Adolfo de la Huerta
|38th President of Mexico|
1 June 1919 –30 November 1920
|Preceded by||Venustiano Carranza|
|Succeeded by||Álvaro Obregón|
|Secretary of Finance and Public Credit|
1 December 1920 –25 September 1923
|Preceded by||Salvador Alvarado|
|Succeeded by||Alberto J. Pani|
Felipe Adolfo de la Huerta Marcor
May 26, 1881
|Died||July 9, 1955 74) (aged|
|Political party||Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC), later National Cooperativist Party (PNC)|
Felipe Adolfo de la Huerta Marcor (Spanish pronunciation: [aˈðolfo ðelaˈweɾta] ; May 26, 1881 – July 9, 1955), known as Adolfo de la Huerta, was a Mexican politician, the 45th President of Mexico from June 1 to November 30, 1920, following the overthrow of Mexican president Venustiano Carranza, with Sonoran generals Alvaro Obregón and Plutarco Elías Calles under the Plan of Agua Prieta. He is considered "an important figure among Constitutionalists during the Mexican Revolution."
De la Huerta was born on May 26, 1881, to a prominent family in Guaymas, Sonora. Although he studied music in Hermosillo, and earned a certificate in it, he became a bookkeeper to support his family. In 1908 he joined an Anti-Reelectionist club and in 1910 became its secretary, costing him his government job. In 1911, he defeated Plutarco Elías Calles for a seat in the Sonora state legislature. However, both men joined the Constitutionalist movement following the coup of Victoriano Huerta in February 1913 against Francisco I. Madero. De la Huerta became Venustiano Carranza's chief clerk from 1915-16 as the Constitutionalist faction took power. He then became interim governor of his home state of Sonora (1917–18), as Carranza's grip on power loosened, consul general of Mexico in New York City (1918), and he also traveled to Washington, D.C. to argue for Mexico's neutrality in World War I. De la Huerta was disgusted to learn after he returned to Mexico that Carranza had confiscated millions of pesos in gold from Mexican banks, after De la Huerta had denied the charges by the U.S. government as untrue.He was federal senator (1918) and governor of Sonora (1919–20).
Carranza ruled out Obregón as his successor as president, for disparaging him, and considered De la Huerta, who was said to be uninterested in the presidency. Carranza then chose Ignacio Bonillas, a civilian who had been ambassador to the U.S. as his successor.De la Huerta had tangled with Carranza over control of Sonora, when Carranza declared the Sonora River federal territory. De la Huerta asserted state control. He also objected to Carranza's meddling with a Sonoran peace with the indigenous Yaqui, which threatened to reignite hostilities, which he had helped bring to an end. Carranza further antagonized De la Huerta by appointing Manuel Diéguez as head of the military in Sonora and insert him and federal troops by transiting through the United States. De la Huerta countered by appointing Calles as head of Sonora military operations. Carranza attempted to remove de la Huerta from the Sonoran governorship and put General Ignacio L. Pesqueira as military governor. Calles began maneuvering in favor of De la Huerta against Carranza, and sent a telegram withdrawing recognition for Carranza's government.
The three Sonoran generals, De la Huerta, then governor of Sonora; Obregón; and Calles formulated the Revolution of Agua Prieta. The drafting of the plan was largely in the hands of de la Huerta, Calles, and Salvador Alvarado.They overthrew the presidency of Venustiano Carranza, who died during the revolt, either by rebel forces or possibly suicide.
It was then that de la Huerta was appointed interim President by Congress.As interim president, De la Huerta dealt with the transition to peace. De la Huerta urged Mexicans in exile to return home. He also pardoned former Carranza supporters. One of his major accomplishments was negotiations with Pancho Villa, whom he knew personally, and his army to surrender. The negotiated settlement awarded Villa an hacienda. Obregón strongly objected to the settlement, wiring De la Huerta and other officials. Despite Obregón's objections, Villa and De la Huerta came to an agreement, with Villa living on the hacienda Canutillo until his assassination in 1923.
When Álvaro Obregón was declared the victor of the 1920 presidential election, De la Huerta stepped down to head the Secretariat of Finance and Public Credit,and in that role, negotiated the De la Huerta–Lamont Treaty.
De la Huerta started a failed but significant revolt in 1923 against his fellow Sonoran, President Obregón, whom he denounced as corrupt,after Obregón endorsed Plutarco Calles as his successor. Catholics, conservatives and a considerable portion of the army officers, who felt Obregón had reversed Carranza's policy of favoring the army at the expense of the farmer-labor sector, supported de la Huerta. With his organization and support from the U.S. government, agrarians, and workers, Obregón crushed the rebellion and forced de la Huerta into exile. On March 7, 1924, de la Huerta fled to Los Angeles and Obregón ordered the execution of every rebel officer with a rank higher than major.
De la Huerta was invited to return to Mexico by President Lázaro Cárdenas in 1935. Cárdenas named him inspector of Mexican consulates in the U.S. and he served until his retirement in 1946.He died on July 9, 1955 in Mexico City.
The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 31-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict broke out in northern Mexico and Díaz was forced out. In the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, Díaz resigned and went into exile, new elections were to occur in the fall, and an interim presidency under Francisco León de la Barra was installed. A new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.
