Action of 17 July 1628

Last updated
Action of 17 July 1628
Part of Anglo-French War (1627–1629)
Date17 July 1628
Location
Result English victory
Belligerents
Flag of England.svg  England Royal Standard of the King of France.svg  France
Commanders and leaders
David Kirke
Strength
5–6 men-of-war
1 pinnace
4 large merchant vessels
1 barque
Casualties and losses
none reported 4 merchant vessels captured
400 prisoners

The Action of 17 July 1628 took place during of the Anglo-French War (1627–1629). The English force led by the Kirke brothers succeeded in capturing a supply convoy bound for New France, severely impairing that colony's ability to resist attack.

Contents

Background

War between England and France broke out over English support for French Huguenots besieged in La Rochelle by the forces of Louis XIII. Charles I of England commissioned David Kirke of Dieppe to seize French shipping in North America and expand English trade in the St. Lawrence valley. The French on the other hand had established a permanent base at Quebec in 1608 and were looking to expand their title that territory. Cardinal Richelieu had been the driving force behind the formation of the Compagnie des Cent-Associés to manage the fur trade and encourage settlement, in order to consolidate the tentative hold the French had in Canada. Led by Samuel de Champlain, efforts were being made to improve conditions at Quebec in preparation for the arrival of the first convoy of supplies and colonists. [1]

Kirke and his fleet arrived off the coast of North America in the spring of 1628, seized the French post of Tadoussac as his base, and proceeded to attack French fishing vessels. In the meantime the French convoy had departed from Dieppe on April 28. It consisted of four large merchant vessels and a single barque under the command of Admiral Claude Roquement de Brison, carrying supplies and approximately 400 settlers for Quebec. It was the largest effort yet at populating New France. In June they arrived at Anticosti Island and learned of Kirke's presence. [2]

Prelude

In July Kirke sailed upriver from Tadoussac in order to seize Quebec. Champlain, who had been expecting badly needed supplies from France, did not know that Kirke had been in the St. Lawrence seizing vessels until just prior to the English arrival off Quebec on July 9. Kirke sent a message to Champlain demanding the town's surrender the next day. Champlain sent a bold refusal, hoping the English would not discover his desperate straits. Kirke did not want to gamble on attacking such a formidable defense position, and withdrew back towards Tadoussac. [3]

Battle

Unaware of the events that had taken place at Quebec, Admiral Roquement made the decision to bypass the English at Tadoussac under the cover of fog and if necessary fight their way through. Kirke's force on the other hand was larger and better equipped, and also had the advantage of being upstream from Roquement. On July 17 the two forces sighted each other and began to manoeuvre into position. Roquement, with both the current and the weather gauge against him, could not make a move to pass Kirke, and realized he had to fight. Kirke made better use of his advantages and anchored at extreme range in order to batter the French into surrender. Roquement attempted to do the same, but he had fewer cannon and inferior range. Kirke bombarded the French for fourteen or fifteen hours, while Roquement's efforts fell short. When their supply of gunpowder ran out, Roquement surrendered. [4]

Aftermath

Champlain surrendering Quebec to Admiral Kirke, July 20 1628 OUR FIRST FOOTING IN CANADA. CHAMPLAIN SURRENDERING QUEBEC TO ADMIRAL KIRKE. JULY 20 1629.jpg
Champlain surrendering Quebec to Admiral Kirke, July 20 1628

The surrender of the French fleet yielded a great deal of plunder for Kirke, and this alone made his expedition a tremendous success, despite the failure to capture Quebec. King Charles commissioned him to make a return trip the next year in order to fulfill that goal. Champlain and the residents of Quebec faced a winter deprived of much needed supplies and reinforcements, and when Kirke returned in the spring of 1629 surrender was the only option. All the residents of New France were deported back to the mother country and Quebec became an English post. Upon his return to France Champlain learned that the war had ended before Kirke took Quebec, making the seizure illegal. Champlain lobbied for the return of New France, but did not succeed until the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye in 1632. He would return to New France the next year and oversee the establishment of substantial French settlement in Canada before his death in 1635. Kirke would later become Governor of Newfoundland.

Notes

  1. Fischer, Champlain's Dream, 406–409.
  2. Fischer, Champlain's Dream, 410.
  3. Fischer, Champlain's Dream, 412–414.
  4. Fischer, Champlain's Dream, 415.

Related Research Articles

Samuel de Champlain French explorer of North America

Samuel de Champlain was a French colonist, navigator, cartographer, draftsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He made between 21 and 29 trips across the Atlantic Ocean, and founded Quebec, and New France, on 3 July 1608. An important figure in Canadian history, Champlain created the first accurate coastal map during his explorations, and founded various colonial settlements.

