, 1879.jpg
View of Acapulco, 1879, oil painting by Carl Saltzmann

Cortés established Acapulco as a major port by the early 1530s, with the first major road between Mexico City and the port constructed by 1531. The wharf, named Marqués, was constructed by 1533 between Bruja Point and Diamond Point. Soon after, the area was made an "alcadia" (major province or town). [1]

Spanish trade in the Far East would give Acapulco a prominent position in the economy of New Spain. Galleons started arriving here from Asia by 1550, and in that year thirty Spanish families were sent to live here from Mexico City to have a permanent base of European residents. [1] Acapulco would become the second most important port, after Veracruz, due to its direct trade with the Philippines. This trade would focus on the yearly Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade, which was the nexus of all kinds of communications between New Spain, Europe and Asia. In 1573, the port was granted the monopoly of the Manila trade. [2]

17th–19th centuries

The galleon trade made its yearly run from the mid-16th century until the early 19th. The luxury items it brought to New Spain attracted the attention of English and Dutch pirates, such as Francis Drake, Henry Morgan and Thomas Cavendish, who called it "The Black Ship." A Dutch fleet invaded Acapulco in 1615, destroying much of the town before being driven off. The Fort of San Diego was built the following year to protect the port and the cargo of arriving ships. The fort was destroyed by an earthquake in 1776 and was rebuilt between 1778 and 1783. At the beginning of the 19th century, King Charles IV declared Acapulco a Ciudad Official and it became an essential part of the Spanish Crown. However, not long after, the Mexican War of Independence began. In 1810, José María Morelos y Pavón attacked and burnt down the city, after he defeated royalist commander Francisco Parés at the Battle of Tres Palos. [1] The independence of Mexico in 1821 ended the run of the Manila Galleon. Acapulco's importance as a port recovered during the California Gold Rush in the mid-19th-century, with ships going to and coming from Panama stopping here. This city was the besieged on 19 April 1854 by Antonio López de Santa Anna after Guerrero's leadership had rebelled by issuing the Plan de Ayutla. After an unsuccessful week of fighting, Santa Anna retreated. [14]

20th century

In 1911, revolutionary forces took over the main plaza of Acapulco. [1] In 1920, the Prince of Wales (the future King Edward VIII) visited the area. Impressed by what he saw, he recommended the place to his compatriots in Europe, making it popular with the elite there.[ citation needed ] Much of the original hotel and trading infrastructure was built by an East Texas businessman named Albert B. Pullen from Corrigan, Texas, in the area now known as Old Acapulco. In 1933 Carlos Barnard started the first section of Hotel El Mirador, with 12 rooms on the cliffs of La Quebrada.[ citation needed ] Wolf Schoenborn purchased large amounts of undeveloped land and Albert Pullen built the Las Americas Hotel[ citation needed ].

In the mid-1940s, the first commercial wharf and warehouses were built. [2] In the early 1950s, President Miguel Alemán Valdés upgraded the port's infrastructure, installing electrical lines, drainage systems, roads and the first highway to connect the port with Mexico City.

The Bay of Acapulco from the top of Palma Sola Acapulco - Palmasola-Punto-mas-alto.JPG
The Bay of Acapulco from the top of Palma Sola

The economy grew and foreign investment increased with it. During the 1950s, Acapulco became the fashionable place for millionaire Hollywood stars such as Elizabeth Taylor, Frank Sinatra, Eddie Fisher and Brigitte Bardot. The 1963 Hollywood movie Fun in Acapulco , starring Elvis Presley, is set in Acapulco although the filming took place in the USA. Former swing musician Teddy Stauffer, so-called "Mister Acapulco", was a hotel manager ("Villa Vera", "Casablanca"), who attracted many celebrities to Acapulco. [15]

From a population of only 4,000 or 5,000 in the 1940s, by the early 1960s, Acapulco had a population of about 50,000. [16] In 1958, the Diocese of Acapulco was created by Pope Pius XII. It became an archdiocese in 1983. [17]

During the 1960s and 1970s, new hotel resorts were built, and accommodation and transport were made cheaper. It was no longer necessary to be a millionaire to spend a holiday in Acapulco; the foreign and Mexican middle class could now afford to travel here. However, as more hotels were built in the south part of the bay, the old hotels of the 1950s lost their grandeur. [18] For the 1968 Summer Olympics in neighboring Mexico City, Acapulco hosted the sailing (then yachting) events.

