Administrative divisions of Murmansk Oblast

Last updated
Murmansk Oblast, Russia
Administrative center: Murmansk
Flag of Murmansk Oblast.svg
As of 2015:
Districts [1] 6
Cities/towns [1] 16
Urban-type settlements [1] 11
Rural localities [2] 112
Uninhabited rural localities [2] 14

Murmansk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, which is located in the northwestern part of the country, occupying mostly the Kola Peninsula. The oblast itself was established on May 28, 1938, but some kind of administrative organization of the territory existed here since at least the 13th century. As of the 2002 Census, Russians account for the majority of the oblast's population (85.3%, or 760,862 people), with the indigenous Sami constituting only a 0.20% minority (1,769 people). [3]

Contents

Since establishing and maintaining the structure of the administrative divisions of the federal subjects is not explicitly specified in the Constitution of Russia as the responsibility of the federal government, this task falls within the scope of the responsibilities of Murmansk Oblast itself. [4] Changes of the administrative-territorial structure of Murmansk Oblast are authorized by the Murmansk Oblast Duma. [5]

The oblast's administrative divisions remained largely unchanged from the structure used during the Soviet era, with the notable exception of selsoviets —a low-level administrative unit type abolished after the new law on the administrative-territorial divisions had been adopted in January 1998.

Administrative and municipal divisions

Administrative divisions of Murmansk Oblast
Map
DivisionStructure OKATO OKTMO Urban-type settlement/
district-level town*
AdministrativeMunicipal
Alexandrovsk (Александровск)city (ZATO)urban okrug47 525
47 527
47 529
47 737
Ostrovnoy (Островной)city (ZATO)urban okrug47 53147 731
Severomorsk (Североморск)city (ZATO)urban okrug47 53047 730
Zaozyorsk (Заозёрск)city (ZATO)urban okrug47 53347 733
Vidyayevo (Видяево)urban-type settlement (ZATO)urban okrug47 00047 735
Murmansk (Мурманск) [6] cityurban okrug47 40147 701
Leninsky (Ленинский)(under Murmansk )N/A47 401N/A
Oktyabrsky (under Murmansk )N/A47 401N/A
Pervomaysky (Первомайский)(under Murmansk )N/A47 401N/A
Apatity (Апатиты)cityurban okrug47 40547 705
Kirovsk (Кировск)cityurban okrug47 41247 712
Monchegorsk (Мончегорск)cityurban okrug47 41547 715
Olenegorsk (Оленегорск)cityurban okrug47 41747 717
Polyarnye Zori (Полярные Зори)cityurban okrug47 41947 719
Kovdorsky (Ковдорский)district47 20347 703
Kolsky (Кольский)district47 20547 605
Kandalakshsky (Кандалакшский)district47 40847 608
Lovozersky (Ловозерский)district47 21047 610
Pechengsky (Печенгский)district47 21547 615
Tersky (Терский)district47 22047 620

Historical background

The territory on which modern Murmansk Oblast is located has been settled by humans since the 3rd millennium BCE, [7] and by the end of the 1st millennium CE, it was settled only by the Sami people. [8] In the 12th century, Russian Pomors from the shores of Onega Bay and in the lower reaches of the Northern Dvina River started regular hunting and fishing visits to the area and started barter trade with the Sami. [8] They also called the White Sea coast of the peninsula Tersky Coast, or Terskaya Land. [8] Pomors were soon followed by the tribute collectors from the Novgorod Republic, and the Kola Peninsula gradually became a part of the Novgorodian lands. [8] A 1265 treaty of Yaroslav Yaroslavich with Novgorod mentions Tre Volost, which continued to be mentioned in other documents until as late as 1471. [8] Another known administrative divisions in this area was Kolo Volost, which bordered Tre approximately along the line between Kildin Island and Turiy Headland of the Turiy Peninsula. [8] Kolo Volost laid to the west of that line, while Tre was situated to the east of it. [8]

In the 15th century, Novgorodians started to establish permanent settlements on the Kola Peninsula. [9] Administratively, this territory was divided into Varzuzhskaya and Umbskaya Volosts, which were governed by a posadnik from the area of the Northern Dvina. [9] The Novgorod Republic lost control of both of these volosts to the Grand Duchy of Moscow after the Battle of Shelon in 1471, [9] and the republic itself ceased to exist in 1478 when Ivan III took the city of Novgorod. All Novgorod territories, including those on the Kola Peninsula, became a part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. [9]

In the second half of the 16th century, King Frederick II of Denmark–Norway demanded the Tsardom of Russia to cede the peninsula. [9] Russia declined, and in order to organize adequate defenses established the position of a voyevoda , who sat in Kola, which became an administrative center of the region. [10] Newly established Kolsky Uyezd covered most of the territory of the modern oblast, [10] and continued to exist well into the 19th century.

