Ad Melkert in 2002
| Extraordinary Member |
of the Council of State
20 January 2016
|Vice President|| Piet Hein Donner |
Thom de Graaf
| Special Representative of the |
United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq
7 July 2009 –1 October 2011
|Preceded by||Staffan de Mistura|
|Succeeded by||Martin Kobler|
|Associate Administrator of the |
United Nations Development Programme
1 March 2006 –7 July 2009
|Administrator|| Kemal Derviş (2006–2006)|
Helen Clark (2009)
|Preceded by||Zéphirin Diabré|
|Succeeded by||Rebeca Grynspan|
| Parliamentary leader in the |
House of Representatives
10 July 1998 –16 May 2002
|Preceded by||Jacques Wallage|
|Succeeded by||Jeltje van Nieuwenhoven|
|Parliamentary group||Labour Party|
|Leader of the Labour Party|
15 December 2001 –16 May 2002
|Preceded by||Wim Kok|
|Succeeded by||Wouter Bos|
| Minister of Social Affairs |
22 August 1994 –3 August 1998
|Prime Minister||Wim Kok|
|Preceded by||Bert de Vries|
|Succeeded by||Klaas de Vries|
|Member of the House of Representatives|
19 May 1998 –17 October 2002
3 June 1986 –22 Augustus 1994
|Parliamentary group||Labour Party|
Adrianus Petrus Wilhelmus Melkert
12 February 1956
|Political party||Labour Party (from 1982)|
| Political Party of Radicals |
Mónica León Borquez
(m. 1986;div. 2013)
|Residence||The Hague, Netherlands|
|Alma mater|| University of Amsterdam |
(Bachelor of Social Science, Master of Social Science)
|Occupation||Politician · Diplomat · Civil servant · Nonprofit director · Trade association executive · Sport administrator · Activist|
Adrianus Petrus Wilhelmus "Ad" Melkert (Dutch: [ˈɑt ˈmɛlkərt] (
The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.
The Labour Party is a social-democratic political party in the Netherlands.
The Council of State is a constitutionally established advisory body in the Netherlands to the government and States General that officially consists of members of the royal family and Crown-appointed members generally having political, commercial, diplomatic or military experience. It was founded in 1531, making it one of the world's oldest still-functioning state organisations.
Melkert was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives after the election of 1986, he served in the House of Representatives from 3 June 1986 until 22 August 1994. After the election of 1994 Melkert was appointed as Minister of Social Affairs and Employment in the Cabinet Kok I, serving from 22 August 1994 until 3 August 1998. After the election of 1998 per his request he was not considered for ministerial post in the Cabinet Kok II as he wanted to focus on his candidacy to succeed Wim Kok as the next Leader of the Labour Party. Melkert returned to the Member of the House of Representatives on 19 May 1998 and became the Parliamentary leader of the Labour Party in the House of Representatives on 10 July 1998 and became the unofficial Deputy Leader of the Labour Party and the presumed de facto next Leader in all but name. After the incumbent Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party Wim Kok announced his retirement from national politics before the election of 2002 he endorsed Melkert as his successor. After Kok stood down on 15 December 2001, Melkert was chosen to succeed him en became the Leader of the Labour Party and Lijsttrekker (top candidate) of the Labour Party for the election of 2002.
The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral parliament of the Netherlands, the States General, the other one being the Senate. It has 150 seats which are filled through elections using a party-list proportional representation. It sits in the Binnenhof in The Hague.
General elections were held in the Netherlands on 21 May 1986. The Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) emerged as the largest party, winning 54 of the 150 seats in the House of Representatives.
General elections were held in the Netherlands on 3 May 1994. The Labour Party emerged as the largest party, winning 37 of the 150 seats in the House of Representatives. The election resulted in significant losses for both the Labour Party and the Christian Democratic Appeal. The two liberal parties, People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and Democrats 66 made large gains, whilst two pro-elderly parties and the Socialist Party all passed the electoral threshold to win seats.
