Adam

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Adam
Monreale adam entering.jpg
The Patriarch
BornCreated on 6th day [lower-alpha 1]
Garden of Eden
Diedc. 930 years AM
Venerated in
Feast 24 December
Patronage Gardeners and tailors
Adam
Biblical figure
Michelangelo, Creation of Adam 03.jpg
Spouse(s)Biblical: Eve
Extra-biblical: Lilith precedes Eve
ChildrenBiblical: Cain, Abel and Seth (three sons)
Extra-biblical: Awan, Azura, and Luluwa or Aclima (three daughters)

Adam (Hebrew : אָדָם, Modern: ʼAdam, Tiberian: ʾĀḏām; Arabic : آدَم, romanized: ʾĀdam; Greek : Ἀδάμ, romanized: Adám; Latin : Adam) is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible and in the creation story of the Quran. [1] According to the creation myth [2] of the Abrahamic religions, he was the first man. In both Genesis and Quran, Adam and his wife were expelled from a Garden of Eden for eating the fruit of a tree forbidden by Yahweh or Allah, [3] though various names are different, as is the sequence of events, the consequences of this disobedience, and Adam's later biography.

Hebrew language Semitic language native to Israel

Hebrew is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, the modern version of which is spoken by over nine million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name "Hebrew" in the Tanakh itself. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only Canaanite language still spoken, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.

Modern Hebrew language

Modern Hebrew or Israeli Hebrew, generally referred to by speakers simply as Hebrew, is the standard form of the Hebrew language spoken today. Spoken in ancient times, Hebrew, a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic language family, was supplanted as the Jewish vernacular by the western dialect of Aramaic beginning in the third century BCE, though it continued to be used as a liturgical and literary language. It was revived as a spoken language in the 19th and 20th centuries and is the official language of Israel.

Tiberian vocalization System of diacritics

The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text. The system soon became used to vocalize other Hebrew texts, as well.

Contents

Various forms of creationism and biblical literalism consider Adam to be a historical person. Scientific evidence does not support the idea that the entire human population descends from a single man. [4] [5] Based on a meta-analysis of reported values in the literature for many species, Traill et al. reported concerning vertebrates "a cross-species frequency distribution of" minimum viable population "with a median of 4169 individuals (95% CI = 3577–5129)." [6] [ non sequitur ]

Creationism religious belief that nature originated through supernatural acts of divine creation.

Creationism is the religious belief that nature, and aspects such as the universe, Earth, life, and humans, originated with supernatural acts of divine creation. In its broadest sense, creationism includes a continuum of religious views, which vary in their acceptance or rejection of scientific explanations such as evolution that describe the origin and development of natural phenomena.

Biblical literalism A term used differently by different authors concerning biblical interpretation

Biblical literalism or biblicism is a term used differently by different authors concerning biblical interpretation. It can equate to the dictionary definition of literalism: "adherence to the exact letter or the literal sense", where literal means "in accordance with, involving, or being the primary or strict meaning of the word or words; not figurative or metaphorical".

Minimum viable population Smallest size a biological population can exist without facing extinction

Minimum viable population (MVP) is a lower bound on the population of a species, such that it can survive in the wild. This term is commonly used in the fields of biology, ecology, and conservation biology. MVP refers to the smallest possible size at which a biological population can exist without facing extinction from natural disasters or demographic, environmental, or genetic stochasticity. The term "population" is defined as a group of interbreeding individuals in similar geographic area that undergo negligible gene flow with other groups of the species. Typically, MVP is used to refer to a wild population, but can also be used for ex-situ conservation.

The word adam is also used in the Bible as a pronoun, individually as "a human" and in a collective sense as "mankind". [7] Biblical Adam (man, mankind) is created from adamah (earth), and Genesis 1–8 makes considerable play of the bond between them, for Adam is estranged from the earth through his disobedience. [8]

In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun has been theorized to be a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase. It is a particular case of a pro-form.

Adamah

Adamah is a word, translatable as ground or earth, which occurs in the Biblical account of Creation of the Book of Genesis. The etymological link between the word adamah and the word adam is used to reinforce the teleological link between humankind and the ground, emphasising both the way in which man was created to cultivate the world, and how he originated from the "dust of the ground". Because man is both made from the adamah and inhabits it, his duty to realise his own potential is linked to a corresponding duty to the earth. In Eden, the adamah has primarily positive connotations, although Adam's close relationship with the adamah has been interpreted as likening him to the serpent, which crawls upon the ground, thus emphasising his animal nature.