In 1854, after having been reduced nearly to ashes as a result of a bombardment by a British ship, [11] the town of Kola went into decline. As a result, on December 13 [ O.S. December 2], 1858, Tsar Alexander II approved a State Council opinion "On Changing the Governance in the Town of Kola and in Kolsky Uyezd" that Kolsky Uyezd be abolished and its territory merged into Kemsky Uyezd. [11] However, on February 19 [ O.S. February 8], 1883 when Tsar Alexander III approved a new opinion of the State Council, the uyezd was restored, although the territory of the restored uyezd was smaller than its pre-1858 territory. [11]

In 1896, Alexandrovsk was founded and grew in size so quickly that it was granted town status in 1899; Kolsky Uyezd was renamed Alexandrovsky on that occasion. [12] In 1916, Romanov-na-Murmane (modern Murmansk) was founded [12] and quickly grew to become the largest city on the peninsula.

When the White movement controlled the northwest of Russia in 1918–1920, Alexandrovsky Uyezd was included into Northern Oblast. [13] On February 2, 1920, Murmansk Governorate was established by the Resolution of the Provisional Government of Northern Oblast; it included the territory of Alexandrovsky Uyezd. [13] The uyezd, however, was restored in its 1917 borders after Murmansk Governorate was abolished effective February 21, 1920 when the Soviet power was restored on the Kola Peninsula. [13]

In June 1921, Alexandrovsky Uyezd was transformed into Murmansk Governorate by the Soviet government. [14] On August 1, 1927, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) issued two Resolutions: "On the Establishment of Leningrad Oblast" and "On the Borders and Composition of the Okrugs of Leningrad Oblast", according to which Murmansk Governorate was transformed into Murmansk Okrug (which was divided into six districts) and included into Leningrad Oblast. [15] This arrangement existed until May 28, 1938, when the okrug was separated from Leningrad Oblast, merged with Kandalakshsky District of the Karelian ASSR, and transformed into Murmansk Oblast. [16]

Administrative divisions of
Murmansk Oblast upon its establishment in May 1938 [17]
Cities and towns1.  Murmansk (administrative center)
Districts 1.  Kandalakshsky
2.  Kirovsky
3.  Kolsky
4.  Lovozersky
5.  Polyarny
6.  Saamsky
7.  Teribersky
8.  Tersky

By the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR of September 11, 1938, the administrative center of Polyarny District was moved from Murmansk to Ura-Guba [18] and in December 1938, new Monchegorsky District was formed. [17] In September 1939, the rural locality of Polyarnoye was transformed into a town under oblast jurisdiction and renamed Polyarny and the town Kandalaksha was separated from Kandalakshsky District and elevated to the same status in February 1940. [17]

After the Winter War of 1939–1940, the western parts of the Rybachy and Sredny Peninsulas were ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union by the Moscow Peace Treaty. [17] By the July 13, 1940 Decision of the Murmansk Oblast Executive Committee, these territories were appended to Polyarny District of Murmansk Oblast. [17]

On July 21, 1945, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union decreed to establish Pechengsky District with the administrative center in Nikel on the territory of Petsamo ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union as part of the Moscow Armistice signed on September 19, 1944 and to include this district as a part of Murmansk Oblast. [17] In 1947, Finland additionally sold the remaining 169 square kilometers (65 sq mi) Jäniskoski area with its hydroelectric plant, in exchange for Soviet confiscated German investments in Finland. Since then, with the exception of a minor transfer in 1987, the external borders of the oblast remained unchanged.

