Village sign and shops on Lower Addiscombe Road
|OS grid reference|
|• Charing Cross||9.1 mi (14.6 km) NNW|
|Ceremonial county||Greater London|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
Addiscombe // is an area of south London, England, within the London Borough of Croydon. It is located 9.1 miles (15 km) south of Charing Cross, and is situated north of Coombe and Selsdon, east of Croydon town centre, south of Woodside, and west of Shirley.
Addiscombe as a place name is thought to be Anglo-Saxon in origin, meaning "Eadda or Æddi's estate", from an Anglo-Saxon personal name, and the word camp, meaning an enclosed area in Old English. The same Anglo-Saxon land-owner may have given his name to Addington, around two miles to the south.
First mentioned in the 13th century, Addiscombe formed part of Croydon Manor, and was known as enclosed land belonging to Eadda.The area was a rural and heavily wooded area for much of its history. Its main industries were farming and brick-making, clay deposits at Woodside providing the raw materials for the latter.
During the Tudor period, Addiscombe was a large country estate and the seat of the Heron family.Sir Nicholas Heron died there in 1568 and was interred at his family's chapel at Croydon Minster.
The estate passed through several owners until 1650 when it was sold to Sir Purbeck Temple, a member of the Privy Council in the time of Charles II.[ citation needed ] After the death of Sir Purbeck in 1695 and his wife Dame Sarah Temple in 1700, the estate passed to Dame Sarah's nephew, William Draper, who was married to the daughter of the famous diarist, John Evelyn. When Draper died in 1718, he left his estate to his son of the same name and it then passed to his nephew, Charles Clark.
In 1703, Addiscombe Place was built for William Draper to Sir John Vanbrugh's design.The house was built on a site which is now the corner of Outram Road and Mulberry Lane and became known as one of three great houses in Addiscombe, the others being 'Ashburton House' and 'Stroud Green House'. It replaced the Elizabethan mansion built by Thomas Heron in 1516. John Tunstall, a courtier of Anne of Denmark, bought Heron's house and had a noted flower garden.
John Evelyn recorded in his Diary , "I went to Adscomb on 11 July 1703 to see my son-in-law’s new house. It has excellent brickwork and Portland stone features, that I pronounced it good solid architecture, and one of the very best gentlemen's houses in Surrey."Distinguished guests who stayed at the mansion include George III, William Pitt the Elder and Peter the Great of Russia. Peter the Great was reputed to have planted a cedar tree in Mulberry Lane to record his visit.
During the 18th century Addiscombe Place was successively the home to The Lord Talbot, The Lord Grantham and lastly The Earl of Liverpool, who died there in 1808.
In 1809, Emelius Ratcliffe sold Addiscombe Place to the British East India Company for £15,500, whereupon it became a military academy known as the Addiscombe Military Seminary.Cadets were trained as officers for one of the Company's three Presidency Armies. Its counterpart, East India Company College in Hertfordshire, trained the Company's administrators. The Indian Mutiny of 1857 led to strong criticism of the Company, and in 1858 it was nationalised by the British government. The military seminary was closed in 1861 and the remaining cadets transferred to the Royal Military College, Sandhurst.
In 1863, the seminary buildings were sold for £33,600 to developers who razed most of them to the ground. Five parallel roads were laid out on the site, to the south of the former college site – Outram, Havelock, Elgin, Clyde and Canning Roads. They were all named after individuals who were prominent in either the military or civil governance of British India namely; Sir James Outram, Bt, Sir Henry Havelock, The Earl of Elgin, The Lord Clyde and The Earl Canning. All that survives of the Seminary itself are two buildings called 'Ashleigh' and 'India', on the corner of Clyde Road and Addiscombe Road, and a former gymnasium on Havelock Road, now private apartments.
With the advent of the railways in the 1830s, Cherry Orchard Road linking Addiscombe with Croydon ceased to be a quiet rural lane and railway workers' cottages sprang up, many with the still-visible date of 1838. However it was not until 1858 and the sale of the college, that significant urbanisation occurred.
There was formerly a small chapel attached to Addiscombe Military Seminary and to this, cadets paraded each morning and evening for a service conducted by the chaplain. On Sundays, cadets went down to the Parish Church in Croydon. By 1827, it became clear that Croydon Parish Church was too far away to minister to the college needs and St James' Parish Church was built and consecrated on 31 January 1829.[ citation needed ] The population of Addiscombe at this time was about 1,000.[ citation needed ] In 1870, the church of St Paul's (built by Edward Buckton Lamb) was opened and then rededicated in 1874 to St Mary Magdalene.[ citation needed ] The parish of Addiscombe was formed in 1879.[ citation needed ]
In the 1890s, the Ashburton Estate was gradually sold for redevelopment, and Ashburton House, which had previously hosted literary figures such as Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Thomas Carlyle and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, was demolished in 1910.
Much of the land remaining in the area after the initial Victorian-era had been infilled with smaller housing developments by the 1930s.Addiscombe railway station closed in the late 1990s and was replaced by housing. Since early 2006 several parts of Addiscombe have been in the process of extensive regeneration, notably the addition of housing to the site of the former Black Horse Pub and the demolition of former Church Halls and a small garden centre in Bingham Road allowing a new Church Hall and community complex to be built and providing luxury retirement apartments on adjoining land.
The area contains a number of parks and green spaces, notably Ashburton Park and Addiscombe Recreation Ground. The main shopping area is situated along Lower Addiscombe Road, containing a variety of shops, restaurants and pubs.