Origin

And Elohim Created Adam, William Blake William Blake 008.jpg
And Elohim Created Adam, William Blake

The majority view among scholars is that the book of Genesis dates from the Persian period (the 5th and 4th centuries BCE), [9] but the absence from the rest of the Hebrew Bible of all the other characters and incidents mentioned in chapters 1–11 of Genesis, (Adam appears only in chapters 1–5, with the exception of a mention at the beginning of the Books of Chronicles where, as in Genesis, he heads the list of Israel's ancestors [10] ) has led a sizable minority to the conclusion that Genesis 1–11 was composed much later, possibly in the 3rd century BCE. [11]

Hebrew Bible Canonical collection of Hebrew scripture

The Hebrew Bible, which is also called the Tanakh or sometimes the Mikra, is the canonical collection of Hebrew scriptures. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, except for some Biblical Aramaic passages in the books of Daniel and Ezra. The Hebrew Bible is also the textual source for the Christian Old Testament. The form of this text that is authoritative for Rabbinic Judaism is known as the Masoretic Text (MT) and it consists of 24 books, while the translations divide essentially the same material into 39 books for the Protestant Bible.

Books of Chronicles the final books of the Jewish bible

The Book of Chronicles is a Hebrew prose work constituting part of Jewish and Christian scripture. It contains a genealogy from the first human being, Adam, and a narrative of the history of ancient Judah and Israel until the proclamation of King Cyrus the Great.

Usage

Mankind—human being—male individual

The Bible uses the word אָדָם ( 'adam ) in all of its senses: collectively ("mankind", Genesis 1:27 ), individually (a "man", Genesis 2:7 ), gender nonspecific ("man and woman", Genesis 5:1-2 ), and male ( Genesis 2:23-24 ). [7] In Genesis 1:27 "adam" is used in the collective sense, and the interplay between the individual "Adam" and the collective "humankind" is a main literary component to the events that occur in the Garden of Eden, the ambiguous meanings embedded throughout the moral, sexual, and spiritual terms of the narrative reflecting the complexity of the human condition. [12] Genesis 2:7 is the first verse where "Adam" takes on the sense of an individual man (the first man), and the context of sex is absent; the gender distinction of "adam" is then reiterated in Genesis 5:1–2 by defining "male and female". [7]

Garden of Eden biblical "garden of God"

The Garden of Eden, also called Paradise, is the biblical "garden of God" described in the Book of Genesis and the Book of Ezekiel. Genesis 13:10 refers to the "garden of God", and the "trees of the garden" are mentioned in Ezekiel 31. The Book of Zechariah and the Book of Psalms also refer to trees and water, without explicitly mentioning Eden.

Connection to the earth

A recurring literary motif is the bond between Adam and the earth (adamah): God creates Adam by molding him out of clay in the final stages of the creation narrative. After the loss of innocence, God curses Adam and the earth as punishment for his disobedience. Adam and humanity are cursed to die and return to the earth (or ground) from which he was formed. [13] This "earthly" aspect is a component of Adam's identity, and Adam's curse of estrangement from the earth seems to describe humankind's divided nature of being earthly yet separated from nature. [13] God himself, who took of the dust from all four corners of the earth with each color (red, black, white, and green), then created Adam therewith, [14] where the soul of Adam is the image of God. [15]

Yahweh God of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah

Yahweh was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah. His exact origins are disputed, although they reach back to the early Iron Age and even the Late Bronze: his name may have begun as an epithet of El, head of the Bronze Age Canaanite pantheon, but the earliest plausible mentions of Yahweh are in ancient Egyptian texts that refer to a similar-sounding place name associated with the Shasu nomads of the southern Transjordan. Some scholars believe that Yahweh was originally thought to be one of the seventy sons of El, who later killed his siblings and displaced his father El at the head of the Israelite pantheon.

