Adélie Land

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Adélie Land

Terre Adélie
Flag of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands.svg
Motto: "Liberté, égalité, fraternité"
Anthem:  La Marseillaise
Antarctica, France territorial claim.svg
Official languages French
Government
  President
Emmanuel Macron
 Administrator
Cécile Pozzo di Borgo [1]
 Head of District
François Grosvalet [2]
French overseas territory
 Discovered and claimed by France
January 20th, 1840
 Administrated from French Madagascar
1924
 Administered as a district of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands
1955
Area
 Total
432,000 km2 (167,000 sq mi)
Population
 Estimate
c. 33 (winter)
< 80 (summer)
Currency Euro (EUR)
Time zone UTC+10
Calling code +262 262 00 2
Internet TLD .tf

Adélie Land (French: Terre Adélie) is a claimed territory on the continent of Antarctica. It stretches from a portion of the Southern Ocean coastline all the way inland to the South Pole. France has administered it as one of five districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands since 1955 and applied the Antarctic Treaty System rules since 1961. Article 4 deals with territorial claims, and although it does not renounce or diminish any preexisting claims to sovereignty, it also does not prejudice the position of Contracting Parties in their recognition or non-recognition of territorial sovereignty. France has had a permanent station in Adélie Land since April 9, 1950. The current Dumont d'Urville Station has a winter population around 33, but this goes up to about 78 during the Antarctic summer.

Territorial claims in Antarctica Wikimedia list article

There are seven sovereign states who have territorial claims in Antarctica: Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom. These countries have tended to place their Antarctic scientific observation and study facilities within their respective claimed territories; however, a number of such facilities are located outside of the area claimed by their respective countries of operation, and countries without claims such as Russia and the United States have constructed research facilities within the areas claimed by other countries.

Antarctica Polar continent in the Earths southern hemisphere

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres, it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of Australia. At 0.00008 people per square kilometre, it is by far the least densely populated continent. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.

Southern Ocean The ocean around Antarctica

The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, and the "Southern Icy Ocean".</ref> comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica. As such, it is regarded as the fourth largest of the five principal oceanic divisions: smaller than the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans but larger than the Arctic Ocean. This oceanic zone is where cold, northward flowing waters from the Antarctic mix with warmer subantarctic waters.

Contents

Geography

Adélie Land lies between 136° E (near Pourquoi Pas Point at 66°12′S136°11′E / 66.200°S 136.183°E / -66.200; 136.183 ) and 142° E (near Point Alden at 66°48′S142°02′E / 66.800°S 142.033°E / -66.800; 142.033 ), with a shore length of about 350 kilometres (220 mi) and with its inland part extending as a sector of a circle about 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) toward the South Pole. Adélie Land has borders with the Australian Antarctic Territory both on the east and on the west, namely on Clarie Land (part of Wilkes Land) in the west, and George V Land in the east. Its total land area, mostly covered with glaciers, is estimated to be 432,000 square kilometres (167,000 sq mi).

136th meridian east

The meridian 136° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Australasia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

Pourquoi Pas Point headland

Pourquoi Pas is an ice-covered point which forms the west side of the entrance to Victor Bay. It was charted by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1950–52, and named in 1954 after the French polar ship Pourquoi-Pas?.

142nd meridian east

The 142nd meridian east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Australasia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

History

The coast of Adélie Land was discovered in 1840 by the French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville (1790–1842) who named it after his wife, Adèle. [3] This is the basis of the French claim to this Antarctic land.

Jules Dumont dUrville French explorer

Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville was a French explorer and naval officer who explored the south and western Pacific, Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica. As a botanist and cartographer he gave his name to several seaweeds, plants and shrubs, and places such as d'Urville Island in New Zealand.

Research stations

Dumont d'Urville Station

Since January 12, 1956, a manned French research base has been located year-round at 66°40′S140°01′E / 66.667°S 140.017°E / -66.667; 140.017 , the Dumont d'Urville Station, with a winter population around 33, but this goes up to about 78 during the Antarctic summer.

Dumont dUrville Station Antarctic base in Archipelago of Pointe-Géologie, France

The Dumont d'Urville Station is a French scientific station in Antarctica on Île des Pétrels, archipelago of Pointe-Géologie in Adélie Land. It is named after explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville, whose expedition landed on Débarquement Rock in the Dumoulin Islands at the northeast end of the archipelago on January 21, 1840. It is operated by the "French Polar Institute Paul-Émile Victor", a joint operation of French public and para-public agencies.

