Achaemenes (satrap)

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Achaemenes
Satrap of Egypt
Western part of the Achaemenid Empire.jpg
Achaemenes was satrap of the Achaemenid Province of Egypt.
Predecessor Pherendates
Successor Arsames
Dynasty 27th Dynasty
Pharaoh Xerxes I and Artaxerxes I
Father Darius I
Mother Atossa

Achaemenes (also incorrectly called Achaemenides by Ctesias, from the Old Persian Haxāmaniš [1] ) was an Achaemenid general and satrap of ancient Egypt during the early 5th century BC, at the time of the 27th Dynasty of Egypt.

Ctesias, also known as Ctesias the Cnidian or Ctesias of Cnidus, was a Greek physician and historian from the town of Cnidus in Caria, when Caria was part of the Achaemenid Empire.

Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages. Old Persian appears primarily in the inscriptions, clay tablets and seals of the Achaemenid era. Examples of Old Persian have been found in what is now Iran, Romania (Gherla), Armenia, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt, with the most important attestation by far being the contents of the Behistun Inscription. Recent research (2007) into the vast Persepolis Fortification Archive at the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago have unearthed Old Persian tablets, which suggest Old Persian was a written language in use for practical recording and not only for royal display.

Satrap Ruler of a province in ancient Persia

Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to the king, though with considerable autonomy; and the word also came to suggest tyranny, or ostentatious splendour.

Career

A son of king Darius I by his queen Atossa and thus a full brother of Xerxes I, [1] Achaemenes was appointed satrap of Egypt some time between 486 and 484 BC, shortly after Xerxes' accession. At the time, Egypt was revolting against Achaemenid rule, and it appears likely that the previous satrap Pherendates lost his life in the turmoil. [2] The rebellion, possibly led by a self-proclaimed pharaoh named Psammetichus IV, [3] was eventually quelled by Achaemenes around 484 BC. After the victory, Achaemenes adopted a more repressive policy in order to discourage new rebellions, although the effect was actually the opposite. [4]

Atossa Persian queen

Atossa was an Achaemenid empress and daughter of Cyrus the Great and Cassandane. She lived from 550 BC to 475 BC and was a sister of the Persian king Cambyses II and wife of Darius I.

Xerxes I Ancient Persian king

Xerxes I, called Xerxes the Great, was the fifth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia. Like his predecessor Darius I, he ruled the empire at its territorial apex. He ruled from 486 BC until his assassination in 465 BC at the hands of Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard.

Pherendates

Pherendates was an Achaemenid satrap of ancient Egypt during the 5th century BCE, at the time of the Achaemenid 27th Dynasty of Egypt.

When Xerxes launched the second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC), Achaemenes was called to arms at the head of the Persian-allied Egyptian fleet and took part in the battle of Salamis (480 BC). Achaemenes survived the defeat, and was sent back to Egypt in order to resume his duties as satrap. [2] [1]

Second Persian invasion of Greece Invasion during the Greco-Persian Wars

The second Persian invasion of Greece occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece. The invasion was a direct, if delayed, response to the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece at the Battle of Marathon, which ended Darius I's attempts to subjugate Greece. After Darius's death, his son Xerxes spent several years planning for the second invasion, mustering an enormous army and navy. The Athenians and Spartans led the Greek resistance. About a tenth of the Greek city-states joined the 'Allied' effort; most remained neutral or submitted to Xerxes.

Battle of Salamis battle

The Battle of Salamis was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC which resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks. The battle was fought in the straits between the mainland and Salamis, an island in the Saronic Gulf near Athens, and marked the high-point of the second Persian invasion of Greece.

In 460 BC, under the leadership of a native prince named Inaros, Egypt revolted once more against Persian rule. Achaemenes confronted Inaros in the Battle of Papremis (459 BC) but was defeated and slain. Achaemenes' body was sent to king Artaxerxes I as an admonition. [2] [1]

Inaros II

Inaros (II), also known as Inarus, was an Egyptian rebel ruler who was the son of a Libyan prince named Psamtik, presumably of the old Saite line, and grandson of Psamtik III. In 460 BC, he revolted against the Persians with the help of his Athenian allies under Admiral Charitimides, and defeated the Persian army commanded by satrap Achaemenes in 460 BCE. The Persians retreated to Memphis, but the Athenians were finally defeated in 454 BC by the Persian army led by Megabyzus, satrap of Syria, and Artabazus, satrap of Phrygia, after a two-year siege. Inaros was captured and carried away to Susa where he was reportedly crucified in 454 BC.

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Gongylos

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 M. A. Dandamayev, “Achaemenes,” Encyclopædia Iranica, I/4, p. 414; an updated version is available online at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/achaemenes-greek
  2. 1 2 3 Ray, John D. (2006). "Egypt, 525–404 B.C.". In Boardman, John; Hammond, N.D.L.; Lewis, D.M.; Ostwald, M. The Cambridge Ancient History (2nd ed.), vol. IV – Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean c. 525 to 479 B.C. Cambridge University Press. p. 266. ISBN   0 521 22804 2.
  3. Eugène Cruz-Uribe, "On the Existence of Psammetichus IV". Serapis. American Journal of Egyptology 5 (1980), pp. 35–39.
  4. Ray, John D. (2006). "Egypt, 525–404 B.C.". In Boardman, John; Hammond, N.D.L.; Lewis, D.M.; Ostwald, M. The Cambridge Ancient History (2nd ed.), vol. IV – Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean c. 525 to 479 B.C. Cambridge University Press. pp. 266, 275–276. ISBN   0 521 22804 2.
Preceded by
Pherendates
Satrap of Egypt
c.486 – 459 BC
Succeeded by
Arsames