In the 1970s, there was a significant expansion of the port. [2]

The Miss Universe 1978 pageant took place in the city.[ citation needed ] In 1983, singer-songwriter Juan Gabriel wrote the song "Amor eterno", which pays homage to Acapulco. The song was first and most famously recorded by Rocio Durcal. Additionally, Acapulco is the hometown of actress, singer, and comedian Aída Pierce, who found fame during the 1980s, 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century.

During the 1990s, the tollway known as the Ruta del Sol was built, crossing the mountains between Mexico City and Acapulco. The journey takes only about three and a half hours, making Acapulco a favorite weekend destination for Mexico City inhabitants. It was in that time period that the economic impact of Acapulco as a tourist destination increased positively and as a result a new type of services emerged like the Colegio Nautilus. This educational project, backed by the state government, was created for the families of local and foreign investors and businessmen living in Acapulco who were in need of a bilingual and international education for their children.[ citation needed ]

The port continued to grow and in 1996, a new private company, API Acapulco, was created to manage operations. This consolidated operations and now Acapulco is the major port for car exports to the Pacific. [2]

Acapulco skyline Acapulco zona hotelera 02.jpg
Acapulco skyline

The city was devastated by Hurricane Pauline in 1997. The storm stranded tourists and left more than 100 dead in the city. Most of the victims were from the shantytowns built on steep hillsides that surround the city. Other victims were swept away by thirty-foot waves and 150 mph (240 km/h) winds. The main road, Avenida Costera, became a fast-moving three-foot-deep river of sludge. [19]

21st century

In the 21st century, the Mexican Drug War has had a negative effect on tourism in Acapulco as rival drug traffickers fight each other for the Guerrero coast route that brings drugs from South America as well as soldiers that have been fighting the cartels since 2006.

A major gun battle between 18 gunmen and soldiers took place in the summer of 2009 in the Old Acapulco seaside area, lasting hours and killing 16 of the gunmen and two soldiers. [18] [20] This came after the swine flu outbreak earlier in the year nearly paralyzed the Mexican economy, forcing hotels to give discounts to bring tourists back. [20] However, hotel occupancy for 2009 was down five percent from the year before. [21] The death of Arturo Beltran Leyva in December 2009 resulted in infighting among different groups within the Beltran Leyva cartel. [22]

Gang violence continued to plague Acapulco through 2010 and into 2011, most notably with at least 15 dying in drug-related violence on March 13, 2010, and another 15 deaths on January 8, 2011. Among the first incident's dead were six members of the city police and the brother of an ex-mayor. [23] In the second incident, the headless bodies of 15 young men were found dumped near the Plaza Senderos shopping center. [24] On August 20, 2011, Mexican authorities reported that five headless bodies were found in Acapulco, three of which were placed in the city's main tourist area and two of which were cut into multiple pieces. [22]

On February 4, 2013, six Spanish men were tied up and robbed and the six Spanish women with them were gang-raped by five masked gunmen who stormed a beach house on the outskirts of Acapulco, though after these accusations, none of the victims decided to press charges. [25] On September 28, 2014, Mexican politician Braulio Zaragoza was gunned down at the El Mirador hotel in the city. He was the leader of the conservative opposition National Action Party (PAN) in southern Guerrero state. Several politicians have been targeted by drug cartels operating in the area. Investigations are under way, but no arrests have yet been made. [26] The insecurity due to individuals involved with drug cartels has cost the city of Acapulco its popularity among national and international tourists. It was stated by the Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil that the number of international flyers coming to Acapulco decreased from 355,760 flyers registered in 2006 to 52,684 flyers in the year 2015, the number of international tourists flying to Acapulco dropped 85% in the interval of nine years. [27]

Acapulco4.jpg
Panoramic view of the bay.

Geography and climate

The city, located on the Pacific coast of Mexico in the state of Guerrero, is classified as one of the state's seven regions, dividing the rest of the Guerrero coast into the Costa Grande and the Costa Chica. [28] Forty percent of the municipality is mountainous terrain. Another forty percent is semi-flat, and the other twenty percent is flat. Altitude varies from sea level to 1,699 metres (5,574 feet). The highest peaks are Potrero, San Nicolas, and Alto Camarón. There is one major river, the Papagayo, which runs through the municipality, along with a number of arroyos (streams). There are also two small lagoons, Tres Palos and Coyuca. along with a number of thermal springs. [29]

Acapulco features a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen: Aw): hot with distinct wet and dry seasons, with more even temperatures between seasons than resorts farther north in Mexico, but this varies depending on altitude. The warmest areas are next to the sea where the city is. Tropical storms and hurricanes are threats from May through November. The forested area tends to lose leaves during the winter dry season, with evergreen pines in the highest elevations. Fauna consists mostly of deer, small mammals, a wide variety of both land and seabirds, and marine animals such as turtles. [1] Oddly enough, January, its coolest month, also features its all-time record high.

