|Autonomous Republics, Regions, Municipalities|
2 Autonomous Republics
|Populations||(Regions only): 51,000 (Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti) – 487,000 (Imereti)|
|Areas||(Regions only): 2,030 km2 (785 sq mi) (Guria) – 11,380 km2 (4,393 sq mi) (Kakheti)|
and Kvemo Svaneti
The subdivisions of Georgia are autonomous republics (Georgian :ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა, avtonomiuri respublika), regions (მხარე, mkhare ), and municipalities (მუნიციპალიტეტი, munits'ipaliteti).
Georgia a unitary state, whose borders are defined by the law as corresponding to the situation of 21 December 1991. It includes two autonomous republics (Georgian :ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა, avtonomiuri respublika), those of Adjara and Abkhazia, the latter being outside Georgia's effective control. The former, Soviet-era autonomous entity of South Ossetia, also not currently under Georgia's de facto jurisdiction, has no final defined constitutional status in Georgia's territorial arrangement.
The territory of Georgia is currently subdivided into a total of 76 municipalities—12 self-governing cities (ქალაქი, k'alak'i), including the nation's capital of Tbilisi, and 64 communities (თემი, t'emi). The municipalities outside the two autonomous republics and Tbilisi are grouped, on a provisional basis, into nine regions (mkhare): Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, and Shida Kartli. Tbilisi itself is divided into ten districts (რაიონი, raioni ).
The two autonomous republics, Abkhazia and Adjara, were established during the Soviet era and are recognized by the modern Constitution of Georgia adopted in 1995.
Adjara is subdivided into 6 municipalities:
As a result of the military conflicts in 1992–1993 and 2008, Georgia has no effective control over Abkhazia, whose declaration of independence is recognized by Russia and three other UN member states. Georgia considers Abkhazia as its autonomous republic, whose government sits in exile in Tbilisi, and currently an occupied territory. Abkhazia's territory, in the Kodori Valley, which had been under Georgia's control prior to the Russo–Georgian War of 2008, is de jure the self-governing community of Azhara.Abkhazia's secessionist government divides the entity's territory into seven districts (raion).
South Ossetia enjoyed the status of an autonomous oblast in the Soviet era. When Georgia became independent, South Ossetia covered four municipalities that are de jure in separate today's Georgian regions (established only after 1994): the eastern tip of Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, the north-east part of Imereti, the northern half of Shida Kartli, and the western part of Mtskheta-Mtianeti.
After the military conflicts in 1991–1992 and 2008, Georgia considers the former Autonomous Oblast of South Ossetia an occupied territory. Its status is not constitutionally defined by Georgia, but there is a Provisional Administration of South Ossetia sitting in exile in Tbilisi. The territory which had been under Georgia's control prior to the Russo–Georgian War of 2008, was organized into four municipalities, which retain their de jure status.South Ossetia's secessionist government divides the entity's territory into four districts (raion).
The laws of Georgia include a notion that the final subdivision and system of local self-government should be established after the restoration of the state's sovereignty in the occupied territories.
Regions (mkhare) were established by presidential decrees from 1994 to 1996, on a provisional basis until the secessionist conflicts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia are resolved. They roughly correspond to the traditional principal historical and geographical areas of Georgia. A region is not a self-governing unit; its function is, rather, to coordinate communication of several municipalities (with the exception of the municipalities of Adjara and that of Tbilisi) with the central government of Georgia, which is represented in a region by an official appointed by Prime Minister, the State Commissioner (სახელმწიფო რწმუნებული), informally known as "governor" (გუბერნატორი).
|Region||Population||Population Density (/km2)||Area of Region (km2)||Additional Notes|
|Imereti||487,000||83||6,475||Small part occupied by Russia|
| Samegrelo and|
|Shida Kartli||264,633||46.2||5,729||Partially occupied by Russia|
|Abkhazia||240,705||28||8,660||Occupied by Russia|
|Mtskheta-Mtianeti||94,370||14||6,786||Small part occupied by Russia|
and Kvemo Svaneti
|31,927||6.4||4,990||Small part occupied by Russia|
According to the Georgian law, a municipality is a settlement or a group of settlement with defined borders and self-government.There are two types of municipalities—self-governing cities, five in total, and self-governing communities, 64 in total as of January 2019. The current municipalities were established between 2006 and 2017. Most of the municipalities recapitulate the boundaries and names of earlier subdivisions, known as raioni (district).
Politics in Georgia involve a parliamentary representative democratic republic with a multi-party system. The President of Georgia is the ceremonial head of state and the Prime Minister of Georgia is the head of government. The President and the Government wield executive power. Legislative power is vested in both the Government and the unicameral Parliament of Georgia.