Genesis creation narrative Creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity

The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity. The narrative is made up of two stories, roughly equivalent to the first two chapters of the Book of Genesis. In the first, Elohim creates the heavens and the Earth in six days, then rests on, blesses and sanctifies the seventh. In the second story, God, now referred to by the personal name Yahweh, creates Adam, the first man, from dust and places him in the Garden of Eden, where he is given dominion over the animals. Eve, the first woman, is created from Adam and as his companion.

In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, and principal object of faith. God is usually conceived as being omniscient (all-knowing), omnipotent (all-powerful), omnipresent (all-present) and as having an eternal and necessary existence. These attributes are used either in way of analogy or are taken literally. God is most often held to be incorporeal (immaterial). Incorporeality and corporeality of God are related to conceptions of transcendence and immanence of God, with positions of synthesis such as the "immanent transcendence".

In the Hebrew Bible

God Judging Adam, William Blake, 1795 God judging adam blake 1795.jpg
God Judging Adam, William Blake, 1795

Genesis 1 tells of God's creation of the world and its creatures, with humankind as the last of his creatures: "Male and female created He them, and blessed them, and called their name Adam ..." (Genesis 5:2). God blesses mankind, commands them to "be fruitful and multiply", and gives them "dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth" (Genesis 1.26-27).

In Genesis 2, God forms "Adam", this time meaning a single male human, out of "the dust of the ground" and "breathed into his nostrils the breath of life" (Genesis 2:7). God then places this first man in the Garden of Eden, telling him that "Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die" (Genesis 2:16-17). God notes that "It is not good that the man should be alone" (Genesis 2:18) and brings the animals to Adam, who gives them their names, but among all the animals there was not found a companion for him (Genesis 2:20). God causes a deep sleep to fall upon Adam and forms a woman (Genesis 2:21-22), and Adam awakes and greets her as his helpmate.

Genesis 3 , the story of the Fall: A serpent persuades the woman to disobey God's command and eat of the tree of knowledge, which gives wisdom. Woman convinces Adam to do likewise, whereupon they become conscious of their nakedness, cover themselves, and hide from the sight of God. God questions Adam, who blames the woman. God passes judgment, first upon the serpent, condemned to go on his belly, then the woman, condemned to pain in childbirth and subordination to her husband, and finally Adam, who is condemned to labour on the earth for his food and to return to it on his death. [16] God then expels the man and woman from the garden, lest they eat of the Tree of Life and become immortal.

The chiastic structure of the death oracle given to Adam in Genesis 3:19 forms a link between man's creation from "dust" ( Genesis 2:7 ) to the "return" of his beginnings. [17]

A you return
B to the ground
C since ( ) from it you were taken
C' for ( ) dust you are
B' and to dust
A' you will return

Genesis 4 deals with the birth of Adam's sons Cain and Abel and the story of the first murder, followed by the birth of a third son, Seth. Genesis 5 , the Book of the Generations of Adam, lists the descendants of Adam from Seth to Noah with their ages at the birth of their first sons (except Adam himself, for whom his age at the birth of Seth, his third son, is given) and their ages at death (Adam lives 930 years). The chapter notes that Adam had other sons and daughters after Seth, but does not name them.

Post-Biblical Jewish traditions

Adam, Lucas Cranach the Elder Lucas Cranach the Elder - Adam - Google Art Project.jpg
Adam, Lucas Cranach the Elder

Body

Adam possessed a body of light, identical to the light created by God on the first day. [18] According to Jewish mystical tradition the original glory of Adam can be regained through mystical contemplation of God. [8]

Adam, Lilith and Eve

The rabbis, puzzled by the verse of Genesis 1 which states that God created man and woman together, told that when God created Adam he also created a woman from the dust, as he had created Adam, and named her Lilith; but the two could not agree, for Adam wanted Lilith to lie under him, and Lilith insisted that Adam should lie under her, and so she fled from him, and Eve was created from Adam's rib. [19] Her story was greatly developed, during the Middle Ages, in the tradition of Aggadic midrashim, the Zohar and Jewish mysticism. Other rabbis explained the same verse as meaning that Adam was created with two faces, male and female, or as a single hermaphrodite being, male and female joined back to back, but God saw that this made walking and conversing difficult, and so split them apart. [20]