Climate data for Acapulco (1951–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)39.5
(103.1)
35.5
(95.9)
35.5
(95.9)
37.0
(98.6)
38.0
(100.4)
36.0
(96.8)
37.5
(99.5)
37.5
(99.5)
36.0
(96.8)
36.0
(96.8)
35.5
(95.9)
36.5
(97.7)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F)30.4
(86.7)
30.4
(86.7)
30.4
(86.7)
30.8
(87.4)
31.6
(88.9)
31.9
(89.4)
32.3
(90.1)
32.2
(90.0)
31.6
(88.9)
31.7
(89.1)
31.4
(88.5)
30.9
(87.6)
31.3
(88.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.8
(80.2)
27.0
(80.6)
26.9
(80.4)
27.4
(81.3)
28.3
(82.9)
28.5
(83.3)
28.7
(83.7)
28.6
(83.5)
28.2
(82.8)
28.4
(83.1)
28.1
(82.6)
27.5
(81.5)
27.9
(82.2)
Average low °C (°F)23.3
(73.9)
23.5
(74.3)
23.5
(74.3)
24.0
(75.2)
25.1
(77.2)
25.2
(77.4)
25.1
(77.2)
25.1
(77.2)
24.7
(76.5)
25.1
(77.2)
24.8
(76.6)
24.1
(75.4)
24.5
(76.1)
Record low °C (°F)18.5
(65.3)
19.5
(67.1)
17.0
(62.6)
16.0
(60.8)
19.0
(66.2)
18.0
(64.4)
19.0
(66.2)
19.0
(66.2)
20.5
(68.9)
16.0
(60.8)
20.0
(68.0)
20.0
(68.0)
16.0
(60.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)14.8
(0.58)
5.8
(0.23)
2.2
(0.09)
3.2
(0.13)
26.1
(1.03)
263.3
(10.37)
246.9
(9.72)
295.2
(11.62)
309.6
(12.19)
138.8
(5.46)
20.1
(0.79)
10.8
(0.43)
1,336.8
(52.63)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)1.00.40.30.22.612.412.413.614.37.91.70.867.6
Average relative humidity (%)74737274747576767877757575
Mean monthly sunshine hours 272.2249.4287.0273.5252.2205.9223.5230.5194.0244.8256.8255.32,945.1
Source #1: Servicio Meteorologico Nacional (humidity 1981–2000) [30] [31]
Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990) [32]
Acapulco mean sea temperature [33]
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
28.1 °C (82.6 °F)28.2 °C (82.8 °F)27.6 °C (81.7 °F)28.6 °C (83.5 °F)29.4 °C (84.9 °F)29.7 °C (85.5 °F)29.9 °C (85.8 °F)30.0 °C (86.0 °F)29.9 °C (85.8 °F)29.5 °C (85.1 °F)29.1 °C (84.4 °F)28.7 °C (83.7 °F)

The temperature of the sea is quite stable, with lows of 82 °F (28 °C) between January – March, and a high of 86 °F (30 °C) in August. [34]

Government

A view of Acapulco's beach with a Bandera monumental in the background Flag of Mexico in Acapulco.jpg
A view of Acapulco's beach with a Bandera monumental in the background

As the seat of a municipality, the city of Acapulco is the government authority for over 700 other communities, [3] which together have a territory of 1,880.60 km2. [1] This municipality borders the municipalities of Chilpancingo, Juan R Escudero (Tierra Colorada), San Marcos, Coyuca de Benítez with the Pacific Ocean to the south.

The metropolitan area is made up of the municipalities of Acapulco de Juárez and Coyuca de Benitez. The area has a population (as of 2005) of 786,830. [35]

Demographics

Population

Acapulco is the most populated city in the state of Guerrero, according to the results of the II Population and Housing Census 2010 carried out by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI) with a census date of June 12, 2010, The city had until then a total population of 673 479 inhabitants, of that amount, 324 746 were men and 348 733 women. It is considered the twenty-second most populous city in Mexico and the tenth most populous metropolitan area in Mexico. It is also the city with the highest concentration of population of the homonymous municipality, representing 85.25 percent of the 789.971 inhabitants. [36]