In August 1948, Kandalakshsky District was abolished and its territory administratively subordinated to the town of Kandalaksha. [17] In December 1949, when by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union Monchegorsk was elevated in status to that of a town under oblast jurisdiction, with the former Monchegorsky District's territory passing into its subordination. [17]

The Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union of March 13, 1951 reinstated Kandalakshsky District in its old borders, and Kandalaksha again became its administrative center. [17]

On April 18, 1951, Vayenga was elevated in status to that of a town under oblast jurisdiction and renamed Severomorsk. [17] On April 26, 1951, by the Decision of Murmansk Oblast Executive Committee, several inhabited localities of Polyarny District were passed into its jurisdiction. [17]

Kirovsk was elevated in status to that of a town under oblast jurisdiction on May 6, 1954 by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union; at the same time Kirovsky District was abolished, and its territory was subordinated to Kirovsk. [17] Polyarny, on the other hand, was demoted to a town under district jurisdiction and subordinated to Polyarny District by the June 14, 1956 Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. [17]

Administrative divisions of
Murmansk Oblast in 1958 [17]
Cities and towns1.  Murmansk (okrug administrative center)
2.  Kandalaksha
3.  Kirovsk
4.  Monchegorsk
5.  Severomorsk
Districts 1.  Kandalakshsky
2.  Kolsky
3.  Lovozersky
4.  Pechengsky District
5.  Polyarny
6.  Saamsky
7.  Teribersky
8.  Tersky

By the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR of March 19, 1959, the Councils of Deputies of Kandalaksha and of Kandalakshsky District were merged into one Kandalaksha Town Council of Deputies. [17] While the district was nominally retained as a separate administrative division, all its subdivisions were administratively subordinated to the town's Council of Deputies. [17]

The Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of July 9, 1960 abolished Polyarny District, the territory of which was divided between Kolsky, Pechengsky, and Teribersky Districts, with the town of Polyarny being administratively subordinated to the town of Severomorsk. [19] At the same time, the territory of Teribersky District was also merged with the territory of Severomorsk, to which the district's subdivisions were subordinated. [19] Teribersky District was nominally retained as an administrative division and renamed Severomorsky. [19]

Saamsky District was abolished by the Decision of the Murmansk Oblast Executive Committee of January 26, 1963. [17] The district's selsoviets were transferred to Lovozersky District, while Gremikha, the administrative center of the former district, was subordinated to Severomorsk. [17]

On December 26, 1962, when the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR decreed to re-organize the Soviets of People's Deputies and the executive committees of the krais, oblasts, and districts into the industrial and agricultural soviets, Murmansk Oblast was not affected and kept one unified Oblast Soviet and the executive committee. [17] Nevertheless, on February 1, 1963, the Decree by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR established the new structure of the districts of Murmansk Oblast, which no longer included Kandalakshsky and Severomorsky Districts and classified the remaining districts as rural. [17] Subordination of Olenegorsk to Monchegorsk and of Polyarny to Severomorsk remained unchanged. [17]

Administrative divisions of
Murmansk Oblast in February 1963 [17]
Cities and towns1.  Murmansk (oblast administrative center)
2.  Kandalaksha
3.  Kirovsk
4.  Monchegorsk
5.  Severomorsk
Districts 1.  Kolsky
2.  Lovozersky
3.  Pechengsky
4.  Tersky

The classification of the districts as rural only lasted for less than two years. [17] The November 21, 1964 Decree by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR restored the unified Soviets of People's Deputies and the executive committees of the krais and oblasts where the division into the urban and rural districts was introduced in 1962, and the districts of Murmansk Oblast were re-categorized as regular districts again by the January 12, 1965 Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR Decree. [17]

On January 6, 1966, the Murmansk Oblast Executive Committee petitioned to transform the work settlement of Molodyozhny in jurisdiction of Kirovsk into a town under oblast jurisdiction called Khibinogorsk and on subordinating a part of the territory under Kirovsk's jurisdiction to it. [17] The petition was reviewed by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, which, however, decreed on July 7, 1966 to merge the work settlements of Molodyozhny and Apatity into a town under oblast jurisdiction, which would retain the name Apatity. [17] Consequently, the Murmansk Oblast Executive Committee subordinated a part of the territory in Kirovsk's jurisdiction to the new town by the decision of October 13, 1966. [17]

On November 29, 1979, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR decreed to establish Kovdorsky District on the parts of the territories previously in jurisdiction of Apatity. [17]

Olenegorsk was elevated in status to that of a town under oblast jurisdiction by the August 10, Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR Decree, and several inhabited localities previously subordinated to Monchegorsk were transferred to Olenegorsk by the August 26, 1981 Decision of the Murmansk Oblast Executive Committee. [17] Next was the town of Polyarny, which was granted the same status by the June 17, 1983 Decree, and to which several inhabited localities previously subordinated to Severomorsk were transferred by the August 10, 1983 Decision of the Murmansk Oblast Executive Committee. [17]

On November 17, 1987, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR decreed to transfer the settlement of the railway station of Poyakonda from Tedinsky Selsoviet of Loukhsky District of the Karelian ASSR to Murmansk Oblast. [17] By the Decision of the Murmansk Oblast Executive Committee of January 20, 1988, the settlement was merged with the inhabited locality of Poyakonda on the territory in jurisdiction of the town of Kandalaksha. [17] The transfer marked the only time the external borders of the oblast changed between 1947 and present.

