|24th Prime Minister of Albania|
December 18, 1981 –February 22, 1991
|Preceded by||Mehmet Shehu|
|Succeeded by||Fatos Nano|
|Born||5 May 1922|
|Died||13 October 1997 75) (aged|
|Political party||Party of Labour of Albania|
Adil Çarçani (5 May 1922 – 13 October 1997) was an Albanian politician who served as the 24th Prime Minister of Albania in the Communist regime led by Enver Hoxha. He served as the titular head of the Albanian government in the years immediately preceding the fall of the Communist regime.
Çarçani was born on May 5, 1922 in the village of Fushë-Bardhë, near Gjirokastër.During World War II, he fought for Partisan forces against the Italian fascists, and joined the Communist party and the government that it set up after the war. He became mining minister in the 1950s, joined the Politburo of the Party of Labour of Albania in the 1960s, and by 1981 had become First Deputy Prime Minister.
On December 18, 1981, immediately after the violent death of Mehmet Shehu, Çarçani became the 24th Prime Minister of Albania. He remained in that position until the Communist government began to fall in 1991, when he resigned after mobs tore down the statue of Enver Hoxha, Albania's communist leader from the 1940s until the 1980s. Çarçani was, however, elected to parliament that year, and gave the opening speech.
On 21 May 1994, Çarçani was tried for and abuse of power, alongside Ramiz Alia.He was tried, found guilty and sentenced to prison. His sentence was commuted to five years of house arrest, however, as he was beginning to suffer from health problems. He died under house arrest in Tirana.
Ramiz Tafë Alia was the second and last leader of the People's Socialist Republic of Albania from 1985 to 1991, served as First Secretary of the Party of Labor of Albania. He was also the country's head of state from 1982 to 1992. He had been designated as successor by Enver Hoxha and took power after Hoxha died. Alia died on 7 October 2011 in Tirana due to lung disease, aged 85.
Nexhmije Hoxha is the widow of Albanian communist dictator Enver Hoxha.
Mehmet Ismail Shehu was an Albanian communist politician who served as the 23rd Prime Minister of Albania from 1954 to 1981. As an acknowledged military tactician, without whose leadership the communist partisans may well have failed in their battle to win Albania for the Marxist-Leninist cause, Shehu exhibited an ideological understanding and work ethic that singled him out for rapid promotion in the communist party. Mehmet Shehu shared power with Enver Hoxha from the end of the Second World War. According to official Albanian government sources, he committed suicide on December 17, 1981, after which the entire Shehu clan were arrested and imprisoned while Mehmet Shehu himself was denounced as "one of the most dangerous traitors and enemies of his country". Persistent rumors remain, however, that Shehu was actually murdered on orders from Hoxha.
The Party of Labour of Albania (PLA), sometimes referred to as the Albanian Workers' Party (AWP), was the vanguard party of Albania during the communist period (1945–1991) as well as the only legal political party. It was founded on November 8, 1941, as the Communist Party of Albania, but its name was changed in 1948. In 1991, the party was succeeded by the Socialist Party of Albania. For most of its existence, the party was dominated by its First Secretary, Enver Hoxha, who was also the de facto leader of Albania.
Albania, officially as the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, was ruled by a Marxist-Leninist government from 1946 to 1992. From 1944 to 1946, it was known as the Democratic Government of Albania and from 1946 to 1976 as the People's Republic of Albania.
The fall of Communism in Albania, the last such event in Europe outside the USSR, started in earnest in December 1990 with student demonstrations in the capital, Tirana, although protests had begun earlier that year in other cities such as Shkodra and Kavaja. The Central Committee of the communist Party of Labour of Albania allowed political pluralism on 11 December and the largest opposition party, the Democratic Party, was founded the next day. March 1991 elections left the Party of Labour in power, but a general strike and urban opposition led to the formation of a "stability government" that included non-communists. Albania's former communists were routed in elections in March 1992 amid economic collapse and social unrest, with the Democratic Party winning most seats and its party head, Sali Berisha, becoming president.
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The People's Republic of Albania executed 22 intellectuals without trial on 26 February 1951, as ordered by Enver Hoxha. They were accused of bombing the Soviet embassy in Tirana. The victims were 21 males and one female. One day earlier, Jonuz Kaceli was killed while accused of the same crime. It was the first time the Agitation and Propaganda law was used.
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Fadil Paçrami was an Albanian politician, writer and playwright. He served as Chairman of the Assembly of the Republic of Albania from 20 November 1970 to 25 September 1973. He used to be the minister of education and culture, as well as the speaker of the Albanian parliament. In 1975, he was wrongfully accused of anti-communist activity and got a 25-year sentence. He was freed from prison in 1990 by Ramiz Alia, Hoxha's successor.
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Llambi Gegprifti is a former Albanian politician and mayor of Tirana from 1986 through 1987 and 1989 through 1990. He was candidate-member of the Politburo of the Party of Labour of Albania for terms of 1971, 1976, 1981, and 1986.
The Special Court for War Criminals and Enemies of the People, usually referred only as The Special Court, was a Socialist court set up during the spring of 1945 in the newly established Socialist Albania, which carried on the trial against those labeled as "people's enemies" and "war criminals". It was based on a decision taken by the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation on 25 December 1944. Like the rest of the Eastern Europe, the purge against "Fascists" and "war criminals" became a central part of the construction of society based on the Soviet model.
Koço Theodhosi was an Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh).
Vangjel Çërrava is a former Albanian politician of the Albanian Party of Labour (PPSh). He was member of the Albanian Parliament, Deputy Chairman of the Cabinet of Albania, and for a short time member of the Politburo of the Party.
Kiço Mustaqi was a former Albanian general and politician of the Albanian Party of Labour. He served as Chief of the General Staff of Albanian Armed Forces, the last Minister of Defence of the communist era in Albania, and was a member of the Politburo.
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