Étienne Brûlé was the first European explorer to journey beyond the St. Lawrence River into what is now known as Canada. He spent much of his early adult life among the Hurons, and mastered their language and learned their culture. Brûlé became an interpreter and guide for Samuel de Champlain, who later sent Brûlé on a number of exploratory missions, among which he is thought to have preceded Champlain to the Great Lakes, reuniting with him upon Champlain's first arrival at Lake Huron. Among his many travels were explorations of Georgian Bay and Lake Huron, as well as the Humber and Ottawa Rivers. Champlain agreed to send Brûlé, at his own request, as an interpreter to live among the Onontchataron, an Algonquin people, in 1610. In 1629, during the Anglo-French War, he escaped after being captured by the Seneca tribe. Brûlé was killed by the Bear tribe of the Huron people, who believed he had betrayed them to the Seneca.

David Kirke

Sir David Kirke, also spelt David Ker, was a Scottish adventurer, privateer and colonial governor. He is best known for his successful capture of New France in 1629 during the Thirty Years' War and his subsequent governorship of lands in Newfoundland. A favourite of Charles I of England, Kirke's downfall came with that of the Crown during the English Civil War and it is believed he died in prison.

Company of One Hundred Associates 1600s French fur-trading company in modern Canada

The Company of One Hundred Associates, or Company of New France, was a French trading and colonization company chartered in 1627 to capitalize on the North American fur trade and to expand French colonies there. The company was granted a monopoly to manage the fur trade in the colonies of New France, which were at that time centered on the Saint Lawrence River valley and the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. In return, the company was supposed to settle French Catholics in New France. The Company of One Hundred Associates was dissolved by King Louis XIV, who incorporated New France into a province in 1663.

The Recollects were a French reform branch of the Friars Minor, a Franciscan order. Denoted by their gray habits and pointed hoods, the Recollects took vows of poverty and devoted their lives to prayer, penance, and spiritual reflection. Today, they are best known for their presence as missionaries in various parts of the world, most notably in early Canada.

History of Quebec City Aspect of history

The history of Quebec City extends back thousands of years, with its first inhabitants being the First Nations peoples of the region. The arrival of French explorers in the 16th century eventually led to the establishment of Quebec City, in present-day Quebec, Canada. The city is one of the oldest European settlements in North America, with the establishment of a permanent trading post in 1608.

Charles Lallemant

Charles Lallemant, was a French Jesuit. He was born in Paris in 1587 and later became the first Superior of the Jesuit Missions amongst the Huron in Canada. His letter to his brother, dated 1 August 1626, inaugurated the series Relations des Jésuites de la Nouvelle-France about the missionary work in the North American colonies of New France.

Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour Governor of Acadia 1631–1642 and 1653–1657

Charles de Saint-Étienne de La Tour (1593–1666) was a French colonist and fur trader who served as Governor of Acadia from 1631–1642 and again from 1653–1657.

The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on March 29, 1632. It returned New France to French control after the English had seized it in 1629.

Adriatic campaign of 1807–1814 Campaign in the Napoleonic Wars

The Adriatic campaign was a minor theatre of war during the Napoleonic Wars in which a succession of small British Royal Navy and Austrian Navy squadrons and independent cruisers harried the combined naval forces of the First French Empire, the Kingdom of Italy, the Illyrian Provinces and the Kingdom of Naples between 1807 and 1814 in the Adriatic Sea. Italy, Naples and Illyria were all controlled either directly or via proxy by the French Emperor Napoleon I, who had seized them at the Treaty of Pressburg in the aftermath of the War of the Third Coalition.

Order of battle in the Atlantic campaign of 1806

The Atlantic campaign of 1806 was one of the most important and complex naval campaigns of the post-Trafalgar Napoleonic Wars. Seeking to take advantage of the withdrawal of British forces from the Atlantic in the aftermath of the Battle of Trafalgar, Emperor Napoleon ordered two battle squadrons to sea from the fleet stationed at Brest, during December 1805. Escaping deep into the Atlantic, these squadrons succeeded in disrupting British convoys, evading pursuit by British battle squadrons and reinforcing the French garrison at Santo Domingo. The period of French success was brief: on 6 February 1806 one of the squadrons, under Vice-Admiral Corentin Urbain Leissègues, was intercepted by a British squadron at the Battle of San Domingo and destroyed, losing all five of its ships of the line.

Recovery of Ré island

The Recovery of Ré Island was accomplished by the army of Louis XIII in September 1625, against the troops of the Protestant admiral Soubise and the Huguenot forces of La Rochelle, who had been occupying the Island of Ré since February 1625 as part of the Huguenot rebellions.