Melkert and Hans Dijkstal were the front runners to become the next Prime Minister in the early stages of the campaign, but the unexpected arrival of Pim Fortuyn of Livable Netherlands (LN) and later the Pim Fortuyn List (LPF), turned the polls. Fortuyn blamed the problems in the country on the Purple cabinets (in which both Melkert and Dijkstal served as ministers) and depicted Melkert and Dijkstal as two bureaucrats who were out of touch with the voter's concerns. During the election Fortuyn accused Melkert of the demonization of his character and personal integrity. After a heated campaign Fortuyn was assassinated in Hilversum a mere nine days before polling day. The Labour Party suffered a landslide defeat in the election, losing 23 seats, Melkert was blamed for the defeat primary because of his technocratic leadership in contrast to the more charismatic Fortuyn. After Fortuyn's assassination Melkert received death threats and sequentially left national politics. He resigned as Leader and Parliamentary leader of the Labour Party in the House of Representatives on 16 May 2002 and gave up his seat in the House of Representatives on 17 October 2002.
Henri Frans "Hans" Dijkstal was a Dutch politician of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD).
The Prime Minister of the Netherlands is the head of the executive branch of the Government of the Netherlands in his capacity as chair of the Council of Ministers. The Prime Minister is de facto the head of government of the Netherlands and coordinates its policy with his cabinet. The current Dutch Prime Minister is Mark Rutte, in office since 2010.
Wilhelmus Simon Petrus Fortuijn, known as Pim Fortuyn, was a Dutch politician, civil servant, sociologist, author and professor who formed his own party, Pim Fortuyn List in 2002.
Following his career in Dutch politics, he worked at the World Bank and the United Nations.
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), and the International Development Association (IDA). The World Bank is a component of the World Bank Group.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
Adrianus Petrus Wilhelmus Melkert was born into a Roman Catholic middle-class family in Gouderak, a small village situated in the province of South Holland. His father was a barber. Melkert attended a Roman Catholic primary school in Moordrecht until 1968, after which he continued his studies at the Coornhert Gymnasium in Gouda, a state school specialising in the arts. In the final year of his secondary education, he worked for a greengrocer at the local market. Melkert graduated in 1974 and went on to study political science at the University of Amsterdam. During this period he became active within the radical left-wing Christian Political Party of Radicals (PPR) party and served as a member of the board of the youth organisation of the PPR between 1978 and 1980. He went on to become a member of the general board of the Dutch branch of the European Movement, the chairperson of the Council of European National Youth Committees and the chairperson of the Dutch Platform for International Youth Work. In 1979 he was elected into the party board of the PPR, and was 3rd candidate on the PPR's list for the 1979 European Parliament elections. He graduated in 1981 and received the Dutch Society for International Relations prize for best Master's thesis of 1981, the subject of which dealt with the foreign policy of the Den Uyl cabinet.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with approximately 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide as of 2017. As the world's "oldest continuously functioning international institution", it has played a prominent role in the history and development of Western civilisation. The church is headed by the Bishop of Rome, known as the pope. Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within the city of Rome in Italy.
Gouderak is a village in the Dutch province of South Holland. It is located 4 km southwest of Gouda on the river Hollandsche IJssel, in the municipality of Krimpenerwaard.
South Holland is a province of the Netherlands with a population of just over 3.6 million as of 2015 and a population density of about 1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi), making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas. Situated on the North Sea in the west of the Netherlands, South Holland covers an area of 3,403 km2 (1,314 sq mi), of which 585 km2 (226 sq mi) is water. It borders North Holland to the north, Utrecht and Gelderland to the east, and North Brabant and Zeeland to the south. The provincial capital is The Hague, while its largest city is Rotterdam.