Port Martin

The first French station, Port Martin, was built April 9, 1950, at 66°49′04″S141°23′39″E / 66.81778°S 141.39417°E / -66.81778; 141.39417 , but it was destroyed by a fire during the night of January 22–23, 1952. Port Martin housed a winter population of 11 in 1950–51 and 17 in 1951–52. [4]

Port Martin Abandoned research outpost in Cape Margerie, France

Port Martin, or Port-Martin, is an abandoned French research base at Cape Margerie on the coast of Adélie Land, Antarctica, as well as the name of the adjacent anchorage.

Charcot Station

Charcot Station ( 69°22′30″S139°01′00″E / 69.375°S 139.016667°E / -69.375; 139.016667 ) was a French inland base located on the Antarctic ice sheet at 320 kilometres (200 mi) from the coast and from Dumont d'Urville Station, at an elevation of about 2,400 metres (7,900 ft). The station, built for the International Geophysical Year of 1957–58, paid homage to Jean-Baptiste Charcot), and was occupied from January 1957 through 1960 housing alone[ clarification needed ] three men.

The base was composed of a main body of 24 square metres (the "barrack") which consisted of semicylindrical sections of sheet metal assembled end to end. This form was planned to best withstand the snow pressure accumulated on it. Horizontal galleries were connected to house scientific measurement devices, while a vertical air conduit opened a few metres above the snow level provided ventilation.

Cap Prud'Homme Camp

Cap Prud'Homme ( 66°41′28″S139°53′44″E / 66.691104°S 139.895677°E / -66.691104; 139.895677 ) is an Italian-French camp, opened in 1994, located on the coast of the Antarctic ice sheet, in Adélie Land, about 5 km from Petrel Island, where the French Dumont d'Urville Station is. All the supplies and equipment for the Italian-French Concordia Station are transported by a combined convoy of up to 7 Caterpillar tractors from Cap Prud'Homme , with Kassbohrer trailblazers and a team of up to 9 people; each convoy transports an average of 150 tons of payload. [5]

The Dumont d'Urville research station was the filming location of the documentary March of the Penguins (2005). [6]

See also

Related Research Articles

Polar drift

Polar drift is a geological phenomenon caused by variations in the flow of molten iron in Earth's outer core, resulting in changes in the orientation of Earth's magnetic field, and hence the position of the magnetic north- and south poles.

Skelton Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Skelton Glacier is a large glacier flowing from the polar plateau into the Ross Ice Shelf at Skelton Inlet on the Hillary Coast, south of Victoria Land, Antarctica.

DUrville Sea A marginal sea of the Southern Ocean, north of the coast of Adélie Land, East Antarctica

D'Urville Sea is a sea of the Southern Ocean, north of the coast of Adélie Land, East Antarctica. It is named after the French explorer and officer Jules Dumont d'Urville.

The French Antarctic Expedition is any of several French expeditions in Antarctica.

Astrolabe Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Astrolabe Glacier is a glacier 7 kilometres (4 nmi) wide and 19 kilometres (10 nmi) long, flowing north-northeast from the continental ice and terminating at the coast in a prominent tongue at the east side of Geologie Archipelago. It was first sighted in 1840 by the French expedition under Captain Jules Dumont d'Urville, although no glaciers were noted on d'Urville's chart of this coast but a formidable icy dike with perpendicular flanks of 37.7 m high according to the joined plate, corresponding to the glacier tongue. The glacier was photographed from the air by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump in January 1947. It was charted by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1949–51, and named after d'Urville's flagship, the Astrolabe.

Débarquement Rock is an ice-free rock 200 metres (220 yd) long and 18.7 m high, marking the northern end of the Dumoulin Islands and the north-eastern end of the Geologie Archipelago.

Zélée Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Zélée Glacier is a glacier about 6 kilometres (3 nmi) wide and 11 kilometres (6 nmi) long, flowing north-northwest from the continental ice along the west side of Lacroix Nunatak and terminating in a prominent tongue at the west side of Port Martin. Probably first sighted in 1840 by the French expedition under Captain Jules Dumont d'Urville, although no glaciers were noted on d'Urville's chart of this coast. Photographed from the air by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946-47. Charted by the French Antarctic Expedition under Liotard, 1949–51, and named for the Zélée, corvette which accompanied d'Urville's flagship, the Astrolabe.

Adélie Valley, also variously known as Adilie Valley, Dumont d'Urville Trough or Adélie Trough, is a drowned fjord on the continental margin of East Antarctica. Named in association with this long named portion of Wilkes Land on the Antarctic coast. Name approved by the Advisory Committee on Undersea Features in December 1971.

