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Adam Stegerwald (14 December 1874, Greußenheim, Lower Franconia – 3 December 1945) was a German Catholic politician and a leader of the left wing of the Centre Party.
Greußenheim is a municipality in the district of Würzburg in Bavaria, Germany.
Lower Franconia is one of seven districts of Bavaria, Germany. The districts of Lower, Middle and Upper Franconia make up the region of Franconia.
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.
The son of a farmer attended from 1881-88 the primary school in Greußenheim. In Würzburg he learned the profession of a carpenter. In 1893, he entered the Catholic Gesellenverein in Günzburg (Swabia).
The Gesellenvereine were German Roman Catholic societies set up in the nineteenth century. They were originated by Adolph Kolping, surnamed the Journeymen's Father (Gesellenvater). They had for aims the religious, moral, and professional improvement of young workers.
Günzburg is a Große Kreisstadt and capital of the district of Günzburg in the Swabian district of Bavaria. This district was constituted in 1972 by combining the city of Günzburg – which had not previously been assigned to a Kreis (district) – with the district of Günzburg and the district of Krumbach.
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany. The name is ultimately derived from the medieval Duchy of Swabia, one of the German stem duchies, representing the territory of Alemannia, whose inhabitants interchangeably were called Alemanni or Suebi.
From 1900 to 1902 he was a private listener of Lujo Brentano for two semesters for economics and special economics at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. From 1903-05 he attended lectures at the Graduate School of Cologne. From 1916-19, he was a member of the board of the Reichsernähungsamt. From 1917-18 he belonged to the Prussian House of Lords.
Ludwig Joseph Brentano was an eminent German economist and social reformer.
Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich is a public research university located in Munich, Germany.
Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, and its 1 million+ (2016) inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is also the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, which is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, and of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bonn. It is the largest city in the Central Franconian and Ripuarian dialect areas.
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As a representative of the Christian trade unions he signed on 15 November 1918 the "Arbeitsgemeinschaftsabkommen" between the employer's association and the trade unions. From 1919-29 he became the head of the Christian German Union Federation (DGB). He was from 1919 to 1920 a member of the National Assembly. He belonged to the 'Committee for the preliminary discussion of the draft constitution for the German Empire' of the National Assembly. From March 1919 to November 1921 he was Prussian Minister for People's Welfare. From April to November 1921 he held both the office of the Prussian Minister-president, from April 1929 to March 1930 that of the Minister for Transports, from March 1930 to May 1932, the Minister for employment.
The Weimar National Assembly was the constitutional convention and de facto parliament of Germany from 6 February 1919 to 6 June 1920. The assembly drew up the new constitution which was in force from 1919 to 1933, technically remaining in effect even until the end of Nazi rule in 1945. It convened in Weimar, Thuringia and is the reason for this period in German history becoming known as the Weimar Republic.
A minister-president or minister president is the head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments with a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government where he or she presides over the council of ministers. It is an alternative term for prime minister, premier, chief minister, or first minister and very similar to the title of president of the council of ministers.
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As Minister of Labour in the cabinet of his former personal assistant Heinrich Brüning he tried to save under the conditions of the Great Depression at least the basics of the Weimar welfare state. He failed therein because of the resistance of the Heavy industry. On February 21, 1933, he was attacked at an election rally in Krefeld by Nazis.
Heinrich Aloysius Maria Elisabeth Brüning was a German Centre Party politician and academic, who served as Chancellor of Germany during the Weimar Republic from 1930 to 1932.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until the late-1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities ; or complex or numerous processes. Because of those factors, heavy industry involves higher capital intensity than light industry does, and it is also often more heavily cyclical in investment and employment.
In March 1933, he led together with Ludwig Kaas and Albert Hackelsberger negotiations with Adolf Hitler. Afterwards the Centre party agreed to the Enabling Act. From 1933-34 he was indicted, along with Wilhelm Marx and Heinrich Brauns, in the trial of the Cologne Volksverein Verlag in his capacity as board member of the National Association for Catholic Germany. On 30 July 1934, he submerged temporarily.
After the 20 July plot, he was temporarily arrested under the Aktion Gitter . From August 24, October 19, 1944 he was detained by the Gestapo in Würzburg prison.During the time of Nazi Germany he had no influence.
In 1945, he was appointed at the behest of the American occupation forces for District President of the district of Lower Franconia. Stegerwald became the leading head of the Würzburg group that was instrumental in the founding of the Christian Social Union in Bavaria in the summer and autumn of 1945, in addition to the Munich group around Josef Müller.