In 1981 he became general secretary of the youth forum of the European Community in Brussels. In this capacity he attended an illegal youth conference in Chile, then ruled by Pinochet. Meanwhile, tensions within the PPR had escalated. Melkert was a member of the so-called, 'Blues' or 'Godebald' group of radicals, which favoured closer cooperation with the social-democrat Labour Party (PvdA) and the social-liberal Democrats 66 (D66) party. The conflict came to an end in 1981. The 'Reds', who favoured closer cooperation with the left-wing socialist Pacifist Socialist Party (PSP) party and the communist Communist Party of the Netherlands (CPN) party, and the 'Greens', who favoured an independent Green Party, joined forces. Many 'Blues', including Melkert, left the PPR for the PvdA. In 1984 he became director of international affairs at Oxfam Novib, the Dutch branch of Oxfam, and moved to The Hague. He also became a member of the board of the local PvdA branch. In 1986 he published a book on international development in the Netherlands titled: The Next Minister: Development Cooperation with the Cabinet, 1965 – 19?
Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita. It covers 161 km2 (62 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas, and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.
Democrats 66 is a social-liberal political party in the Netherlands. Its name originates from the year in which it was founded.
In 1996 Melkert was elected into the House of Representatives. In the early years, he was the party's spokesperson on foreign affairs, development cooperation and environmental affairs.
After the 1989 elections he took the post of financial spokesperson of the PvdA, becoming the party's primary spokesperson in the debates on the national budget. Between 1990 and 1994 he was vice-chairman of the parliament's committee on finance.
As an MP, Melkert also participated in several boards of civil society organisations. He was a member of the board of advisers of the Foundation for Communication on Development Cooperation, chairman of the Foundation for Development Cooperation Almere-Port Sudan, and vice-chairman of the Atlantic Committee. Also, he wrote a column in the region newspaper, De Gooi- en Eemlander , that covered Hilversum and the Almere region.
In 1994 Melkert became the Minister of Social Affairs and Employment in the first cabinet of prime minister, Wim Kok. He held responsibility for one of its main goals, which, in the words of those who shaped the cabinet was: Employment, Employment, Employment. As minister, Melkert was known for his work ethic. Each Friday he would fill a postman's cart, which he had bought specifically for that purpose, with dossiers. Upon his return to work the following Monday all the dossiers would have been read. His work ethic was also noticeable in the vast amount of policies and laws he initiated during his tenure as minister.
As minister of Social Affairs he often came into conflict with the VVD's (People's Party for Freedom and Democracy) Minister of Finance, Gerrit Zalm.
Following the 1998 general elections in which Melkert was the PvdA's fifth ranking candidate, he became leader of the PvdA in parliament. He also served as chair of the parliament's committee on Information and Security Services. During his period as chairman, the party discipline tightened. The PvdA's image appeared arrogant. A conflict situation between Melkert and Rob van Gijzel, a popular PvdA MP, regarding the post of spokesperson on fraud in the construction sector, resulted in Van Gijzel leaving parliament. Despite concerns regarding Melkert's policy of marginalising and isolating the Socialist Party, he was seen as a competent politician, and was designated to succeed prime minister, Wim Kok, who officially retired as leader of the PvdA in 2001.
Melkert became the PvdA's top candidate for the 2002 elections. It was widely anticipated that either he or the leader of the VVD, Hans Dijkstal, would become the next prime minister, and that the elections would revolve around the question as to whether the conservative liberal VVD or the PvdA would become the largest party.
However, the elections took an unexpected turn when Pim Fortuyn, a flamboyant populist, entered the political arena. Focusing his campaign on issues of immigration, integration and the state of the public sector, Fortuyn was intent on exposing the PvdA as being responsible for what he termed, Eight years of Purple ruin – referring to the red and blue combination of the social and liberal coalition that had governed the Netherlands during the preceding eight years. In several television debates between Melkert and Fortuyn it became apparent that Melkert was no match for Fortuyn's rather unconventional, though highly charismatic debating style. In the now infamous debate on the night when the results of the 2002 municipal elections were telecast, Fortuyn, having just won the elections in Rotterdam, made a lively, enthusiastic impression, rarely missing an opportunity to mock his opponent who appeared to sit with a degree of discomfort. The incompatibility of the two men dominated the rest of the election campaign. In a one-on-one debate during the programme, Network, their vastly different styles were once again highlighted. To every question posed by the host, Melkert responded with a detailed course of action. With regard to Fortuyn's plans, Melkert demanded 'footnotes!', implying that his opponent's contribution was unrealistic and devoid of detail. There were those who perceived this as arrogance on his part.