By the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR Decree of April 22, 1991, the work settlement of Polyarnye Zori in jurisdiction of the town of Apatity was elevated in status to that of a town under oblast jurisdiction. [17] A part of the territory in jurisdiction of Apatity was also transferred to Polyarnye Zori by the Decision of the Presidium of the Murmansk Oblast Soviet of People's Deputies of May 16, 1991. [17]

Administrative divisions of
Murmansk Oblast in October 1993 [17]
Cities and towns1.  Murmansk (oblast administrative center)
2.  Apatity
3.  Kandalaksha
4.  Kirovsk
4.  Monchegorsk
5.  Olenegorsk
6.  Polyarny
7.  Polyarnye Zori
8.  Severomorsk
Districts 1.  Kolsky
2.  Kovdorsky
3.  Lovozersky
4.  Pechengsky
5.  Tersky

The administrative-territorial structure of the oblast remained unchanged until January 1998, when a new law on the administrative-territorial division was adopted. The new law no longer included selsoviets as a lower-level administrative division, but it recognized closed administrative-territorial formations as a new type of an administrative-territorial unit, the status of which was equal to that of the districts and the cities/towns with jurisdictional territories. [5]

Administrative divisions of
Murmansk Oblast in January 1998 [5]
Cities and towns with jurisdictional territories1.  Murmansk (oblast administrative center)
2.  Apatity
3.  Kandalaksha
4.  Kirovsk
4.  Monchegorsk
5.  Olenegorsk
6.  Polyarnye Zori
Closed administrative-territorial formations1.  Ostrovnoy
2.  Polyarny
3.  Severomorsk
4.  Skalisty
5.  Snezhnogorsk
6.  Zaozyorsk
Districts 1.  Kolsky
2.  Kovdorsky
3.  Lovozersky
4.  Pechengsky
5.  Tersky

Related Research Articles

Murmansk City in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Murmansk is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia. It sits on both slopes and banks of a modest ria or fjord, Kola Bay, an estuarine inlet of the Barents Sea. Its bulk is on the east bank of the inlet. It is in the north of the rounded Kola Peninsula which covers most of the oblast. The city is 108 kilometres (67 mi) from the border with Norway and 182 kilometres (113 mi) from the Finnish border. The city is named for the Murman Coast, which is in turn derived from an archaic term in Russian for "Norwegian".

Kandalaksha Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Kandalaksha is a town in Kandalakshsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located at the head of Kandalaksha Gulf on the White Sea, north of the Arctic Circle. Population: 35,654 (2010 Census); 40,564 ; 54,080 (1989 Census).

Polyarny, Murmansk Oblast Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Polyarny is a town and the administrative center of the closed administrative-territorial formation of Alexandrovsk in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, situated on the outermost western side of the Kola Bay. Population: 17,293 (2010 Census); 18,552 (2002 Census); 27,635 (1989 Census).

Severomorsk Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Severomorsk, previously known as Vayenga (Ваенга), is a closed town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Severomorsk is the main administrative base of the Russian Northern Fleet. The town is located on the coast of the Barents Sea along the Kola Bay 25 kilometers (16 mi) northeast of Murmansk, the administrative centre of the oblast, to which it is connected by railway and a motorway.

Apatity Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Apatity is a town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located along the Murman Railway between Lake Imandra and the Khibiny Mountains, 23 km (14 mi) west of Kirovsk and 185 km (115 mi) south of Murmansk, the administrative center of the oblast. The town is named after one of its most abundant natural resources in the area, apatite, the raw mineral used in the production of phosphorus mineral fertilizers. Population: 59,672 (2010 Census).

Monchegorsk Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Monchegorsk is a town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Kola Peninsula, 145 kilometers (90 mi) south of Murmansk, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 45,361 (2010 Census); 52,242 ; 68,652.

Olenegorsk, Murmansk Oblast Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Olenegorsk is a town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located north of the Arctic Circle, 112 kilometers (70 mi) south of Murmansk. Population: 23,072 (2010 Census); 25,166 ; 35,584 (1989 Census).

Kirovsk, Murmansk Oblast Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Kirovsk, known as Khibinogorsk (Хибиного́рск) until 1934, is a town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located at the spurs of the Khibiny Mountains on the shores of the Lake Bolshoy Vudyavr, 175 kilometers (109 mi) south of Murmansk. Population: 28,625 (2010 Census).

