Adelina Patti

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Adelina Patti
Adelina Patti..jpg
Born(1843-02-10)10 February 1843
Madrid, Spain
Died27 September 1919(1919-09-27) (aged 76)
Occupation Coloratura soprano
Gramophone and Typewriter Company

Adelina Patti (10 February 1843 27 September 1919) [1] was an Italian-French 19th-century opera singer, earning huge fees at the height of her career in the music capitals of Europe and America. She first sang in public as a child in 1851, and gave her last performance before an audience in 1914. Along with her near contemporaries Jenny Lind and Thérèse Tietjens, Patti remains one of the most famous sopranos in history, owing to the purity and beauty of her lyrical voice and the unmatched quality of her bel canto technique.

Opera artform combining sung text and musical score in a theatrical setting

Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is typically a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery, costume, and sometimes dance or ballet. The performance is typically given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor.

Jenny Lind Swedish classical singer

Johanna Maria "Jenny" Lind was a Swedish opera singer, often known as the "Swedish Nightingale". One of the most highly regarded singers of the 19th century, she performed in soprano roles in opera in Sweden and across Europe, and undertook an extraordinarily popular concert tour of the United States beginning in 1850. She was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music from 1840.

Thérèse Tietjens singer

Thérèse Carolina Johanne Alexandra Tietjens was a leading opera and oratorio soprano. She made her career chiefly in London during the 1860s and 1870s, but her sequence of musical triumphs in the British capital was terminated by cancer.


The composer Giuseppe Verdi, writing in 1877, described her as being perhaps the finest singer who had ever lived and a "stupendous artist". [2] Verdi's admiration for Patti's talent was shared by numerous music critics and social commentators of her era.

Giuseppe Verdi 19th-century Italian opera composer

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Gioachino Rossini, whose works significantly influenced him. By his 30s, he had become one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history.


Portrait of Adelina Patti, 1860's Portrait of Adelina Patti (4670576) (cropped).jpg
Portrait of Adelina Patti, 1860's

She was born Adelina Juana Maria Patti, [3] in Madrid, the last child of tenor Salvatore Patti (1800–1869) and soprano Caterina Barilli (died 1870). Her Italian parents were working in Madrid, Spain, at the time of her birth. Because her father came from Sicily, Patti was born a subject of the King of the Two Sicilies. She later carried a French passport, as her first two husbands were French.

Madrid Capital of Spain

Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has almost 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union (EU), smaller than only London and Berlin, and its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris. The municipality covers 604.3 km2 (233.3 sq mi).

Tenor is a male voice type in classical music whose vocal range lies between the countertenor and baritone. The tenor's vocal range extends up to C5. The low extreme for tenors is roughly A2 (two As below middle C). At the highest extreme, some tenors can sing up to the second F above middle C (F5). The tenor voice type is generally divided into the leggero tenor, lyric tenor, spinto tenor, dramatic tenor, heldentenor, and tenor buffo or spieltenor.

A soprano[soˈpraːno] is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types. The soprano's vocal range (using scientific pitch notation) is from approximately middle C (C4) = 261 Hz to "high A" (A5) =880 Hz in choral music, or to "soprano C" (C6, two octaves above middle C) =1046 Hz or higher in operatic music. In four-part chorale style harmony, the soprano takes the highest part, which usually encompasses the melody. The soprano voice type is generally divided into the coloratura, soubrette, lyric, spinto, and dramatic soprano.

Her sisters Amalia and Carlotta Patti were also singers. Her brother Carlo Patti was a violinist who married actress Effie Germon. In her childhood, the family moved to New York City. Patti grew up in the Wakefield section of the Bronx, [4] where her family's home is still standing. Patti sang professionally from childhood, and developed into a coloratura soprano with perfectly equalized vocal registers and a surprisingly warm, satiny tone. Patti learned how to sing and gained understanding of voice technique from her brother-in-law Maurice Strakosch, who was a musician and impresario. [5]

Carlotta Patti Opera Singer

Carlotta Patti was a nineteenth-century operatic soprano and sister to famed soprano Adelina Patti. Various sources list her birth year as 1835, 1840, and 1842. Born into a musical family, Patti studied the piano in her youth before following her younger sister's inclination toward singing. As a child, Carlotta developed a handicap which caused a noticeable limp in her walk. Due to this condition she mostly avoided operatic performances and preferred to sing on the concert stage. While not able to achieve her sister's level of acclaim, Carlotta nonetheless received top billing in concerts in the United States of America, Great Britain, and Australia. She was known for her extensive vocal range, reportedly being able to reach a G sharp in altissimo. She often sang songs such as Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen that highlighted this extensive range. Carlotta Patti died of cancer in Paris on 27 June 1889.