Steps were taken to redress the possibility of a negative, bureaucratic image and it was revealed that Melkert was an avid follower of Feyenoord football club and enjoyed culinary pursuits: a cookbook was published on his personal website. In May 2006 Melkert revealed to politician-turned-television personality, Paul Rosenmöller, that perhaps by being too entrenched in the confines of the governmental tower, his demeanour had come across as somewhat patronising: something that did not appeal to the voter.
On 6 May 2002, nine days before the election Pim Fortuyn was assassinated by a 32-year-old environmental activist. A few relatively minor riots erupted in The Hague where Melkert was at the time, urging him to make a quick departure from the city. After receiving death threats, including a loaded gun in the mail, he and his family temporarily went into hiding.
Melkert's PvdA lost nearly half its seats, decreasing from 45 to 23 in the 150 seat House of Representatives. The party fell from 1st to 4th place. Melkert resigned as political leader on election night and was replaced by former speaker of the House of Representatives, Jeltje van Nieuwenhoven. Melkert remained in parliament for a short time afterwards. His last major parliamentary debate was on the state of the European Union.
In November, 2002 Melkert was appointed executive director of the World Bank. In April 2005 he was a serious candidate for the post of Administrator of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). It went, however, to the Turkish economist and politician, Kemel Dervis. In January 2006 Melkert was appointed Associate Administrator of the UNDP. In 2009 Melkert was appointed Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the United Nations in Iraq. He was a candidate to succeed Juan Somavía as Director-General of the International Labour Organization but lost to Guy Ryder.
|Officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau||Netherlands||30 October 1998|
Willem "Wim" Kok was a Dutch politician who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 August 1994 until 22 July 2002. He was a member of the Labour Party (PvdA).
The People's Party for Freedom and Democracy is a conservative-liberal political party in the Netherlands.
The politics of the Netherlands take place within the framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, a constitutional monarchy and a decentralised unitary state. The Netherlands is described as a consociational state. Dutch politics and governance are characterised by a common striving for broad consensus on important issues, within both of the political community and society as a whole.
Jan Pieter "Jan Peter" Balkenende Jr. is a retired Dutch politician who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 July 2002 to 14 October 2010. He is a member of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA).
The First Balkenende cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 22 July 2002 until 27 May 2003. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Pim Fortuyn List (LPF) and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) after the election of 2002. The right-wing cabinet was a majority government in the House of Representatives. It was the first of four cabinets of Jan Peter Balkenende, the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal as Prime Minister, with Eduard Bomhoff and Roelf de Boer of the Pim Fortuyn List and Johan Remkes of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy serving as Deputy Prime Ministers.
The Christian Democratic Appeal is a Christian-democratic political party in the Netherlands. The CDA was originally formed in 1977 from a confederation of the Catholic People's Party, the Anti-Revolutionary Party and the Christian Historical Union, and has participated in all but three governments since then. Sybrand van Haersma Buma has been the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal since 18 May 2012.
The Second Kok cabinet, also called the Second Purple cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 3 August 1998 until 22 July 2002. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Labour Party (PvdA), People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the Democrats 66 (D66) after the election of 1998. The grand coalition (Purple) cabinet was a majority government in the House of Representatives and was a continuation of the previous cabinet Kok I. It was the last of two cabinets of Wim Kok, the Leader of the Labour Party as Prime Minister, with Annemarie Jorritsma of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and Els Borst the former Leader of the Democrats 66 serving as Deputy Prime Ministers.
