|Administrative units of Pakistan|
پاکستان کی انتظامی اکائیاں
|Location||Islamic Republic of Pakistan|
2 Autonomous Territories
1 Federal Territory
|Populations||Least 2,441,523 (Gilgit-Baltistan) |
Most 110,012,442 (Punjab)
|Areas||Smallest 906.0 km2 (349.81 sq mi) (Islamabad Capital Territory) |
Largest 347,200 km2 (134,050 sq mi) (Balochistan)
|Subdivisions||Divisions, Districts, Tehsils, Union Council|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
The administrative units of Pakistan (Urdu : پاکستان کی انتظامی اکائیاں) consist of four provinces (Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, and Sindh), two autonomous territories (Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan) and one federal territory (Islamabad Capital Territory). Each province and territory is subdivided into divisions, which are further subdivided into districts, which are further subdivided into tehsils, or taluka, which are further subdivided into union councils.
Pakistan's provinces and territories were inherited from British India at independence on 14 August 1947. 2 days after independence, the Muslim-majority district of Murshidabad in Bengal moved from Pakistan to India due to an award by the Radcliffe Commission.In 1947, Pakistan consisted of two wings, which were separated by 1600 kilometres of Indian territory. The western wing consisted of the merger of Northwest Frontier Province, West Punjab, and Sindh, the Baluchistan Chief Commissioners Province, thirteen princely states. The eastern wing consisted of East Bengal, the Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet from the former British Raj province of Assam.
In 1948, Karachi was separated from Sindh to form the Federal Capital Territory. In 1950, the Northwest Frontier Province absorbed the princely states of Amb and Phulra while West Punjab renamed itself to Punjab. In 1952, the four princely states in the southwest formed the Baluchistan States Union.
In 1955, the One Unit Policy was launched by Muhammad Ali Bogra, whereby all the provinces and princely states of the western wing were merged and formed West Pakistan, with Lahore as the provincial capital. Simultaneously, East Bengal (including Sylhet and the Hill Tracts) was renamed to East Pakistan, with Dacca as the provincial capital. The One Unit Policy aimed to reduce expenditure and to eliminate provincial prejudices, but the military coup of 1958 signaled difficulties when the first military President, Ayub Khan, abolished the office of Chief Minister of West Pakistan in favour of Governor's rule.
On 7 September 1958, after four years of negotiations, including six months of intense negotiations, Pakistan purchased the Gwadar enclave from the government of Oman for 5.5 billion rupees/ USD $3 million (approx. $22,410,311.42 in 2017). Gwadar formally became part of Pakistan on 8 December 1958 after 174 years of Omani rule. In 1960, the federal capital moved from Karachi to Rawalpindi and in 1961, the Federal Capital Territory was merged into West Pakistan. In 1966, the capital was again moved to Islamabad. In 1962, Dacca was made the legislative capital of the country due to East Pakistan's high population.In 1963, Pakistan entered into a treaty with China to transfer part of the Gilgit Agency to China (Shaksgam Valley—the Trans-Karakoram Tract) with the provision that the settlement was subject to the final solution of the Kashmir dispute.
In 1970, the second military President, Yahya Khan, abolished West Pakistan and established four new provinces: Sindh, Balochistan, Northwest Frontier Province and Punjab. In 1971, East Pakistan seceded to form Bangladesh in the Bangladesh Liberation War. In 1974, the remaining princely states of Hunza and Nagar were abolished and their territories merged into Gilgit Agency, to form the Northern Areas. In 1975, portions of the districts of Peshawar and Dera Ismail Khan were separated to form the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. In 1981, the region around Islamabad was separated from Punjab, and renamed to Islamabad Capital Territory.
In August 2000, divisions were abolished as part of a plan to restructure local government, followed by elections in 2001. Many of the functions previously handled by the provinces had been transferred to the districts and tehsils. In 2008, the government restored the former divisions and appointed commissioners.
In 2009, the Northern Areas were renamed to Gilgit-Baltistan and became a de facto province.In 2010, the Northwest Frontier Province was renamed to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In 2018, the National Assembly of Pakistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly passed the historic FATA Merger Bill - with the adoption of the Twenty-Fifth Amendment Act of 2018 . On 31 May, the final step in the merger of the FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) was completed, as President Mamnoon Hussain signed the 25th Constitutional Amendment Bill into law. Thus FATA status was abolished as a separate entity and was merged into Khyber Pakthunkhwa province.
The diagram below outlines the six tiers of government:
(e.g. Punjab Province)
| Division |
(e.g. Rawalpindi Division)
| District |
(e.g. Jhelum District)
| Tehsil |
(e.g. Sohawa Tehsil)
| Union Council |
(e.g. Domeli UC)
|English name||Urdu name||Abbreviation||Capital||Second Largest City||Emblem||Flag||Map||Map key||Population|
|Azad Jammu and Kashmir||آزاد جموں و کشمیر||AJK||Muzaffarabad||Other||6||4,045,366||13,297||223.55|
|Islamabad Capital Territory||اسلام آباد دارالحکومت||ICT||Islamabad||Not Applicable||5||2,006,572||906||1,271.38|
The Districts of Pakistan, are the third-order administrative divisions of Pakistan, below provinces and divisions, but forming the first-tier of local government. In total, there are 154 districts in Pakistan including the Capital Territory and the districts of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan. These districts are further divided into tehsils or talukas.