The area is currently served by four Tramlink stations - Lebanon Road, Sandilands, Addiscombe and Blackhorse Lane. Sandilands was the site of a serious derailment in 2016 which resulted in seven deaths.
Addiscombe railway station, located about circa 500 metres west of Addiscombe's main shopping parade, closed in 1997 following the withdrawal of services from Elmers End and was then demolished, being replaced by housing.Part of the old track between Woodside and Addiscombe railway stations is now Addiscombe Railway Park and part, the former Station area, has been redeveloped for housing as East India Way. Bingham Road station also formerly served the area; it was located roughly where Addiscombe tram stop now is, before closing in 1983. The former rail station featured in the opening scenes of the 1961 Tony Hancock film The Rebel . The nearest train station is now East Croydon.
London Trams, previously Tramlink and Croydon Tramlink, is a light rail tram system serving Croydon and surrounding areas in South London, England. It began operation in 2000, the first tram system in London since 1952. It is owned by London Trams, part of Transport for London (TfL), and has been operated by FirstGroup since 2017. Tramlink is one of two light rail networks in Greater London, the other being the Docklands Light Railway.
The London Borough of Croydon is a London borough in south London, part of Outer London. It covers an area of 87 km2 (33.6 sq mi). It is the southernmost borough of London. At its centre is the historic town of Croydon from which the borough takes its name; while other urban centres include Coulsdon, Purley, South Norwood, Norbury, New Addington and Thornton Heath. Croydon is mentioned in Domesday Book, and from a small market town has expanded into one of the most populous areas on the fringe of London. The borough is now one of London's leading business, financial and cultural centres, and its influence in entertainment and the arts contribute to its status as a major metropolitan centre. Its population is 386,710, making it the second largest London borough and fifteenth largest English district.
Selsdon is an area in South-East London, England, located in the London Borough of Croydon and the historic county of Surrey. It is located south of Coombe and Addiscombe, west of Forestdale, north of Hamsey Green and Farleigh, and east of Sanderstead.
Mitcham Junction is a National Rail station served by Southern and Thameslink trains, and a Tramlink stop. It is in the London Borough of Merton and is in Travelcard Zone 4.
South Norwood is a district of south-east London, England, within the London Borough of Croydon and the historic county of Surrey. It is located 7.8 miles (12.5 km) south-east of Charing Cross, north of Woodside and Addiscombe, east of Selhurst and Thornton Heath, south of Crystal Palace/Upper Norwood and Anerley, and west of Elmers End and Penge.
The Woodside and South Croydon Joint Railway (W&SC) was a short, relatively short-lived and unsuccessful railway in the London Borough of Croydon in London, England. Its site is now largely occupied by Tramlink.
The A232 is a road running west–east across South London, which connects the A24 in Ewell with the A224 Orpington bypass.
Lieutenant-General Sir James Outram, 1st Baronet was a British general who fought in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
Woodside is an area in south London, in the London Borough of Croydon and the historic county of Surrey. It is between Addiscombe and South Norwood. It is south of South Norwood, west of Shirley and Monks Orchard, north of Addiscombe, and east of Selhurst.
Addiscombe tram stop is a light rail stop in the London Borough of Croydon in the southern suburbs of London.
The A215 is an A road in south London, starting at Elephant and Castle and finishing around Shirley. It runs through the London Boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and Croydon.
Addiscombe Railway Park, also known as the Addiscombe Linear Park, is a 3.3 acres (1.3 ha) park in Addiscombe, South London, managed by the London Borough of Croydon.
Sandilands tram stop is a light rail stop in the London Borough of Croydon in the southern suburbs of London. It serves the residential area along Addiscombe Road to the east of the centre of the town of Croydon.
Addiscombe railway station was a terminus to the east of central Croydon, on Lower Addiscombe Road between Hastings Road and Grant Road. The East India Way housing development stands on the site.
The East India Company Military Seminary was a British military academy at Addiscombe, Surrey, in what is now the London Borough of Croydon. It opened in 1809 and closed in 1861. Its purpose was to train young officers to serve in the East India Company's own army in India.
Bingham Road railway station was in Addiscombe, Croydon on the Woodside and South Croydon Joint Railway. It was opened on 1 September 1906 on the north side of Bingham Road, with two wooden platforms without buildings and was closed on 15 March 1915 as a wartime economy measure. A new station on the south side of Bingham Road was opened in 1935 and finally closed in 1983. The modern Addiscombe tram stop at ground level is situated at the location of the first halt closed in 1915 which was situated on an embankment above the present site.
Woodside was a railway station in Croydon, south London, on the Woodside and South Croydon Joint Railway. The South Eastern Railway opened the station in July 1871 to serve the nearby Croydon racecourse. A ramp from the station facilitated the loading of racehorses. The station has since been replaced by Woodside tram stop.
Addiscombe was a ward in the London Borough of Croydon, covering much of the Addiscombe and East Croydon areas of London in the United Kingdom. It extended from East Croydon railway station towards Woodside Green but did not actually cover the retail centre of Addiscombe, which was in the neighbouring Ashburton ward.
Ashburton was a ward in the London Borough of Croydon, in London in the United Kingdom. The ward covered the Ashburton area, as well as covering the main retail area of Addiscombe, the Stroud Green, Tollgate and Longheath Garden estates, and large parts of northern Shirley. The population of the ward at the 2011 Census was 14,721.
Sandilands Tunnel is an ex-railway, brick arch tunnel in south London, currently serving the Croydon Tramway, which cuts through the Park Hill area on the eastern border of Croydon and serves as a key section of the Tramlink route connecting central Croydon, from West Croydon to New Addington.