The metropolitan area of Acapulco is made up of six towns in the municipality of Acapulco de Juárez and four in the municipality of Coyuca de Benítez. In agreement with the last count and official delimitation realized in 2010 altogether by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography, the National Council of Population and the Secretariat of Social Development, the metropolitan area of Acapulco grouped a total of 863 431 inhabitants in a surface of 3 538.5 km², which placed it as the tenth most populated district in Mexico. It is estimated according to a study by the National Autonomous University of Mexico on climate and geography, carried out in 2002, that between 2015 and 2020 the city of Acapulco will exceed one million inhabitants.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1900 4,932    
1910 5,900+19.6%
1921 5,768−2.2%
1930 6,529+13.2%
1940 9,993+53.1%
1950 28,512+185.3%
1960 49,149+72.4%
1970 174,378+254.8%
1980 301,902+73.1%
1990 515,374+70.7%
1995 592,528+15.0%
2000 620,656+4.7%
2005 616,394−0.7%
2010 673,479+9.3%
Acapulco

Notas

      Source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía

  •       Population census (1895 - 1990, 2000 and 2010) [37]
  •       Population Counts (1995 and 2005) [37]

    Economy

    Tourism is the main economic activity of the municipality and most of this is centered on Acapulco Bay. About seventy-three percent of the municipality's population is involved in commerce, most of it related to tourism and the port. Mining and manufacturing employ less than twenty percent and only about five percent is dedicated to agriculture. Industrial production is limited mostly to bottling, milk products, cement products, and ice and energy production. Agricultural products include tomatoes, corn, watermelon, beans, green chili peppers, and melons. [1]

    Tourism

    La Quebrada Saltadores de La Quebrada en Acapulco.jpg
    La Quebrada
    Acapulco bay Vista desde un hotel en Acapulco.jpg
    Acapulco bay
    Diamante Skyscrapers in Acapulco Diamante.jpg
    Diamante

    Acapulco is one of Mexico's oldest coastal tourist destinations, reaching prominence in the 1950s as the place where Hollywood stars and millionaires vacationed on the beach in an exotic locale. [38] In modern times, tourists in Acapulco have been facing problems with corrupt local police who steal money by extortion and intimidate visitors with threats of jail. [39] [40] [41]

    The city is divided into three tourist areas:

    Traditional Acapulco is the old part of the port, where hotels like Hotel Los Flamingos, owned by personalities Johnny Weissmuller and John Wayne are located, is on the northern end of the bay. Anchored by attractions such as the beaches of Caleta and Caletilla, the cliff divers of La Quebrada, and the city square, known as El Zocalo. The heyday of this part of Acapulco ran from the late 30s until the 60s. Starting in the late 50s, and with development continuing through the 80s. [42] [38]

    Acapulco Dorado had its development between the 1950s and the 1970s, and is about 25 minutes from the Acapulco International Airport. It is the area that presents the most tourist influx in the port, runs through much of the Acapulco bay, from Icacos, passing through Costera Miguel Aleman Avenue, which is the main one, to Papagayo Park. It has several hotels and availability in them. Acapulco Diamante, also known as Punta Diamante, is the newest and most developed and investment part of the port, consisting of exclusive hotels and resorts of international chains, residential complexes, luxury condominiums and private villas, spas, restaurants, shopping areas and a golf course All the above makes it one of the most exclusive places in the country. Starts on the Scenic Highway in Las Brisas, includes Puerto Marqués and Punta Diamante and extends to Barra Vieja Beach. It is 10 minutes from the Acapulco International Airport.

    Acapulco Diamante, also known as Punta Diamante, is the newest and most developed and investment part of the port, consisting of exclusive hotels and resorts of international chains, residential complexes, luxury condominiums and private villas, spas, restaurants, shopping areas and a golf course, connected by the highway La Escenica, includes Playa Diamante and Puerto Marqués, and stretches from the airport to the mountains that separates it from the bay. In this area, all along Boulevard de las Naciones, almost all transportation is by car, limousine or golf cart. [42] The older section of town now caters to mostly middle class, almost exclusively Mexican clientele, while the glitzier newer section caters to the Mexican upper classes, many of whom never venture into the older, traditional part of town. [38]

    Acapulco's reputation of a high-energy party town and the nightlife have long been draws of the city for tourists. From November to April, luxury liners stop here daily and include ships such as the MS Queen Victoria, the MS Rotterdam, Crystal Harmony , and all the Princess line ships. Despite Acapulco's international fame, most of its visitors are from central Mexico, especially the affluent from Mexico City. [42] Acapulco is one of the embarkation ports for the Mexican cruise line Ocean Star Cruises. [43]

    For the Christmas season of 2009, Acapulco received 470,000 visitors, most of whom are Mexican nationals, adding 785 million pesos to the economy. Eighty percent arrive by land and eighteen percent by air. [44] The area has over 25,000 condominiums, most of which function as second homes for their Mexican owners. [42] Acapulco is still popular with Mexican celebrities and the wealthy, such as Luis Miguel, Plácido Domingo, and Dolores Olmedo, who maintain homes here.