Original sin

The serpent approached Eve rather than Adam because Adam had heard the word of God with his own ears, whereas Eve had only his report; Eve tasted the fruit and knew at once that she was doomed to death, and said to herself that it was better she trick Adam into eating so that he too would die, and not take another woman in her place. [21] Adam ate the fruit unaware of what he was doing, and was filled with grief. [21] When Adam blamed Eve after eating the forbidden fruit, God rebuked him that Adam as a man should not have obeyed his wife, for he is the head, not her. [22]

Children of Adam and Eve

Adam withdrew from Eve for 130 years after their expulsion from Eden, and in this time both he and Eve had sex with demons, until at length they reunited and Eve gave birth to Seth. [19] A 2nd-century BCE Jewish religious work, the Book of Jubilees, tells how Adam had a daughter, Awân, born after Cain and Abel, [23] and another daughter, Azûrâ, born after Seth, [24] and they had nine other sons; [25] Cain married Awân and Seth married Azûrâ, thus accounting for their descendants. The Life of Adam and Eve and its Greek version the Apocalypse of Moses recount how Adam repented his sin in exile and was rewarded by being transported to the heavenly paradise, foreshadowing the destiny of all the righteous at the end of time. [8]

Adam's death and burial

The Archangel Michael attended Adam's death, together with Eve and his son Seth, still living at that time, and he was buried together with his murdered son Abel. [26] Because they repented, God gave Adam and Eve garments of light, and similar garments will clothe the Messiah when he comes. [27]

According to the Apocalypse of Moses, which probably originates in first-century CE Jewish literature, the altar of the Temple of Solomon was the centre of the world and the gateway to God's Garden of Eden, and it was here that Adam was both created and buried. [28]

Attitude towards Adam

In the 17th-century book Kav ha-Yashar, the author warns not to talk negatively about Adam, and writes that those who talk positively about Adam will be blessed with a long life. [29] A similar warning can be found in The Zohar. [30]

Adam and the angel Raziel

The Sefer Raziel HaMalakh (רזיאל המלאך) ( Raziel the Angel) is a collection of esoteric writings, probably compiled and edited by the same hand, but originally not the work of one author, which according to tradition was revealed to Adam by the angel Raziel. The book cannot be shown to predate the 13th century, but may in parts date back to Late Antiquity, and like other obscure ancient texts such as the Bahir and Sefer Yetzirah , it has been extant in a number of versions. Zunz ("G. V." 2d ed., p. 176) distinguishes three main parts: (1) the Book Ha-Malbush; (2) the Great Raziel; (3) the Book of Secrets, or the Book of Noah. These three parts are still distinguishable—2b–7a, 7b–33b, 34a and b. After these follow two shorter parts entitled "Creation" and "Shi'ur Ḳomah", and after 41a come formulas for amulets and incantations. [31]

In Christianity

Original sin

Christianity sees human nature as irrevocably stained by the sin of Adam. [32] The idea is not found in Judaism (nor in Islam), and was introduced by the Apostle Paul, drawing on currents in Hellenistic Jewish thought which held that Adam's sin had introduced death and sin into the world. [32] [33] [ failed verification ] Sin, for Paul, was a power to which all humans are subject, but Christ's coming held out the means by which the righteous would be restored to the Paradise from which Adam's sin had banished mankind. [33] [8] He did not conceive of this original sin of Adam as being biologically transmitted or that later generations were to be punished for the deeds of a remote ancestor. [33] It was Augustine who took this step, locating sin itself in male semen: when Adam and Eve ate of the fruit they were ashamed and covered their genitals, identifying the place from which the first sin was passed on to all succeeding generations. [34] Only Jesus Christ, who was not conceived by human semen, was free of the stain passed down from Adam. [35] (Augustine's idea was based on the ancient world's ideas on biology, according to which male sperm contained the entire unborn baby, the mother's womb being no more than a nurturing chamber in which it grew.) [36]

Adam's grave: Golgotha replaces Solomon's Temple

As mentioned above, the Apocalypse of Moses, a Jewish writing containing material probably originating from the first century CE, places both Adam's place of creation and his burial at the altar of the Temple of Solomon, seen as the centre of the world and the gateway to the Garden of Eden. [28] The early Christian community adapted this to their own legend of Golgotha, replacing the altar with the place of Jesus's crucifixion. [37] According to this Christian legend, current in the time of Origen (early 3rd century CE), the holy blood of Christ trickled down and restored to life the father of the human race, who then led the saints who appeared to many in Jerusalem on that day as described in Scripture. [38]