Robert Guillard was a French polar researcher and head of French Antarctic expeditions. From 1947 to 1984 he participated in 44 French polar expeditions to Greenland and to Antarctica. He was head of the French scientific station Dumont d`Urville Station in Adélie Land in Antarctica in 1956, 1963, 1972 and 1977. In the early 1950s he was an active bobsledder and was member of the French bobsled team at the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo.

Cape Découverte or Cape Discovery is the point of rocks which marks the northwest extremity of the Curzon Islands along the Adélie Coast. It was discovered on January 21, 1840 by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1837–40, under Captain Jules Dumont d'Urville who gave the name "Cap de la Decouverte". It was the first rocky point of the coast seen by members of the expedition.

Bon Docteur Nunatak, also known as Good Doctor Nunatak, is a small coastal nunatak, 28 metres (92 ft) high, standing at the west side of the Astrolabe Glacier Tongue, 400 m (1,300 ft) south of Rostand Island in the Geologie Archipelago of Antarctica. It was photographed from the air by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump, 1946–47, charted by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1952–53, and named for Dr Jean Cendron, the "good doctor", medical officer and biologist with the French Antarctic Expedition, 1951–52.

Carrel Island

Carrel Island, also known as Le Mauguen Island, is a small, rocky island 400 metres (1,300 ft) long lying 200 metres (660 ft) south of Petrel Island in the Géologie Archipelago of Antarctica. It was charted in 1950 by the French Antarctic Expedition and named by them for Alexis Carrel, noted French surgeon and physiologist.

Français Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Français Glacier is a glacier 4 nautical miles (7 km) wide and 12 nautical miles (22 km) long, flowing north-northeast from the continental ice to the Antarctic coast close west of Ravin Bay. Though no glaciers were noted on Captain Jules Dumont d'Urville's chart of this coast, the close correlation of his "Baie des Ravins" feature and narrative description with the indentation of the coast near the mouth of this glacier suggests first sighting of this feature by the French Antarctic Expedition, 1837–40. During December 1912 members of the Main Base Party of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition (AAE) camped on the upland slopes close east of the glacier, but no reference was made to the glacier in the AAE reports, though a clear view and unpublished sketch were obtained of the distant coast to the northwest.

The Géologie Archipelago, also known as the Geology Archipelago or Cape Geology Archipelago, is a small archipelago of rocky islands and rocks close to the north of Cape Géodésie and Astrolabe Glacier Tongue, extending from Helene Island on the west to the Dumoulin Islands on the east, in Adélie Land, Antarctica.

Lamarck Island (Antarctica)

Lamarck Island is a rocky island 250 m (820 ft) long, lying 300 m (980 ft) east of Petrel Island and 300 m (980 ft) north-east of Rostand Island in the Géologie Archipelago, off the Adélie Coast of Antarctica. It was charted in 1951 by the French Antarctic Expedition and named by them after Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, the French naturalist.

Rostand Island is a rocky island 400 m long and 200 m south-east of Petrel Island in the Geologie Archipelago of Antarctica. It was charted in 1951 by the French Antarctic Expedition and named by them for Jean Rostand, noted French biologist.

South Magnetic Pole wandering point on the Earth where the geomagnetic field lines are directed vertically upwards, at 64°S 137°E as of 2015 in the Southern Ocean

The South Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on Earth's Southern Hemisphere where the geomagnetic field lines are directed vertically upwards. It should not be confused with the South Geomagnetic Pole described later.

Adèle Dumont d'Urville was the wife of French explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville, after whom Adélie Land, Adele Island, Adélie penguin and Cape Pepin are named. While Adélie Land, Adele Island and Cape Pepin were named by Jules Dumont d'Urville in honor of his wife, the penguin was named after Adélie Land where it was discovered. In 1981, an airmail postage stamp of the French Antarctic Territory featuring Adèle Dumont d'Urville was released.

References

  1. Official nomination
  2. List of chefs de district
  3. Dunmore, John (2007). From Venus to Antarctica: The Life of Dumont D'Urville. Auckland: Exisle Publ. p. 209. ISBN   9780908988716.
  4. "Fire destroys station in Antarctica, French expedition's loss". The Times . January 26, 1952.
  5. "Cap Prud'Homme". Italiantartide. Retrieved October 7, 2018.
  6. "The Emperor's Close-Up". National Geographic's Adventure. National Geographic Society. 2007. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 29 May 2013.

Coordinates: 75°00′S139°00′E / 75.000°S 139.000°E / -75.000; 139.000