Adam Stegerwald died in December 1945 from pneumonia, eleven days before his 71st birthday.[ where? ]
| Prime Minister of Prussia |
Otto Lebrecht Eduard Daniel Meissner was head of the Office of the President of Germany during the entire period of the Weimar Republic under Friedrich Ebert and Paul von Hindenburg and, finally, at the beginning of the Nazi government under Adolf Hitler.
Pasewalk is a town in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany. Located on the Uecker river, it is the capital of the former Uecker-Randow district, and the seat of the Uecker-Randow-Tal Amt, of which it is not part.
Eugen Anton Bolz was a German politician and a member of the resistance to the Nazi régime.
Paul Adolf Franz Lejeune-Jung, was a German economist, politician, syndic in the pulp industry, and resistance fighter against Adolf Hitler's Third Reich.
The Free Workers' Union of Germany was an anarcho-syndicalist trade union in Germany. It stemmed from the Free Association of German Trade Unions (FDVG) which combined with the Ruhr region's Freie Arbeiter Union on September 15, 1919. The FAUD was involved in the revolution in Germany from 1918–1923, and continued to be involved in the German labor movement after the FAUD began to decline in 1923. After 1921, the FAUD added an "AS" to their name, signifying a full transition from simple syndicalism to anarcho-syndicalism. This also led to further difficulties between the intellectual elites of the FAUD (AS), such as Rudolf Rocker, and the rank and file workers, mostly in the Ruhr, who were more worried about "bread and butter" issues than anarchist political activities. These workers, the majority of the FAUD-(AS) members, formed the Gelsenkircherichtung within the movement, and given the movements federalist structure, began to drift away from the FAUD-(AS) intellectually and organizationally. Eventually, those workers who had joined during the revolution left the movement and the remaining FAUD-(AS) members came from the FDVG's original constituencies of the building trades and specialized textile workers. The Nazis suppressed the FAUD in January 1933 after coming to power. However, many of its members continued to do political work illegally and organized resistance against the Nazi regime, both in Germany and elsewhere. The International Workers Association, of which the FAUD was a member, was founded upon the initiative of the German organization in 1922. The Free Workers' Union (FAU), which was founded in 1977, sees itself in the tradition of the FAUD. At its peak, the FAUD had 150,000 members. The primary organ of the FAUD was the newspaper Der Syndikalist, which was first published in December 1918, and continued until the groups suppression by the Nazis.
Imanuel Geiss was a German historian.
Heinrich Ludwig Julius Heppe was a German Calvinist theologian and church historian.
Friedrich Wilhelm Schulz was a German officer, radical, and social democratic publisher in Hesse. His most famous works are Der Tod des Pfarrers Friedrich Ludwig Weidig as well as Die Bewegung der Produktion, which Karl Marx quoted extensively in his 1844 Manuscripts. Schulz was the first to describe the movement of society "as flowing from the contradiction between the forces of production and the mode of production," which would later form the basis of historical materialism. Marx continued to praise Schulz's work decades later when writing Das Kapital.
Georg Sabinus or Georg Schuler was a German poet, diplomat and academic.
The Art Prize of the German Democratic Republic was an East German state award bestowed on individuals for contributions in various fields of art.
Friedrich Wilhelm Hermann Wagener was a Prussian jurist, chief editor of the Kreuzzeitung and was a politician and minister from the Prussian Conservative Party.
Aleida Assmann is a German professor of English and Literary Studies, who studied Egyptology and whose work has focused on cultural anthropology and Cultural and Communicative Memory.
Schlesische Arbeiter-Zeitung was a left-wing German language newspaper published from Breslau, Province of Lower Silesia, Weimar Germany between 1919 and 1933.
Sozialistische Arbeiter-Zeitung was a daily newspaper published in Germany between 1931 and 1933. SAZ was the central organ of the Socialist Workers Party of Germany (SAPD).
Das Volksrecht was a left-wing newspaper published from Offenbach am Main, Weimar Germany between 1925 and 1933. Initially it was an irregular publication of the communist city council group, but in 1928 it became a local mouthpiece of the Right Opposition. It was published on weekly basis until the National Socialist takeover in 1933.
Jürgen Roth was a German publicist and investigative journalist.
The ceremonial Landesvater is a college custom developed in the 18th century where student caps are pierced with the blade of a sword. The song that accompanies this event is also called "Landesvater". The word Landesvater is also used as a name for the prime ministers of the individual German states.
Ilko-Sascha Kowalczuk is a German historian and author. His work is focused on the German Democratic Republic and its Ministry for State Security.
Karl Wilhelm Nitzsch was a German historian known for his studies of ancient Rome and medieval Germany. He was the son of classical philologist Gregor Wilhelm Nitzsch (1790–1861).
Helmut Schlegel OFM is a German Franciscan, Catholic priest, meditation instructor, author, librettist and songwriter. He is known for new spiritual songs, set by various composers.