Adelaide of Maurienne

Last updated
Adelaide of Maurienne
Queen consort of the Franks
Tenure1115–1137
Born18 November 1092
Saint-Jean-de-Maurienne, France
Died18 November 1154 (aged 6162)
Burial
Spouse Louis VI of France
Matthieu I of Montmorency
Issue Philip of France
Louis VII of France
Henry, Archbishop of Reims
Robert I of Dreux
Constance, Countess of Toulouse
Philip, Archdeacon of Paris
Peter of Courtenay
House Savoy
Father Humbert II of Savoy
Mother Gisela of Burgundy
Religion Roman Catholicism

Adelaide of Maurienne, also called Alix or Adele [1] (1092 – 18 November 1154) was a member of the House of Savoy who became queen of France as the second wife of King Louis VI (1115-1137).

Contents

Family

Adelaide was the daughter of Count Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy. [2] Adelaide's older brother Amadeus III succeeded their father as count of Savoy in 1103. [3] Adelaide had the same name as her paternal great-grandmother Adelaide of Susa, ruler of the March of Turin, and her second cousin, Adelaide del Vasto, queen of Jerusalem. [4] Through her father, Adelaide was also related to Emperor Henry V. On her mother's side, Adelaide's relatives included her uncle Pope Callixtus II, who visited Adelaide at court in France, and her first cousin King Alfonso VII of León and Castile. [5]

Queenship

Adelaide became the second wife of King Louis VI of France, whom she married on 3 August 1115 in Paris, France. [6] They had nine children, the second of whom became Louis VII of France.

Diploma issued by King Louis VI and Queen Adelaide for the canons of the cathedral chapter of Paris (1127). Diplome du roi de France, Louis VI, et de la reine Adelaide par lequel ils confirment les privileges accordes aux chanoines du chapitre cathedral de Paris et... - Archives Nationales - AE-II-141.jpg
Diploma issued by King Louis VI and Queen Adelaide for the canons of the cathedral chapter of Paris (1127).

Adelaide was one of the most politically active of all France's medieval queens. [7] Her name appears on 45 royal charters from the reign of Louis VI. [8] During her tenure as queen, royal charters were dated with both her regnal year and that of the king. [9] Among many other religious benefactions, she and Louis founded the monastery of St Peter's (Ste Pierre) at Montmartre, in the northern suburbs of Paris. [10]

After Louis VI's death, Adelaide did not immediately retire to conventual life, as did most widowed queens of the time. Instead she married Matthieu I of Montmorency, [11] with whom she had one child. She remained active in the French court and in religious activities.

Death

In 1153 she retired to Montmartre Abbey, which she had founded with Louis VII. She died there on 18 November 1154. [11] She was buried in the cemetery of the Church of St. Pierre at Montmartre. The abbey was destroyed during the French Revolution, but Adelaide's tomb is still visible in the church of St Pierre. [12]

Legend

Adelaide is one of two queens in a legend related in the seventeenth century by William Dugdale. As the story goes, Queen Adélaide of France became enamoured of a young knight, William d'Albini, at a joust. But he was already engaged to Adeliza of Louvain and refused to become her lover. The jealous Adélaide lured him into the clutches of a hungry lion, but William ripped out the beast's tongue with his bare hands and thus killed it. This story is almost without a doubt apocryphal. [13]

Issue

Louis and Adelaide had seven sons and two daughters:

  1. Philip of France (1116–1131).
  2. Louis VII (1120 – 18 November 1180), King of France.
  3. Henry (1121–1175), Archbishop of Reims.
  4. Hugues (b. c. 1122).
  5. Robert (c. 1123–11 October 1188), Count of Dreux.
  6. Constance (c. 1124–16 August 1176), married first Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne and then Raymond V of Toulouse.
  7. Philip (1125–1161), Bishop of Paris. Not to be confused with his elder brother.
  8. Peter (c. 1125–1183), married Elizabeth, Lady of Courtenay.
  9. a daughter, whose name is not known, who died in infancy and was interred at the Abbey of Saint-Victor, Paris.

With Matthieu I of Montmorency, Adelaide had one daughter:

Notes

  1. Micheline Dupuy, Françaises, reines d'Angleterre, 1968, p. 374.
  2. Previte-Orton, The Early History of the House of Savoy, pp. 276-277; Germain, Personnages illustres des Savoie, p. 370.
  3. Previte-Orton, The Early History of the House of Savoy p. 278.
  4. Ripart, 'La tradition d'Adélaïde'.
  5. Thiele, Erzählende genealogische Stammtafeln, table 397.
  6. Mary Stroll, Calixtus the Second, 1119-1124, (Brill, 2004), 192; Lewis, 'La date'.
  7. Facinger, 'Study of Medieval Queenship'.
  8. Huneycutt, 'Creation of a Crone,' p. 28.
  9. Facinger, 'Study of Medieval Queenship', pp. 28-9.
  10. Huneycutt, 'Creation of a Crone,' p. 30.
  11. 1 2 Adelaide of Savoy, John Bell Henneman, Jr., Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, ed. William W. Kibler and Grover A. Zinn, (Routledge, 1995), 7.
  12. Nolan, 'Tomb of Adelaide of Maurienne'.
  13. Huneycutt, 'Creation of a Crone', pp. 27-8.