Anglo-French War (1627–1629)

The Anglo-French War was a military conflict fought between the Kingdom of France and the Kingdom of England between 1627 and 1629. It mainly involved actions at sea. The centerpiece of the conflict was the Siege of La Rochelle (1627–28), in which the English crown supported the French Huguenots in their fight against the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France. La Rochelle had become the stronghold of the French Huguenots, under its own governance. It was the centre of Huguenot seapower and the strongest centre of resistance against the central government. The English also launched a campaign against France's new colony in North America which led to much of the territory including Quebec being seized.

Atlantic campaign of 1806

The Atlantic campaign of 1806 was a complicated series of manoeuvres and counter-manoeuvres conducted by squadrons of the French Navy and the British Royal Navy across the Atlantic Ocean during the spring and summer of 1806, as part of the Napoleonic Wars. The campaign followed directly from the Trafalgar campaign of the year before, in which the French Mediterranean fleet had crossed the Atlantic, returned to Europe and joined with the Spanish fleet. On 21 October 1805, this combined force was destroyed by a British fleet under Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar, although the campaign did not end until the Battle of Cape Ortegal on 4 November 1805. Believing that the French Navy would not be capable of organised resistance at sea during the winter, the First Lord of the Admiralty Lord Barham withdrew the British blockade squadrons to harbour. Barham had miscalculated – the French Atlantic fleet, based at Brest, had not been involved in the Trafalgar campaign and was therefore at full strength. Taking advantage of the reduction in the British forces off the port, Napoleon ordered two heavy squadrons to sea, under instructions to raid British trade routes while avoiding contact with equivalent Royal Navy forces.

François Gravé, said Du Pont, was a Breton navigator, an early fur trader and explorer in the New World.

Pierre de Chauvin de Tonnetuit

Pierre de Chauvin de Tonnetuit was a French naval and military captain and a lieutenant of New France, who built at Tadoussac in present-day Quebec, the oldest and strongest surviving French settlement in the Americas.

Java campaign of 1806–07

The Java campaign of 1806–1807 was a minor campaign during the Napoleonic Wars by British Royal Navy forces against a naval squadron of the Kingdom of Holland, a client state of the French Empire, based on the island of Java in the Dutch East Indies. Seeking to eliminate any threat to valuable British merchant convoys passing through the Malacca Straits, Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew determined in early 1806 that the Dutch naval forces based at Java, which included several ships of the line and three frigates, had to be defeated to ensure British dominance in the region. Lacking the forces to effect an invasion of the Dutch colony, Pellew instead sought to isolate and blockade the Dutch squadron based at Batavia in preparation for raids specifically targeting the Dutch ships with his main force.

The Raid on Griessie was a British attack on the Dutch port of Griessie on Java in the Dutch East Indies in December 1807 during the Napoleonic Wars. The raid was the final action in a series of engagements fought by the British squadron based in the Indian Ocean against the Dutch naval forces in Java, and it completed the destruction of the Dutch squadron with the scuttling of three ships of the line, the last Dutch warships in the region. The British squadron—under the command of Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew—sought to eliminate the Dutch in an effort to safeguard the trade route with China, which ran through the Straits of Malacca and were in range of Dutch raiders operating from the principal Javan port of Batavia. In the summer of 1806, British frigates reconnoitred Javan waters and captured two Dutch frigates, encouraging Pellew to lead a major attack on Batavia that destroyed the last Dutch frigate and several smaller warships. Prior to the Batavia raid however, Dutch Rear-Admiral Hartsinck had ordered his ships of the line to sail eastwards, where they took shelter at Griessie, near Sourabaya.

Port-Royal (Acadia)

Port-Royal was a settlement on the site of modern-day Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, part of the French colony of Acadia. It was founded in 1629 by Sir William Alexander’s Scottish settlers and named Charlesfort. The original French settlement of Port Royal, located approximately 7 kilometres down the Annapolis Basin, had earlier established farms in the area. Upon the handing back of Acadia to the French by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye the settlement was occupied by the French and renamed Port Royal. For most of the period until the Siege of Port Royal by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1710, the village was the capital of Acadia. Port-Royal was the primary Acadian settlement until Acadians migrated out of the community to Pisiguit, Cobequid, Grand Pre, and Beaubassin in the 1680s.

Surrender of Quebec

The surrender of Quebec in 1629 was the taking of Quebec City, during the Anglo-French War (1627–1629). It was achieved without battle by English privateers led by David Kirke, who had intercepted the town's supplies.

References