Kola, Russia Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Kola is a town and the administrative center of Kolsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Kola and Tuloma Rivers, 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) south of Murmansk and 24 kilometers (15 mi) southwest of Severomorsk. It is the oldest town of the Kola Peninsula. Population: 10,437 (2010 Census); 11,060 ; 16,541 (1989 Census).

Polyarnye Zori Town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Polyarnye Zori is a town in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Niva River, Lake Imandra, and Lake Pinozero, 224 kilometers (139 mi) south of Murmansk. Population: 15,096 (2010 Census); 15,910 (2002 Census); 19,428 (1989 Census).

Lovozersky District District in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Lovozersky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Lovozersky Municipal District. It occupies most of the central and northeastern parts of the Kola Peninsula. The area of the district is 53,800 square kilometers (20,800 sq mi). Its administrative center is the rural locality of Lovozero. District's population: 11,820 (2010 Census); 14,311 (2002 Census); 18,263 (1989 Census). The population of Lovozero accounts for 24.3% of the district's total population.

Pechengsky District District in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Pechengsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Pechengsky Municipal District. It is located in the northwest of the oblast, on the coast of the Barents Sea and borders Finland in the south and southwest and Norway in the west, northwest, and north. The area of the district is 8,662.22 square kilometers (3,344.50 sq mi). Its administrative center is the urban locality of Nikel. Population: 38,920 (2010 Census); 46,404 (2002 Census); 59,495 (1989 Census). The population of Nikel accounts for 32.8% of the district's total population.

Roslyakovo, Murmansk Oblast Place in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Roslyakovo was an urban locality under the administrative jurisdiction of the closed-administrative territorial formation of Severomorsk in Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Kola Peninsula on the Kola Bay, 6 kilometers (3.7 mi) west of Severomorsk proper. It was abolished, with its territory merged into the city of Murmansk, on January 1, 2015. Population: 8,696 (2010 Census); 9,458 (2002 Census); 11,981 (1989 Census).

Ura-Guba Selo in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Ura-Guba, also known as Ura (Ура), is a rural locality in Kolsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located beyond the Arctic Circle at a height of 1 meter above sea level. Population: 517.

Kolsky District District in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Kolsky District is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kolsky Municipal District. It is located in the northwest of the oblast, partially lies on the Kola Peninsula, and borders with the Barents Sea in the north and Finland in the west. The area of the district is 27,600 square kilometers (10,700 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kola. Population: 44,670 (2010 Census); 51,125 (2002 Census); 73,555 (1989 Census). The population of Kola accounts for 23.4% of the district's total population.

Murmansk Governorate was an administrative division of the early Russian SFSR which existed in 1921–1927. The governorate was established on the territory of former Alexandrovsky Uyezd of Arkhangelsk Governorate by the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) Decree issued on June 13, 1921. The administrative center was in Murmansk.

Murmansk Okrug was an administrative division of the Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, which existed in 1927–1938.

Polyarny District was an administrative division of Murmansk Okrug of Leningrad Oblast of the Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, and later of Murmansk Oblast, which existed in 1927–1960.

Teribersky District, also known as Severomorsky District was an administrative division of Murmansk Okrug of Leningrad Oblast of the Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, and later of Murmansk Oblast, which existed in 1927–1963.

Kandalakshsky District District in Murmansk Oblast, Russia

Kandalakshsky District is an administrative district, one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kandalakshsky Municipal District. It is located in the southwest of the oblast, and borders with Kovdorsky District to the north, Loukhsky District of the Republic of Karelia, and with Finland to the west. The area of the district is 14,400 square kilometers (5,600 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Kandalaksha. Population: 49,544 (2010 Census); 60,140 (2002 Census); 78,239 (1989 Census). The population of Kandalaksha accounts for 72.0% of the district's total population.

References

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  13. 1 2 3 Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, p. 26
  14. Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Murmansk Oblast, p. 28
  15. Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Murmansk Oblast, p. 34
  16. Президиум Верховного Совета СССР. Указ от 28 мая 1938 г. «Об образовании Мурманской области». Опубликован: "Ведомости Верховного Совета СССР", №7, 1938. ( Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR . Decree of May 28, 1938 On Establishing Murmansk Oblast. ).
  17. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, pp. 52–58
  18. Administrative-Territorial Division of Murmansk Oblast, p. 62
  19. 1 2 3 Decree #741/18

Sources