Effie Germon American actress

Mary Euphemia "Effie" Germon was an American stage actress of the late 19th century from Augusta, Georgia, a descendant of the Germons of Baltimore who were an old theatrical family. She excelled as a soubrette.

Wakefield, Bronx Neighborhood of the Bronx in New York City

Wakefield is a working-class and middle-class section of the northern borough of the Bronx in New York City. It bounded by the city's border with Westchester County to the north, 222nd Street to the south, and the Bronx River, Bronx River Parkway, and Metro-North Railroad tracks to the west. Wakefield is the northernmost neighborhood in New York City. The neighborhood is part of Bronx Community District 12. The neighborhood's primary ZIP Code is 10466, but certain areas around East 241st Street and White Plains Road are part of 10470.

Vocal development

Adelina Patti as Lucia di Lammermoor, 1860s, by Camille Silvy Ismael, Adelina Patti, recto.jpg
Adelina Patti as Lucia di Lammermoor, 1860s, by Camille Silvy

Adelina Patti made her operatic debut at age 16 on 24 November 1859 in the title role of Donizetti's Lucia di Lammermoor at the Academy of Music, New York. [3] On 24 August 1860, she and Emma Albani were soloists in the world premiere of Charles Wugk Sabatier's Cantata in Montreal which was performed in honour of the visit of the Prince of Wales. In 1861, at the age of 18, she was invited to Covent Garden, to execute the role of Amina in Bellini's La sonnambula . [3] She had such remarkable success at Covent Garden that season, she bought a house in Clapham and, using London as a base, went on to conquer the European continent, performing Amina in Paris and Vienna in subsequent years with equal success.

Gaetano Donizetti 19th-century Italian opera composer

Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti was an Italian composer. Along with Gioachino Rossini and Vincenzo Bellini, Donizetti was a leading composer of the bel canto opera style during the first half of the nineteenth century. Donizetti's close association with the bel canto style was undoubtedly an influence on other composers such as Giuseppe Verdi.

<i>Lucia di Lammermoor</i> opera by Gaetano Donizetti

Lucia di Lammermoor is a dramma tragico in three acts by Gaetano Donizetti. Salvadore Cammarano wrote the Italian-language libretto loosely based upon Sir Walter Scott's historical novel The Bride of Lammermoor.

Academy of Music (New York City) Broadway

The Academy of Music was a New York City opera house, located on the northeast corner of East 14th Street and Irving Place in Manhattan. The 4,000-seat hall opened on October 2, 1854. The review in The New York Times declared it to be an acoustical "triumph", but "In every other aspect ... a decided failure," complaining about the architecture, interior design and the closeness of the seating; although a follow-up several days later relented a bit, saying that the theater "looked more cheerful, and in every way more effective" than it had on opening night.

During an 1862 American tour, she sang John Howard Payne's Home, Sweet Home at the White House for the President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, and his wife, Mary Lincoln. The Lincolns were mourning their son Willie, who had died of typhoid. Moved to tears, the Lincolns requested an encore of the song. Henceforth, it would become associated with Adelina Patti, and she performed it many times as a bonus item at the end of recitals and concerts.

John Howard Payne American actor and writer

John Howard Payne was an American actor, poet, playwright, and author who had most of his theatrical career and success in London. He is today most remembered as the creator of "Home! Sweet Home!", a song he wrote in 1822 that became widely popular in the United States, Great Britain, and the English-speaking world. After his return to the United States, Payne spent time with the Cherokee Indians. He published accounts that suggested their origin as one of the Ten Lost Tribes of ancient Israel.

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Abraham Lincoln 16th president of the United States

Abraham Lincoln was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 16th president of the United States from 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the nation through the American Civil War, its bloodiest war and its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. He preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the U.S. economy.