In Islam

Adam and Eve, Manafi al-Hayawan (The Useful Animals), Maragheh, Iran, 1294-99 Islamic Adam & Eve.jpg
Adam and Eve, Manafi al-Hayawan (The Useful Animals), Maragheh, Iran, 1294–99

In Islam, God created Adam (Arabic: آدم) from a handful of earth taken from the entire world, which explains why the peoples of the world are of different colours. [39] According to the Islamic creation myth, he was the first prophet of Islam and the first Muslim.[ citation needed ] The Quran says that all the prophets preached the same faith of submission to God. When God informed the angels that He would create a vice-regent (a khalifa) on Earth, the angels enquired, saying, "will You place therein such that will spread corruption and bloodshed?" So God showed the angels, saying, "Tell Me the names of these?" The angels had no knowledge of these, as God had not taught them. Then God allowed Adam to reveal these names to them, saying, "Did I not say to you (angels) that I know what is unseen in the heavens and the earth and I know what you (angels) reveal and what you (Satan) conceal;" the scholar Al-Tabari explained that God was referring to Iblis (Satan) of his evil plans and to the angels of their honesty. [40]

Adam and Eve both ate of the Tree of Immortality, and both shared guilt equally, for Eve neither tempted Adam or ate before him; nor is Eve to blame for the pain of childbirth, for God never punishes one person for the sins of another. [41] The Shiah school of Islam does not even consider that their action was a sin, for obedience and disobedience are possible only on Earth and not in heaven, which is the location of Paradise. [41] Adam fell on a mountain in India, the tallest in the world and so the closest to Heaven, and from there God sent him to Mecca, where he repented and was forgiven. [42] At Mecca he built the first Sanctuary (the Kaabah - it was later rebuilt by Ibrahim) and was taught the ritual of the Hajj, and wove the first cloak for himself and the first veil and shift for Eve, and after this returned to India where he died at the age of 930, having seen the sons of the sons of his children, 1400 in all. [43]

According to the Ahmadiyya sect Adam was not the first human being on earth, but when the human race came into existence, and spread all over the world and developed the ability to receive revelation, God sent Adam to each and every branch and civilization. According to a revelation received by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the community, the Adam mentioned in the Quran was born 4,598 years before Muhammad. [44]

In the Quran Adam is given the name by God known as the (Adam-I-Safi) or The Chosen One. [45] [46]

See also

Notes

  1. According to the Hebrew calendar, creation began in 3761 BCE. See also Anno Mundi

Related Research Articles

Seth Third son of Adam and Eve

Seth, in Judaism, Christianity, Mandaeism, Sethianism, and Islam, was the third son of Adam and Eve and brother of Cain and Abel, their only other children mentioned by name in the Hebrew Bible. According to Genesis 4:25, Seth was born after Abel's murder, and Eve believed God had appointed him as a replacement for Abel.

Tree of the knowledge of good and evil tree of forbidden fruit of carnal knowledge in first biblical narrative, book of Genesis

The tree of the knowledge of good and evil is one of two specific trees in the story of the Garden of Eden in Genesis 2–3, along with the tree of life.

Cain and Abel The first two sons of Adam and Eve in the Bible

In the biblical Book of Genesis, Cain and Abel are the first two sons of Adam and Eve. Cain, the firstborn, was a farmer, and his brother Abel was a shepherd. The brothers made sacrifices to God, each of his own produce, but God favored Abel's sacrifice instead of Cain's. Cain then murdered Abel, whereupon God punished Cain to a life of wandering. Cain then dwelt in the land of Nod, where he built a city and fathered the line of descendants beginning with Enoch.

Fallen angel angel expelled from Heaven

In Abrahamic religions, fallen angels are angels who were expelled from heaven. The literal term "fallen angel" appears neither in the Bible nor in other Abrahamic scriptures, but is used to describe angels who were cast out of heaven, or angels who sinned. Such angels often tempt humans to sin.

Nephilim Biblical offspring of the "sons of God" and the "daughters of men"

The Nephilim were the offspring of the "sons of God" and the "daughters of men" before the Deluge, according to Genesis 6:1–4.