    Problems

    Marques Port JLNYCAcapulcoBay.jpg
    Marqués Port

    While much of the glitz and glamour that made Acapulco famous still remains, from the latter 20th century on, the city has also taken on other less-positive reputations. Some consider it a passé resort, eclipsed by the newer Cancún and Cabo San Lucas.[ citation needed ] Over the years, a number of problems have developed here, especially in the bay and the older sections of the city. The large number of wandering vendors on the beaches, who offer everything from newspapers to massages, are a recognized problem. It is a bother to tourists who simply want to relax on the beach, but the government says it is difficult to eradicate, as there is a lot of unemployment and poverty here. [45] Around the city are many small shantytowns that cling to the mountainsides, populated by migrants who have come here looking for work. In the last decade, drug-related violence has caused massive problems for the local tourism trade.

    Another problem is the garbage that has accumulated in the bay. Although 60.65 tons have recently been extracted from the bays of Acapulco and nearby Zihuatanejo, more needs to be done. Most of trash removal during the off seasons is done on the beaches and in the waters closest to them. However, the center of the bay is not touched. The reason trash winds up in the bay is that it is common here to throw it in streets, rivers and the bay itself. The most common items cleaned out of the bay are beer bottles and car tires. [46] Acapulco has seen some success in this area, having several beaches receiving the high "blue flag" certifications for cleanliness and water quality.[ citation needed ]

    Gastronomy

    Acapulco's gastronomy is very rich, the following are typical dishes from the region: Relleno is baked pork with a variety of vegetables and fruits such as potatoes, raisins, carrots and chiles. It is eaten with bread called bolillo. Pozole is a soup with a salsa base (it can be white, red or green), corn, meat that can be either pork or chicken and it is accompanied with antojitos (snacks) like tostadas, tacos and tamales. This dish is served as part of a weekly Thursday event in the city and the state, with many restaurants offering the meal with special entertainment, from bands to dancers to celebrity impersonators.[ citation needed ]

    Attractions

    Papagayo Park Papagayo Park in Acapulco Mexico 1.jpg
    Papagayo Park

    Acapulco's main attraction is its nightlife, as it has been for many decades. [47] Nightclubs change names and owners frequently. For example, Baby ‘O has been open to the national and international public since 1976 and different celebrities have visited their installations such as Mexican singer Luis Miguel, Bono from U2 and Sylvester Stallone. Another nightclub is Palladium, located in the Escénica Avenue, the location gives the nightclub a beautiful view of the Santa Lucia Bay at night. Various DJs have had performances in Palladium among them DVBBS, Tom Swoon, Nervo and Junkie KID.[ citation needed ]

    Informal lobby or poolside cocktail bars often offer free live entertainment. In addition, there is the beach bar zone, where younger crowds go. These are located along the Costera road, face the ocean and feature techno or alternative rock. Most are concentrated between the Fiesta Americana and Continental Plaza hotels. These places tend to open earlier and have more informal dress. There is a bungee jump in this area as well. [48]

    La Quebrada Cliff Divers Cliffdivers in La Quebrada, Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico.jpg
    La Quebrada Cliff Divers

    Another enigmatic attraction at Acapulco are the La Quebrada Cliff Divers. [49] The tradition started in the 1930s when young men casually competed against each other to see who could dive from the highest point into the sea below. Eventually, locals began to ask for tips for those coming to see the men dive. [50] Today the divers are professionals, [50] diving from heights of forty metres (130 feet) into an inlet that is only seven m (23 ft) wide and four m (13 ft) deep, after praying first at a shrine to the Virgin of Guadalupe. [49] On December 12, the feast day of this Virgin, freestyle cliff divers jump into the sea to honor her. Dives range from the simple to the complicated and end with the "Ocean of Fire" when the sea is lit with gasoline, making a circle of flames which the diver aims for. [50] The spectacle can be seen from a public area which charges a small fee or from the Hotel Plaza Las Glorias/El Mirador from its bar or restaurant terrace. [49]