Achara or Adjaria, officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara, is a historical, geographic and political-administrative region of Georgia. Located in the country's southwestern corner, Adjara lies on the coast of the Black Sea near the foot of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, north of Turkey. It is an important tourist destination and includes Georgia's second-largest city of Batumi as its capital. About 350,000 people live on its 2,880 km2 (1,110 sq mi).
Shida Kartli is a landlocked administrative region (Mkhare) in eastern Georgia. Comprises a central part of the historical-geographic province of Shida Kartli. With an area of 5,729 square kilometres, Shida Kartli is the 8th largest Georgian region by land area. With 300,382 inhabitants, it is Georgia's seventh-most-populous region. Shida Kartli's capital and largest city, Gori, is the 5th largest city in Georgia.
Oni is a town in Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti region (mkhare), Georgia. Historically and ethnographically, it is part of Racha, a historic highland province in western Georgia. The town also serves as an administrative center of the Oni district (raioni).
Samtskhe–Javakheti, is a region (mkhare) in southern Georgia which includes the historical Georgian provinces of Meskheti, Javakheti and Tori. Akhaltsikhe is its capital.
Racha is a highland area in western Georgia, located in the upper Rioni river valley and hemmed in by the Greater Caucasus mountains. Under Georgia's current subdivision, Racha is included in the Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti region (mkhare) as the municipalities of Oni and Ambrolauri.
Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti is a region (Mkhare) in northwestern Georgia which includes the historical provinces of Racha, Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti. It covers an area of 4,954 km² and has a population of 31,927, but nominally also a section of northwest occupied territory of South Ossetia, over which Georgia currently has no control. It is the most sparsely populated region in the country. The capital is Ambrolauri.
A mkhare is a type of administrative division in the country of Georgia. It is usually translated as "region".
Ambrolauri is a city in Georgia, located in the western part of the country, on both banks of the Rioni river, at the elevation of 550 m above sea level. It is a self-governing city. At the same time, the city serves as the seat of the Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti regional administration and of the Ambrolauri Municipality. According to the 2020 census, the city had a population of 2,021. Its area is 1.6 km2.
Eastern Georgia is a geographic area encompassing the territory of the Caucasian nation of Georgia to the east and south of the Likhi and Meskheti Ranges, but excluding the Black Sea region of Adjara.
Akhalgori is a town in South Ossetia, Georgia. The name Akhalgori is the original historical name of the town used by the Georgians and officials, whereas Leningori is the name given to the city in the Soviet era and used by the South Ossetians. The town is situated on the banks of the River Ksani, height above sea level - 800 m.
This list summarises the country subdivisions which have a separate article on their politics. Countries where significant powers delegated to federal units or to devolved governments and where the political system is multi-party democracy are more likely to have articles on the politics of their subdivisions.
Russia, the largest country in the world, has international borders with 16 sovereign states, including two maritime boundaries with the United States and Japan, as well as the borders with the partially recognized states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The country has a land border running 20,241 kilometres (12,577 mi) in total, and has the second-longest land border of any country in the world, after China. The present borders of the Russia have been drawn since 1956, and had remained the same after the dissolution of the Soviet Union; until in 2014, when Crimea was annexed by Russia from Ukraine.
Akhalgori Municipality or Leningor District is a Municipality in Georgia or South Ossetia respectively. Georgia considers Akhalgori part of the Mtskheta-Mtianeti. According to Tskhinval, the current Head of Administration of Leningor is Alan Djussoev, and the current Deputy Head is Alexander Baratashvili. Before the 2008 war, the municipality was divided, with the eastern part under Georgian and the western under South Ossetian control
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia, abbreviated MIA (შსს), is a state law enforcement agency of Georgia. Its main office is in Tbilisi. The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia is the Head of which (Minister) is a member of the Government. The Ministry is accountable to the Government and fulfills the tasks imposed by it or the Prime Minister. Vakhtang Gomelauri is the current Minister of Internal Affairs.
The Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons from the Occupied Territories, Accommodation and Refugees of Georgia, also known as Ministry of Refugees and Accommodation of Georgia was the Georgian government ministry within the Cabinet of Georgia, in charge of regulation of state policies on refugees and asylum seekers, internally displaced persons, repatriates, victims of natural disasters, their accommodation and migration control in the country. It functioned from 1996 until 2018, when the agency's various tasks were assigned to the ministries of Regional Development and Infrastructure, Interior Ministry, and Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs.
Local government in Georgia is administered at the level of the subdivisions of Georgia, which are known as the units of self-government or municipalities. The Georgian Law on Self Government defines a municipality as a settlement or a unity of settlement with defined boundaries, administrative center, as well as representative and executive bodies of government, and possesses their own assets, budget, and income.
The Patrol Police Department is the Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia, which represents the state body serving the civil society and ensuring the safety of each citizen.