The Life of Adam and Eve, also known, in its Greek version, as the Apocalypse of Moses, is a Jewish apocryphal group of writings. It recounts the lives of Adam and Eve from after their expulsion from the Garden of Eden to their deaths. It provides more detail about the Fall of Man, including Eve's version of the story. Satan explains that he rebelled when God commanded him to bow down to Adam. After Adam dies, he and all his descendants are promised a resurrection.

Forbidden fruit object of irresistable temptation and disobedience in the first biblical narrative

Forbidden fruit is a phrase that originates from the Book of Genesis concerning the original sin by Adam and Eve in Genesis 2:16–17. In the narrative, Adam and Eve eat the fruit of knowledge of good and evil in the Garden of Eden, which they had been commanded not to do by God. As a metaphor, the phrase typically refers to any indulgence or pleasure that is considered illegal or immoral.

Fall of man Adam and Eve eating the fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil

The fall of man, or the fall, is a term used in Christianity to describe the transition of the first man and woman from a state of innocent obedience to God to a state of guilty disobedience. Although not named in the Bible, the doctrine of the fall comes from a biblical interpretation of Genesis chapter 3. At first, Adam and Eve lived with God in the Garden of Eden, but the serpent tempted them into eating the fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which God had forbidden. After doing so, they became ashamed of their nakedness and God expelled them from the Garden to prevent them from eating from the tree of life and becoming immortal.

Raziel Archangel Raziel.

Raziel is an archangel within the teachings of Jewish mysticism who is the "Keeper of Secrets" and the "Angel of Mysteries". He is associated with the sephirah Chokhmah in Beri'ah, one of the Four Worlds of Kabbalistic theory.

<i>Sefer Raziel HaMalakh</i> Kabbalah book and grimoire of the orthodox ashkenazi judaism

Sefer Raziel HaMalakh,, is a grimoire of Practical Kabbalah from the Middle Ages written primarily in Hebrew and Aramaic. The Liber Razielis Archangeli, its 13th-century Latin translation produced under Alfonso X, survives.

Eve First woman in Genesis creation narrative

Eve is a figure in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible and in the Quran. According to the origin story of the Abrahamic religions, she was the first woman. Eve is known also as Adam's wife.

Adam in Islam The first man and Prophet in Islam

Âdam or Aadam is believed to have been the first human and nabi on Earth, in Islam. Adam's role as the father of the human race is looked upon by Muslims with reverence. Muslims also refer to his wife, Haawa, as the "mother of mankind". Muslims see Adam as the first Muslim on Earth, as the Quran states that all the Prophets preached the same faith of Islam.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that Adam and Eve were the first man and the first woman to live on the earth and that their fall was an essential step in the plan of salvation. Adam in particular is a central figure in Mormon cosmology. Robert L. Millet, an LDS author, wrote of his perspective:

Few persons in all eternity have been more directly involved in the plan of salvation—the creation, the fall, and the ultimate redemption of the children of God—than the man Adam. His ministry among the sons and daughters of earth stretches from the distant past of premortality to the distant future of resurrection, judgment, and beyond.

Adam in rabbinic literature

Allusions in rabbinic literature to the Biblical figure Adam, created according to the Book of Genesis by God in the Garden of Eden as the first man, expand and elaborate and draw inferences from what is presented in the text of the Bible itself.

Adam and Eve The first man and woman according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions

Adam and Eve, according to the creation myth of the Abrahamic religions, were the first man and woman. They are central to the belief that humanity is in essence a single family, with everyone descended from a single pair of original ancestors. It also provides the basis for the doctrines of the fall of man and original sin that are important beliefs in Christianity, although not held in Judaism or Islam.

Jewish mythology The myth

Jewish mythology is a major literary element of the body of folklore found in the sacred texts and in traditional narratives that help explain and symbolize Jewish culture and Judaism. Elements of Jewish mythology have had a profound influence on Christian mythology and on Islamic mythology, as well as on world culture in general. Christian mythology directly inherited many of the narratives from the Jewish people, sharing in common the narratives from the Old Testament. Islamic mythology also shares many of the same stories; for instance, a creation-account spaced out over six periods, the legend of Abraham, the stories of Moses and the Israelites, and many more.