    There are a number of beaches in the Acapulco Bay and the immediate coastline. In the bay proper there are the La Angosta (in the Quebrada), Caleta, Caletilla, Dominguillo, Tlacopanocha, Hornos, Hornitos, Honda, Tamarindo, Condesa, Guitarrón, Icacos, Playuela, Playuelilla and Playa del Secreto. In the adjoining, smaller Bay of Puerto Marqués there is Pichilingue, Las Brisas, and Playa Roqueta. Facing open ocean just northwest of the bays is Pie de la Cuesta and southeast are Playa Revolcadero, Playa Aeromar, Playa Encantada and Barra Vieja. Two lagoons are in the area, Coyuca to the northwest of Acapulco Bay and Tres Palos to the southeast. Both lagoons have mangroves and offer boat tours. Tres Palos also has sea turtle nesting areas which are protected. [51]

    In addition to sunbathing, the beaches around the bay offer a number of services, such as boat rentals, boat tours, horseback riding, scuba diving and other aquatic sports. One popular cruise is from Caletilla Beach to Roqueta Island, which has places to snorkel, have lunch, and a lighthouse. There is also an underwater statue of the Virgin of Guadalupe here, created in 1958 by Armando Quesado in memory of a group of divers who died here. Many of the scuba-diving tours come to this area as well, where there are sunken ships, sea mountains, and cave rock formations. [52] Another popular activity is deep-sea fishing. The major attraction is sail fishing. Fish caught here have weighed between 89 and 200 pounds. Sailfish are so plentiful that boat captains have been known to bet with a potential customer that if he does not catch anything, the trip is free. [52]

    In the old part of the city, there is a traditional main square called the Zócalo, lined with shade trees, cafés and shops. At the north end of the square is Nuestra Señora de la Soledad cathedral, with blue onion-shaped domes and Byzantine towers. The building was originally constructed as a movie set, but was later adapted into a church. [52] Acapulco's most historic building is the Fort of San Diego, located east of the main square and originally built in 1616 to protect the city from pirate attacks. [49] The fort was partially destroyed by the Dutch in the mid-17th century, rebuilt, then destroyed again in 1776 by an earthquake. It was rebuilt again by 1783 and this is the building that can be seen today, unchanged except for renovations done to it in 2000. Parts of the moats remain as well as the five bulwarks and the battlements. [53] [54] Today the fort serves as the Museo Histórico de Acapulco (Acapulco Historical Museum), which shows the port's history from the pre-Hispanic period until independence. There are temporary exhibits as well. [49]

    Tlacopanocha, or Tlaco de Panocha, is one of the city's main beaches Crowne Plaza Hotel in Acapulco, Mexico.jpg
    Tlacopanocha, or Tlaco de Panocha, is one of the city's main beaches

    The Centro Internacional de Convivencia Infantil or CICI is a sea-life and aquatic park located on Costera Miguel Aleman. It offers wave pools, water slides and water toboggans. There are also dolphin shows daily and a swim with dolphins program. The center mostly caters to children. [49] [51] Another place that is popular with children is the Parque Papagayo: a large family park which has life-sized replicas of a Spanish galleon and the space shuttle Columbia, three artificial lakes, an aviary, a skating rink, rides, go-karts and more. [51]

    The Dolores Olmedo House is located in the traditional downtown of Acapulco and is noted for the murals by Diego Rivera that adorn it. Olmedo and Rivera had been friend since Olmedo was a child and Rivera spent the last two years of his life here. During that time, he painted nearly nonstop and created the outside walls with tile mosaics, featuring Aztec deities such as Quetzalcoatl. The interior of the home is covered in murals. The home is not a museum, so only the outside murals can be seen by the public. [54]

    There is a small museum called Casa de la Máscara (House of Masks) which is dedicated to masks, most of them from Mexico, but there are examples from many parts of the world. The collection contains about one thousand examples and is divided into seven rooms called Masks of the World, Mexico across History, The Huichols and the Jaguar, Alebrijes, and Dances of Guerrero, Devils and Death, Identity and Fantasy, and Afro-Indian masks. [51] The Botanical Garden of Acapulco is a tropical garden located on lands owned by the Universidad Loyola del Pacífico. Most of the plants here are native to the region, and many, such as the Peltogyne mexicana or purple stick tree, are in danger of extinction. [51]

    One cultural event that is held yearly in Acapulco is the Festival Internacional de la Nao, which takes place in the Fort of San Diego, located near the Zócalo in downtown of the city. The Festival honors the remembrance of the city's interaction and trades with Oriental territories which started back in the Sixteenth Century. The Nao Festival consists of cultural activities with the support of organizations and embassies from India, China, Japan, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia and South Korea. The variety of events go from film projections, musical interpretations and theatre to gastronomical classes, some of the events are specifically for kids. [55]