West Punjab was a province of Pakistan from 1947 to 1955. The province covered an area of 205,344 km2, including much of the current Punjab province and the Islamabad Capital Territory, but excluding the former princely state of Bahawalpur. The capital was the city of Lahore and the province was composed of four divisions. The province was bordered by the Indian states of East Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir to the east, the princely state of Bahawalpur to the south, the provinces of Balochistan and Sind to the southwest, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa to the northwest, and Azad Kashmir to the northeast.
The former administrative units of Pakistan are states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were established. The former units have no administrative function today but some remain as historical and cultural legacies. In some cases, the current provinces and territories correspond to the former units – for example the province of Punjab includes almost all the territory of the former province of West Punjab.
The paramilitary forces of Pakistan consist of various uniformed organisations largely equipped with light infantry weapons and charged with a range of internal and external duties.
The four provinces and autonomous territories of Pakistan are subdivided into administrative "divisions", which are further subdivided into districts, tehsils and finally union councils. These divisions were abolished in 2000, but restored in 2008. The divisions do not include the Islamabad Capital Territory or the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which were counted at the same level as provinces, but in 2018 the Federally Administered Tribal Areas were subsumed into Khyber-Paktunkhwa Province.
Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is among the oldest financing institutions in Pakistan.
Tourism in Pakistan is a growing industry. In 2010, Lonely Planet termed Pakistan as being "...tourism's ‘next big thing’ for more years than we care to remember. [But] world media headlines [always] send things off the rails". The country is geographically and ethnically diverse, and has a number of historical and cultural heritage sites. The upsurge in tourism in the past few years has been aided by the Government of Pakistan's recent decision to end mandatory No Objection Certificates for foreign tourists seeking to visit certain parts of the country.
The Pakistan Meteorological Department, is part of the Aviation Division of which Ghulam Sarwar Khan is minister from 18 April 2019, is an autonomous and independent institution tasked with providing weather forecasts and public warnings concerning weather for protection, safety and general information. Apart from meteorology, it is also involved in monitoring as well as investigating weather phenomenons, astronomical events, hydrology and research in astrophysics, climate changes and studies on aeronautical engineering, renewable energy resources across various parts of the country. Headquartered in Islamabad, it has offices and research facilities in all provinces and territories of the country.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Pakistan:
Pakistan recorded one of the highest temperatures in the world – 53.5 °C (128.3 °F) – on 26 May 2010, the hottest temperature ever recorded in Pakistan and also the hottest measured temperature ever recorded on the continent of Asia. As Pakistan is located on a great landmass north of the Tropic of Cancer, it has a continental type of climate characterized by extreme variations of temperature, both seasonally and daily. Very high altitudes modify the climate in the cold, snow-covered northern mountains; temperatures on the Balochistan Plateau are somewhat higher. Along the coastal strip, the climate is modified by sea breezes. In the rest of the country, temperatures reach great heights in the summer; the mean temperature during June is 38 °C (100 °F) in the plains, the highest temperatures can exceed 47 °C (117 °F). In the summer, hot winds called Loo blow across the plains during the day. Trees shed their leaves to avoid loss of moisture. The dry, hot weather is broken occasionally by dust storms and thunderstorms that temporarily lower the temperature. Evenings are cool; the daily variation in temperature may be as much as 11C to 17C. Winters are cold, with minimum mean temperatures in Punjab of about 4 °C (39 °F) in January, and sub-zero temperatures in the far north and Balochistan.
The provincial languages of Pakistan are a set of languages that are spoken and used in the four Provinces of Pakistan. However, provincial languages have no official status in Pakistan, except Sindhi in Sindh, given the fact that Urdu and English are the official languages of the country. Shown below are the main languages of each the provinces:
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas was a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan that existed from 1947 until being merged with neighboring province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in 2018. It consisted of seven tribal agencies (districts) and six frontier regions, and were directly governed by Pakistan's federal government through a special set of laws called the Frontier Crimes Regulations. It bordered Pakistan's provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan to the east and south, and Afghanistan's provinces of Kunar, Nangarhar, Paktia, Khost and Paktika to the west and north. The territory is almost exclusively inhabited by the Pashtun, who also live in the neighbouring provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Northern Balochistan, and straddle across the border into Afghanistan. They are mostly Muslim.
Pakistan's cultural heritage includes archaeological sites, stupas, forts, shrines, tombs, buildings, residences, monuments, and places of worship. Until the passing of the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan, some sites were under the federal government while others were in the provincial domain.
Sindh is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. It has 29 districts, where each district is further divided into tehsils. Karachi, the capital of Sindh, is the most populous city district, as well as the most densely populated. It was initially a single district, now being further subdivided into East, West, South, Central, Malir and Korangi districts. Sindhi is the native language, and is widely spoken among the local population, alongside Seraiki, Balochi and Thari. The urban districts of Sindh are diverse in terms of religion and ethnicity. Urdu, Punjabi and Pashto are also widely spoken among migrant communities residing in urban areas.
Roads in Pakistan can be classified as federal, provincial and municipal roads.
But it falls short of the main demand of the people of Gilgit- Baltistan for a constitutional status to the region as a fifth province and for Pakistani citizenship to its people.
Many of the 1.5 million people of Gilgit-Baltistan oppose integration into Kashmir and want their area to be merged into Pakistan and declared a separate province.