Portrait by Franz Winterhalter (1862) Adelina Patti 1863.jpg
Portrait by Franz Winterhalter (1862)

Patti's career was one of success after success. She sang not only in England and the United States, but also as far afield in mainland Europe as Russia, and in South America as well, inspiring audience frenzy and critical superlatives wherever she went. Her girlish good looks gave her an appealing stage presence, which added to her celebrity status.

In 1869-1870 she engaged in tours through the Europe and Russia. Concerts in Moscow and Saint-Petersbourg were very successful and Patti repeats her Russian trips during the all '70s. In Russia she made some highly prolific frienships with the first persons of Russian aristocracy and first range musicians & artsmen such P. Tchaikovsky, A. Rubinstein, A. Serov and V. Stasov. In Petersbourg, during seasons 1874-75s, Patti meet Ernesto Nicolini (in future her second husband) at first time. At that time she also gets acquainted with prominent Russian historian Dmitry Ilovayski and with his family. This friendship was long for decades and Ilovaisky's with cousin even travel to Wales for meet the Adelina during the first half of 1880s.

During the 1860s, Patti possessed a sweet, high-lying voice of birdlike purity and remarkable flexibility which was ideal for such parts as Zerlina, Lucia and Amina; but, as Verdi noted in 1878, her lower notes gained fullness and beauty when she grew older, enabling her to excel in weightier fare. Patti, however, turned into a conservative singer in the final phase of her operatic and concert career. She knew what suited her aging voice to perfection and she stuck to it. Typically, her recital programs during the 1890s featured an array of familiar, often sentimental, not-too-demanding popular tunes of the day, which were sure to appeal to her adoring fans.

But during her mature prime in the 1870s and '80s, Patti had been a more enterprising singer, proving to be an effective actress in those lyric roles that required the summoning forth of deep emotions, such as Gilda in Rigoletto , Leonora in Il trovatore , the title part in Semiramide , Zerlina in Don Giovanni and Violetta in La traviata . She also had been prepared to tackle quite dramatic parts in operas like L'Africaine , Les Huguenots and even Aida . She never attempted to sing any verismo parts, however, because these became popular only in the twilight of her career, during the final decade of the 19th century.

Patti her entourage, and Pullman attendants ca. 1904 Adelina Patti, operatic coloratura soprano.png
Patti her entourage, and Pullman attendants ca. 1904

Many years earlier, Patti had experienced an amusing encounter in Paris with the bel canto-opera composer Gioachino Rossini, who was a staunch upholder of traditional Italian singing values. It is related that when Patti's mentor (and brother-in-law), Strakosch, presented her to Rossini at one of his fashionable receptions during the 1860s, she was prevailed upon to sing "Una voce poco fa", from Rossini's The Barber of Seville—with embellishments added by Strakosch to show off the soprano's voice. "What composition was that?", asked the prickly Rossini. "Why, maestro, your own" replied Strakosch. "Oh no, that is not my composition, that is Strakoschonnerie", Rossini retorted. ('Cochonnerie' is a strong French idiom indicating "garbage" and literally meaning "that which is characteristic of or fit for pigs.") [6]

Financial acumen and retirement

In her prime, Patti demanded to be paid $5000 a night, in gold, before the performance. Her contracts stipulated that her name be top-billed and printed larger than any other name in the cast. Her contracts also insisted that while she was "free to attend all rehearsals, she was not obligated to attend any".

In his memoirs, the famous opera promoter "Colonel" Mapleson recalled Patti's stubborn personality and sharp business sense. She reportedly had a parrot whom she had trained to shriek, "CASH! CASH!" whenever Mapleson walked in the room. Patti enjoyed the trappings of fame and wealth but she was not profligate with her earnings, especially after losing a large proportion of her assets as a result of the break-up of her first marriage (see below). She invested wisely large sums of money and unlike some of her extravagant former colleagues, such as the star tenor Giovanni Mario, who died in poverty, she saw out her days amid luxurious surroundings.

Patti caricatured by the French artist Andre Gill. AdelinaPattibyGill.jpg
Patti caricatured by the French artist André Gill.

In 1893, Patti created the title role of Gabriella in a now-forgotten opera by Emilio Pizzi at its world premiere in Boston. Patti had commissioned Pizzi to write the opera for her.