Ahmadiyya views on evolution The Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam universally accepts a process of divinely guided evolution

The Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam universally accepts the process of evolution, albeit divinely guided, and actively promotes it. Over the course of several decades, the movement has issued various publications in support of the scientific concepts behind the process of evolution and frequently engages in promoting how religious scripture supports the concept.

The Legends of the Jews is a chronological compilation of aggadah from hundreds of biblical legends in Mishnah, Talmud and Midrash. The compilation consists of seven volumes synthesized by Louis Ginzberg in a manuscript written in the German language. In 1913, it was translated by Henrietta Szold. It was published in Philadelphia by the Jewish Publication Society of America, 1909-38,

References

Citations

  1. Quran 3:59
  2. Womack 2005 , p.  81, "Creation myths are symbolic stories describing how the universe and its inhabitants came to be. Creation myths develop through oral traditions and therefore typically have multiple versions."
  3. Behbūdī, Muhammad Bāqir (1997). The Quran: A New Interpretation. Psychology Press. p. 87. ISBN   9780700704071.
  4. "There Was No First Human". WGBH-TV. 26 March 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  5. "Richard Dawkins Explains Why There Was Never a First Human Being". Open Culture. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  6. Traill, Lochran W.; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Brook, Barry W. (2007). "Minimum viable population size: A meta-analysis of 30 years of published estimates". Biological Conservation. 139 (1–2): 159–66. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.06.011.
  7. 1 2 3 Hendel 2000, p. 18.
  8. 1 2 3 4 Hendel 2000, p. 19.
  9. Charles H. Cosgrove (1 September 2004). The Meanings We Choose: Hermeneutical Ethics, Indeterminacy and the Conflict of Interpretations. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 168. ISBN   978-0-567-06896-5.
  10. Enns 2012, p. 84.
  11. Gmirkin 2006, pp. 240—241.
  12. Hendel 2000, p. 18-19.
  13. 1 2 Hendel 2000, p. 119.
  14. Ginzberg 1909, vol I, chapter II.
  15. Ginzberg 1909 , vol I, chapter II
    Citation: "God had fashioned his (Adam's) soul with particular care. She is the image of God, and as God fills the world, so the soul fills the human body; as God sees all things, and is seen by none, so the soul sees, but cannot be seen; as God guides the world, so the soul guides the body; as God in His holiness is pure, so is the soul; and as God dwells in secret, so doth the soul".
  16. Mathews 1996 , p. 252
  17. Mathews 1996 , p. 253
  18. Schwartz 2006, p. 130.
  19. 1 2 Schwartz 2006, p. 218.
  20. Schwartz 2006, p. 138.
  21. 1 2 Schwartz 2006, p. 434-435.
  22. Ginzberg 1909, p. 36-37.
  23. Jubilees 4:1.
  24. Jubilees 4:9
  25. Jubilees 4:10
  26. Schwartz 2006, p. 445.
  27. Schwartz 2006, p. 437.
  28. 1 2 Ginzberg 1998, p. 125-126.
  29. Parshat Chukat
  30. Zohar Chadash Parshat Beresheit 24a or in older versions 19
  31. "Raziel, Book of". Jewish Encyclopedia (1906).
  32. 1 2 Pies 2000, p. xviii.
  33. 1 2 3 Boring 2012, p. 301.
  34. Stortz 2001, p. 93.
  35. Stortz 2001, pp. 93—94.
  36. Stortz 2001, p. 94.
  37. Ginzberg 1998, p. 126.
  38. Hanauer 2011, pp. 69—70.
  39. Wheeler 2002, pp. 17—18.
  40. Wheeler 2002, p. 15.
  41. 1 2 Ashrof 2005, p. 74.
  42. Wheeler 2002, p. 25,30.
  43. Wheeler 2002, p. 32,39,43.
  44. "Man Lived on Earth Even Before the Advent of Adam". Al Islam.
  45. https://www.academia.edu/7170404/Shaggy_or_Shaved (Scroll down to page 12) Adam was given the honorary name of "Adam-I-Safi" meaning: THE CHOSEN ONE
  46. https://biblicalstudies.org.uk/pdf/ijt/07-2_056.pdf Bottom of page 57: "Adam was God's Chosen one "Adam-Safi"

Bibliography