    The annual French Festival takes place throughout Acapulco city and offers a multitude of events that cement cultural links between Mexico and France. The main features are a fashion show and a gourmet food fair. The Cinépolis Galerías Diana and the Teatro Juan Ruíz de Alarcón present French and French literary figures who give talks on their specialised subjects. Even some of the local nightclubs feature French DJs. [56] Other festivals celebrated here include Carnival, the feast of San Isidro Labrador on 15 May, and in November, a crafts and livestock fair called the Nao de China. [1]

    There are a number of golf courses in Acapulco including the Acapulco Princess and the Pierre Marqués course, the latter designed by Robert Trent Jones in 1972 for the World Cup Golf Tournament. The Mayan Palace course was designed by Pedro Guericia and an economical course called the Club de Golf Acapulco is near the convention center. The most exclusive course is that of the Tres Vidas Golf Club, designed by Robert von Hagge. It is located next to the ocean and is home to flocks of ducks and other birds. [52]

    Another famous sport tournament that has been held in Acapulco since 1993 is the Abierto Mexicano Telcel tennis tournament, an ATP 500 event that takes place in the tennis courts of the Princess Mundo Imperial, a resort located in the Diamante zone of Acapulco. Initially it was played in clay courts but it changed to hard court. The event has gained popularity within the passing of the years, attracting some of the top tennis players in the world including Novak Djokovic, Rafael Nadal and Marin Cilic. The total prize money is US$250,000.00 for WTA (women) and US$1,200,000.00 for ATP (men). [57]

    Acapulco also has a bullring, called the Plaza de Toros, near Caletilla Beach. The season runs during the winter and is called the Fiesta Brava. [52]

    Acapulco3.jpg
    Hotels in the bay.

    Spring break

    Before 2010, over 100,000 American teenagers and young adults traveled to resort areas and balnearios throughout Mexico during spring break each year. [58] The main reason students head to Mexico is the 18-year-old drinking age (versus 21 for the United States), something that has been marketed by tour operators along with the sun and ocean. This has become attractive since the 1990s, especially since more traditional spring break places such as Daytona Beach, Florida, have enacted restrictions on drinking and other behaviors. This legislation has pushed spring break visitation to various parts of Mexico, with Acapulco as one of the top destinations. [59]

    In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Cancún had been favored as the spring break destination of choice. However, Cancún has taken some steps to control the reckless behavior associated with the event, and students have been looking for someplace new. This has led many more to choose Acapulco, in spite of the fact that for many travelers, the flight is longer and more expensive than to Cancún. Many are attracted by the glitzy hotels on the south side and Acapulco's famous nightlife. [60] In 2008, 22,500 students came to Acapulco for spring break. Hotels did not get that many in 2009, due mostly to the economic situation in the United States, [61] and partially because of scares of drug-related violence. [62]

    In February 2009, the US State Department issued a travel alert directed at college students planning spring break trips to Acapulco. [63] The warning—a result of violent activity springing from Mexico's drug cartel débâcle—took college campuses by storm, with some schools going so far as to warn their students about the risks of travel to Mexico over spring break. The New York Times tracked the travels of a Penn student on spring break in Acapulco just a week after the dissemination of the email, while Bill O'Reilly devoted a segment of his show, The O'Reilly Factor , to urge students to stay away from Acapulco. [64] In June 2009, a number of incidents occurred between the drug cartel and the government. These included coordinated attacks on police headquarters and open battles in the streets, involving large-caliber weapons and grenades. [65] However, no incidents of violence against spring breakers were reported.

    Transportation

    General Juan N. Alvarez International Airport Acapulco - Aeropuerto Internacional Juan N. Alvarez.JPG
    General Juan N. Álvarez International Airport
    Cruising at the International Transatlantic Port Lieutenant Jose Azueta Cruise in Acapulco, Mexico.jpg
    Cruising at the International Transatlantic Port Lieutenant José Azueta
    Acapulco's Miguel Aleman Coastal Avenue Avenida Costera Miguel Aleman de Acapulco, Mexico.jpg
    Acapulco's Miguel Alemán Coastal Avenue

    Many airlines fly to Acapulco International Airport. In the city, there are many buses and taxi services one can take to get from place to place, but most of the locals choose to walk to their destinations. However, an important mode of transportation is the government subsidized 'Colectivo' cab system. These cabs cost 13 pesos per person to ride,[ citation needed ] but they are not private. The driver will pick up more passengers as long as seats are available, and will transport them to their destination based on first-come, first-served rules. The colectivos each travel a designated area of the city, the three main ones being Costera, Colosio, Coloso, or a mixture of the three. Coloso cabs travel mainly to old Acapulco. Colosio cabs travel through most of the tourist area of Acapulco. Costera cabs drive up and down the coast of Acapulco, where most of the hotels for visitors are located, but which includes some of old Acapulco. Where a driver will take you is partly his choice. Some are willing to travel to the other designated areas, especially during slow periods of the day.