Ten years later, she undertook one final singing tour of the United States; however, it turned out to be a critical, financial and personal failure, owing to the deterioration of her voice through age and wear and tear. From then on she restricted herself to the occasional concert here or there, or to private performances mounted at a little theater she had built in her impressive residence, Craig-y-Nos Castle in Wales. She last sang in public on 24 October 1914, [7] taking part in a Red Cross concert at London's Royal Albert Hall that had been organized to aid victims of World War I. She lived long enough to see the war end, dying in 1919 of natural causes.


The first recordings of her voice were made ca. 1890 on phonograph cylinders for Thomas Marshall in New York. Neither the recorded title, nor their number are known. The recordings are lost.

Patti cut more than 30 disc gramophone recordings of songs and operatic arias (some of them duplicates) — plus one spoken voice recording (a New Year's greeting to her third husband, which she intended him to keep as a memento) — at her Welsh home in 1905 and 1906 for the Gramophone & Typewriter Company. [8] By then she was aged in her 60s, with her voice well past its prime after a busy operatic career stretching all the way back to 1859.

Nonetheless, the limpid purity of her tone and the smoothness of her legato line remained uniquely impressive, compensating to some extent for the weakening of her breath control. [3] The records also display a lively singing personality as well as a surprisingly strong chest voice and a mellow timbre. Her trill remains wonderfully fluent and accurate and her diction is excellent. Overall her discs have a charm and musicality that give us a hint of why, at her peak, she commanded $5,000 a night.

Adelina Patti as Lady Harriet in 'Martha' by Flotow, Camille Silvy Adelina Patti as Lady Harriet in 'Martha' by Flotow - National Portrait Gallery London.jpg
Adelina Patti as Lady Harriet in 'Martha' by Flotow, Camille Silvy

Patti's recorded legacy included a number of songs and arias from the following operas: Le Nozze di Figaro , Don Giovanni , Faust , Martha , Norma , Mignon and La sonnambula .

The records were produced by the Gramophone & Typewriter Company (the forerunner of EMI Records) and were issued in the United States by the Victor Talking Machine Company. Patti's piano accompanist, Landon Ronald, wrote thus of his first recording session with the diva, "When the little (gramophone) trumpet gave forth the beautiful tones, she went into ecstasies! She threw kisses into the trumpet and kept on saying, 'Ah! Mon Dieu! Maintenant je comprends pourquoi je suis Patti! Oh oui! Quelle voix! Quelle artiste! Je comprends tout!' [Ah! My Lord! Now I understand why I am Patti! Oh yes! What a voice! What an artist! I understand everything!] Her enthusiasm was so naïve and genuine that the fact that she was praising her own voice seemed to us all to be right and proper."

Thirty-two Patti recordings were reissued on CD in 1998 by Marston Records (catalogue number 52011-2).

Personal life

Adelina Patti Adelina Patti.jpg
Adelina Patti

Patti is thought by some to have had a dalliance with the tenor Mario, who is said to have bragged at Patti's first wedding that he had already "made love to her many times".[ citation needed ]

Engaged as a minor to Henri de Lossy, Baron of Ville, [9] Patti wed three times: first, in 1868, to Henri de Roger de Cahusac, Marquess of Caux (1826–1889). The marriage soon collapsed; both had affairs and de Caux was granted a legal separation in 1877 and divorced in 1885. The union was dissolved with bitterness and cost her half her fortune.

She then lived with the French tenor Ernesto Nicolini for many years until, following her divorce from Caux, she was able to marry him in 1886. That marriage lasted until his death and was seemingly happy, but Nicolini cut Patti out of his will, suggesting some tension in the last years.

Patti's last marriage, in 1899, was to Baron Rolf Cederström (1870–1947), a priggish, but handsome, Swedish aristocrat many years her junior. The Baron severely curtailed Patti's social life. He cut down her domestic staff from 40 to 18, but gave her the devotion and flattery that she needed, becoming her sole legatee. After her death, he married a much younger woman. Their only daughter, Brita Yvonne Cederström (born 1924), ended up as Patti's sole heir. Patti had no children, but was close to her nieces and nephews. The two-time Tony Award-winning Broadway actress and singer Patti LuPone is a great-grand niece and namesake. Drummer Scott Devours is her 3rd great nephew. The Welsh opera singer Lisa Lee Dark is her 4th great-grand niece through her marriage to the French tenor Ernesto Nicolini.