Sources

Adelaide of Maurienne
Born: 1097 Died: 18 November 1154
French royalty
Preceded by
Bertrade de Montfort
Queen consort of France
1115–1137
Succeeded by
Eleanor of Aquitaine

Related Research Articles

Humbert I, Count of Savoy Progenitor of the House of Savoy

Humbert I, better known as Humbert the White-Handed or Humbert Whitehand was the founder of the House of Savoy. Of obscure origins, his service to the German emperors Henry II and Conrad II was rewarded with the counties of Maurienne and Aosta and lands in Valais, all at the expense of local bishops and archbishops; the territory came to be known as the county of Savoy.

Otto, Count of Savoy Count of Maurienne and Margrave of Turin

Otto was count of Savoy from around 1051 until his death. Through marriage to Adelaide, the heiress of Ulric Manfred II, he also administered the march of Susa from around 1046 until his death.

Peter I, Count of Savoy Count of Maurienne and Margrave of Turin/Suse

Peter I was count of Savoy and margrave of Turin jointly with his brother Amadeus II of Savoy from c. 1060 to 1078. He ruled only nominally, as true power was in the hands of his mother, Adelaide of Susa.

Amadeus II, Count of Savoy Count of Maurienne and Margrave of Turin

Amadeus II was the Count of Savoy from 1078 to 1080. His life is obscure and few documents mention him. During his reign he was overshadowed by his mother, but he had good relations with the Papacy and, for a time, the Holy Roman Emperor.

Humbert II, Count of Savoy Count of Maurienne and Marquess in Italia / Count of Turin

Umberto II, nicknamed the Fat, was Count of Savoy from 1080 until his death in 1103. He was the son of Amadeus II of Savoy.

Amadeus III, Count of Savoy Count of Maurienne, Marquess in Italia / Count of Turin, Count of Savoie

Amadeus III of Savoy was Count of Savoy and Maurienne from 1103 until his death. He was also known as a crusader.

Louis VI of France King of the Franks

Louis VI, called the Fat or the Fighter, was King of France from 1108 to 1137.

Louis V, also known as Louis the Do-Nothing, was a king of West Francia from 979, co-reigning first with his father, Lothair, until 986. During his reign, the nobility essentially ruled the country. Dying childless, Louis V was the last Carolingian monarch in West Francia.

County of Savoy countship

The County of Savoy was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland, from the collapse of the Burgundian Kingdom in the 11th century. It was the cradle of the future Savoyard state.

Constance of Arles Queen consort of the Franks

Constance of Arles, also known as Constance of Provence, was queen of France as the third spouse of King Robert II of France.

Robert I, Count of Dreux Count of Dreux (1137-1184)

Robert I of Dreux, nicknamed the Great, was the fifth son of Louis VI of France and Adélaide de Maurienne.

Charles-Constantine was the Count of Vienne and son of Louis the Blind, the latter of whom was King of Provence and Holy Roman Emperor.

Boniface del Vasto Italian noble

Boniface del Vasto was the margrave of Savona and Western Liguria from 1084 to c.1130. He was the son and successor of Otto and of Bertha, daughter of Ulric Manfred II of Turin. Boniface was a member of the Aleramici dynasty.

Adelaide of Susa Marchioness of Turin

Adelaide of Turin was the countess of part of the March of Ivrea and the marchioness of Turin in Northwestern Italy from 1034 to her death. She was the last of the Arduinici and is often incorrectly associated with Susa. She is sometimes compared to her second cousin, and close contemporary, Matilda of Tuscany.

Lucienne de Rochefort was the first wife of Louis VI of France. She was married to him before he became king, from 1104 to 1107.

Matthew I was lord of Montmorency, Marly, Conflans-Sainte-Honorine and Attichy. He was also Constable of France from 1138 to 1160 under Louis VII.

Alix or Aline FitzRoy was the illegitimate daughter of King Henry I of England by one of his many mistresses. She married Matthieu I of Montmorency and had the following issue:

  1. Henry, died young before 1160
  2. Bouchard V de Montmorency,, who married in 1173 Laurette of Hainaut, daughter of Count Baldwin IV of Hainaut. They had a son Matthieu II de Montmorency, nicknamed the Great.
  3. Theobald de Montmorency, seigneur de Marly, he went on crusade in 1173. He died as a Cistercian monk sometime after 1189.
  4. Herve de Montmorency, abbot of Saint-Martin de Montmorency, then deacon of the Church and dean of Paris before his death in 1192.
  5. Matthieu de Montmorency, he inherited the lordship from his brother Theobald.

Frederick of Montbéliard or Frederick of Mömpelgard was from a noble family in Lotharingia. Through marriage he became margrave of Turin (1080–1091).

Bertha of Milan or Bertha of Luni, was a duchess of Turin by marriage to Ulric Manfred II of Turin, and regent for her daughter Adelaide of Susa in 1033.

Ermengarde was a medieval noblewoman. Through her first marriage, to Rotbold II, Count of Provence, she was countess of Provence, and from 1011 to 1032 Ermengarde was the last queen consort of Upper Burgundy, by virtue of her second marriage to Rudolf III of Burgundy.