    The bus system is highly complex and can be rather confusing to an outsider. As far as transportation goes, it is the cheapest form, other than walking, in Acapulco. The most expensive buses have air conditioning, while the cheaper buses do not. For tourists, the Acapulco city government has established a system of yellow buses with Acapulco painted on the side of them. These buses are not for tourists only, but are certainly the nicest and most uniform of the bus systems. These buses travel the tourist section of Acapulco, driving up and down the coast. There are buses with specific routes and destinations, generally written on their windshields or shouted out by a barker riding in the front seat. Perhaps the most unusual thing about the privately operated buses is the fact that they are all highly decorated and personalized, with decals and home-made interior designs that range from comic book scenes, to pornography, and even to "Hello Kitty" themes.[ citation needed ]

    The conflictive public transportation would be upgraded the 25th of June 2016 with the implementation of the Acabus. The Acabus infrastructure has a length of 36.2 kilometres (22.5 miles), counts with 16 stations that spread through the city of Acapulco and 5 routes. This project will help organize traffic because the buses now have a specific line on the roads and there would be more control over transportation and passengers. [66]

    International relations

    Consulates

    CountryTypeRef.
    CanadaConsular agency [67]
    United StatesConsular agency [68]
    The Russian FederationHonorary consul [69]
    FinlandHonorary consul [70]
    FranceHonorary consul [71]
    PhilippinesHonorary consul [72]
    PolandHonorary consul [73]
    SpainHonorary consul [74]
    United KingdomHonorary consul [75]

    Twin towns and partner cities

    International

    Domestic

    Pending transboundary UNESCO World Heritage Site nominations

    The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Memorial at Plaza Mexico in Intramuros, Manila Manilajf9742 16.JPG
    The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Memorial at Plaza Mexico in Intramuros, Manila

    In 2014, the idea to nominate the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade Route was initiated by the Mexican ambassador to UNESCO with the Filipino ambassador to UNESCO.

    An Experts' Roundtable Meeting was held at the University of Santo Tomas (UST) on April 23, 2015 as part of the preparation of the Philippines for the possible transnational nomination of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade Route to the World Heritage List. The nomination will be made jointly with Mexico.

    The following are the experts and the topics they discussed during the roundtable meeting: Dr. Celestina Boncan on the Tornaviaje; Dr. Mary Jane A. Bolunia on Shipyards in the Bicol Region; Mr. Sheldon Clyde Jago-on, Bobby Orillaneda, and Ligaya Lacsina on Underwater Archaeology; Dr. Leovino Garcia on Maps and Cartography; Fr. Rene Javellana, S.J. on Fortifications in the Philippines; Felice Sta. Maria on Food; Dr. Fernando Zialcita on Textile; and Regalado Trota Jose on Historical Dimension. The papers presented and discussed during the roundtable meeting will be synthesized into a working document to establish the route's Outstanding Universal Value. [88]

    The Mexican side reiterated that they will also follow suit with the preparations for the route's nomination.

    Spain has also backed the nomination of the Manila-Acapulco Trade Route Route in the UNESCO World Heritage Site list and has also suggested the Archives of the Manila-Acapulco Galleons to be nominated as part of a separate UNESCO list, the UNESCO Memory of the World Register. [89]

    Type (criteria)SiteLocationDescriptionImageRef
    MixedThe Historic ManilaAcapulco Galleon Trade Route Philippines and Mexico
    White represents the route of the Manila Galleons in the Pacific 16th century Portuguese Spanish trade routes.png
    White represents the route of the Manila Galleons in the Pacific
    [88]

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    References

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    3. 1 2 "INEGI Census 2005" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-10.
    4. Lee Stacy. Mexico and the United States. New York: Marshall Cavendish Publishing, 2003. p. 954 (p. 16). ISBN   978-0-7614-7403-6.
    5. 1 2 "Acapulco is Now Mexico's Murder Capital", The Washington Post, 24 August 2017
    6. "The Most Dangerous Cities in the World" at World Atlas website
    7. "Acapulco: The resort killed by drugs, guns and gangs" at Sky News website, 26 February 2018
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