Patti developed a love for billiards and became a reputable player, making guest appearances at many major billiard events for exhibition matches and fancy shot displays.

In her retirement, Patti, now officially Baroness Cederström, settled in the Swansea Valley in south Wales, where she purchased Craig-y-Nos Castle. [10] There she had a $2000 billiard table installed, and her own private theatre, a miniature version of the one at Bayreuth, [11] and made her gramophone recordings.

Patti also funded the substantial station building at Craig y Nos/Penwyllt on the Neath and Brecon Railway. [12] In 1918, she presented the Winter Garden building from her Craig-y-Nos estate to the city of Swansea. It was re-erected and renamed the Patti Pavilion. She died at Craig-y-Nos and eight months later was buried at the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris to be close to her Father and favourite composer Rossini in accordance with the wishes in her will.


Adelina Patti had a warm, crystalline, and very agile high soprano voice. [13] Her vocal emission was of perfect equality and her vocal range was wide, from low C to high F (C4 – F6). [13] Regarding her technique, critic Rodolfo Celletti said, "Her voice was a technical marvel. The staccatos were marvels of accuracy, even in the trickiest intervals, her legato was impressively smooth and pure; she connects the voice from note to note, phrase to phrase, lifting and gliding with an exceptional virtuosity. Her chromatic scale was deliciously sweet, and her trill was wonderful and solid." [14]

Patti and third husband baron Cederstrom outside the central station in Stockholm in 1900. Patti, uncomfortable with being photographed, bends over in order to hide her face. Adelina Patti och Olof Rudolf Cederstrom utanfor Stockholms centralstation. Ur tidningen Idun 29 sept 1900.jpg
Patti and third husband baron Cederström outside the central station in Stockholm in 1900. Patti, uncomfortable with being photographed, bends over in order to hide her face.

Citations and homages

La Vie parisienne by Jacques Offenbach, with book by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy (1866), mentions Adelina Patti:

"Je veux, moi, dans la capitale
Voir les divas qui font fureur
Voir la Patti dans Don Pasquale
Et Thérésa dans le Sapeur"

Other works of literature and music evoking Patti include:


  1. Her birth date is sometimes given as 19 February 1843. According to this newspaper report, an entry in the Madrid baptisms book No. 43, p. 153, showed that Patti was born in the afternoon of 10 February 1843. The Indianapolis journal, 7 April 1901, p. 14, col. 4 ('Musical Notes')
  2. John Frederick Cone; William R. Moran (November 1993). Adelina Patti: queen of hearts. Amadeus Press. p. 129. ISBN   978-0-931340-60-4 . Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 4 Sadie: The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, 918
  4. Bronx County Clerk's Office Archived 20 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  5. Obituary: Maurice Strakosch The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular, Vol. 28, No. 537 (1 November 1887), p. 676
  6. Karl Formes (1888). Aus meinem Kunst- und Bühnenleben: Erinnerungen des Bassisten Karl Formes. Bearbeitet von Wilh. Koch. Gehly. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  7. "Metropolitan Gossip – The King and Queen at a Patriotic Concert", The Grantham Journal, Saturday 31 October 1914, page 5.
  8. Discography compiled by W. R. Moran and appears in the appendix to Klein's Reign of Patti referenced above.
  9. George Putnam Upton (1908). Musical Memories: My Recollections of Celebrities of the Half Century, 1850–1900 ... With Numerous Illustrations. Chicago. p. 40. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  10. Upper Swansea Valley – Craig-y-nos Castle at
  11. John Davies; Nigel Jenkins; Menna Baines (2008). The Welsh Academy encyclopaedia of Wales. University of Wales Press. ISBN   978-0-7083-1953-6 . Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  12. Another view of Craig y Nos / Penwyllt looking south on 14 April 2006. It has been documented that the substantial station building was funded by opera singer Adelina Patti who lived at Craig-Y-Nos Castle [ permanent dead link ]
  13. 1 2 "Adelina Patti – Encyclopédie Larousse"
  14. Rodolfo Celletti (2010). Adelina Patti, The Voice of An Angel. p. 450.

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