The Second Balkenende cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 27 May 2003 until 7 July 2006. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the Democrats 66 (D66) after the election of 2003. The centre-right cabinet was a majority government in the House of Representatives.
Wouter Jacob Bos (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈʋʌutər ˈbɔs]; is a retired Dutch politician of the Labour Party and businessman. He is the designated CEO and Chairman for the government-owned Dutch Invest Agency taking office in 2019.
General elections were held in the Netherlands on 15 May 2002. The elections were amongst the most dramatic in Dutch history, not just in terms of the electoral results, as they were completely overshadowed by the assassination of leader Pim Fortuyn only nine days before election day.
Jacques Wallage is a retired Dutch politician of the Labour Party (PvdA).
The Political Party of Radicals was a progressive Christian and green political party in the Netherlands. The PPR played a relatively small role in Dutch politics and merged with other left-wing parties to form GreenLeft in 1991.
General elections were held in the Netherlands on 22 November 2006 following the fall of the Second Balkenende cabinet. The elections proved relatively successful for the governing Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) which remained the largest party with 41 seats, a loss of only three seats. The largest increase in seats was for the Socialist Party (SP), which went from nine to 25 seats. The main opposition party, the social-democratic Labour Party (PvdA) lost nine of its 42 seats, while the right-liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the progressive liberal Democrats 66 lost a considerable portion of their seats, six of 28 and three of six, respectively. New parties, such as the right-wing Party for Freedom (PVV) of former VVD MP Geert Wilders and the animal rights party Party for the Animals (PvdD) were also successful, with the PVV winning nine seats and the PvdD winning two, thereby becoming the first animal rights group to enter a European parliament.
The First Kok cabinet, also called the First Purple cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 22 August 1994 until 3 August 1998. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Labour Party (PvdA), People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) and the Democrats 66 (D66) after the election of 1994. The grand coalition (Purple) cabinet was a majority government in the House of Representatives. It was the first of two cabinets of Wim Kok, the Leader of the Labour Party as Prime Minister, with Hans Dijkstal the Deputy Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and Hans van Mierlo the Leader of the Democrats 66 serving as Deputy Prime Ministers.
The Third Lubbers cabinet, also called the Lubbers–Kok cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 7 November 1989 tot 22 August 1994. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) and Labour Party (PvdA) after the election of 1989. The centre grand coalition cabinet was a majority government in the House of Representatives. It was the last of three cabinets of Ruud Lubbers, the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal as Prime Minister, with Wim Kok the Leader of the Labour Party serving as Deputy Prime Minister.
The Second Lubbers cabinet was the cabinet of the Netherlands from 14 July 1986 until 7 November 1989. The cabinet was formed by the political parties Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) after the election of 1986. The right-wing cabinet was a majority government in the House of Representatives and was a continuation of the previous cabinet Lubbers I. It was the second of three cabinets of Ruud Lubbers (CDA) as Prime Minister, with Rudolf de Korte the former Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy serving as Deputy Prime Minister.
Purple is a common term in politics for governments or other political entities consisting of parties that have red and blue as their political colours. It is of particular note in two areas: in the politics of the Netherlands and Belgium and in the politics of the United States.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ad Melkert .|
|Party political offices|
| Parliamentary leader of the |
Labour Party in the
House of Representatives
Jeltje van Nieuwenhoven
| Deputy Leader of |
the Labour Party
Jeltje van Nieuwenhoven
| Lijsttrekker of the |
| Leader of the Labour Party |
Bert de Vries
| Minister of Social Affairs |
Klaas de Vries
| Executive Director of the |
World Bank Group
| Executive Director of the |
International Monetary Fund
| Associate Administrator of the |
United Nations Development Programme
Staffan de Mistura
| Special Representative of the |
United Nations Assistance
Mission for Iraq
Yvonne van Rooy
| Chairman of the |
| Chairman of the Supervisory board |
of ADO Den Haag