Agua Prieta is a town in Agua Prieta Municipality in the northeastern corner of the Mexican state of Sonora. It stands on the Mexico–U.S. border, adjacent to the town of Douglas, Arizona. The municipality covers an area of 3,631.65 km2. In the 2010 census the town had a population of 79,138 people, making it the seventh-largest community in the state, and a literacy rate of 96.3%. 89% of the homes in the city have electricity, 94% have running water, and 86% are connected to the sewer system. The city's most important economic activities, in descending order, are industry, commerce and farming. The city is the location of the CFE Agua Prieta power plant.
José Venustiano Carranza de la Garza was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster. He secured power in Mexico, serving as head of state from 1915 to 1917. With the promulgation of a new revolutionary Mexican Constitution of 1917, he was elected president, serving from 1917 to 1920.
Álvaro Obregón Salido was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. He supported Sonora's decision to follow Governor of Coahuila Venustiano Carranza as leader of a revolution against the Victoriano Huerta regime. Carranza appointed Obregón commander of the revolutionary forces in northwestern Mexico and in 1915 appointed him as his minister of war. In 1920, Obregón launched a revolt against Carranza, in which Carranza was assassinated. Obregón won the subsequent election with overwhelming support.
Plutarco Elías Calles was a Mexican military general and politician. He was the powerful interior minister under President Álvaro Obregón, who chose Calles as his successor. The 1924 Calles presidential campaign was the first populist presidential campaign in Mexico's history, as he called for land redistribution and promised equal justice, more education, additional labour rights, and democratic governance.
Emilio Cándido Portes Gil was President of Mexico from 1928 to 1930, one of three to serve out the six-year term of president-elect General Álvaro Obregón, who was assassinated in 1928. Since the Mexican Constitution of 1917 forbade re-election of a serving president, the out-going president Plutarco Elías Calles could not formally become president. Portes Gil became president, but Calles, the "Jefe Máximo", retained effective political power during what is known as the Maximato.
Abelardo Rodríguez Luján, commonly known as Abelardo L. Rodríguez was the substitute president of Mexico from 1932 to 1934. He completed the term of Pascual Ortiz Rubio after his resignation, during the period known as the Maximato. Former President Plutarco Elías Calles then held considerable de facto political power, without being president himself. However, Rodríguez was more successful than his predecessor Ortiz Rubio in asserting presidential power against Calles's influence.
Ignacio Bonillas Frajio was a Mexican diplomat. He was a Mexican ambassador to the United States and held a degree in mine engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was tapped by President Venustiano Carranza as his successor in the 1920 presidential elections, but the revolt of three Sonoran revolutionary generals overthrew Carranza before those elections took place.
Martín Luis Guzmán Franco was a Mexican novelist and journalist. Along with Mariano Azuela and Nellie Campobello, he is considered a pioneer of the revolutionary novel, a genre inspired by the experiences of the Mexican Revolution of 1910. He spent periods in exile in the United States and Spain. He founded newspapers, weekly magazines, and publishing companies. In 1958, he was awarded Mexico's National Prize in Literature.
Félix Díaz Prieto was a Mexican politician and general born in Oaxaca, Oaxaca. He was a leading figure in the rebellion against President Francisco I. Madero during the Mexican Revolution. He was nephew of president Porfirio Díaz.
Events in the year 1920 in Mexico.
The Plan of Guadalupe was a political manifesto which was proclaimed on March 26, 1913 by Venustiano Carranza in response to the overthrow and execution of President Francisco I. Madero, which had occurred during the Ten Tragic Days of February 1913. The manifesto was released from the Hacienda De Guadalupe, which is where the Plan derives its name, nearly a month after the assassination of Madero. The plan was limited, it denounced Victoriano Huerta from the presidency and proposed the restoration of a constitutional government.
Luis Morones Negrete, also known as Luis Napoleón Morones, was a major Mexican union leader, politician, and government official. He was a pragmatic politician who experienced a rapid rise to prominence from modest roots and made strategic alliances. He served as Secretary General of the Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers and as secretary of economy under President Plutarco Elías Calles, 1924-1928. He is considered the "most important union leader of the 1920s...and undoubtedly decisive in Mexico's post-Revolutionary reconstruction." He was criticized for tying the labor movement closely to the national government and his displays of wealth were unseemly. He fell from power following the successful 1928 presidential run by Alvaro Obregón, who was assassinated before being inaugurated.
The Constitutional Army was the army that fought against the Federal Army, and later, against the Villistas and Zapatistas during the Mexican Revolution. It was formed in March 1913 by Venustiano Carranza, so-called "First-Chief" of the army, as a response to the murder of President Francisco I. Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez by Victoriano Huerta during La Decena Trágica of 1913, and the resulting usurpation of presidential power by Huerta.
Pascual Ortiz Rubio was a Mexican politician and the President of Mexico from 1930 to 1932. He was one of three Mexican presidents to serve out the six-year term (1928-1934) of assassinated president-elect Álvaro Obregón, while former president Plutarco Elías Calles retained power in a period known as the Maximato. Calles was so blatantly in control of the government that Ortiz Rubio resigned the presidency in protest in September 1932.
Gen. Benjamín Hill was a military commander during the Mexican Revolution.
The Plan of Agua Prieta was a manifesto, or plan, drawn up by three revolutionary generals of the Mexican Revolution, declaring themselves in revolt against the government of President Venustiano Carranza. It was proclaimed by Obregón on 22 April 1920, in English and 23 April in Spanish in the northern border city of Agua Prieta, Sonora.
The Conventionists were a faction led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata which grew in opposition to the Constitutionalists of Venustiano Carranza and Álvaro Obregón during the Mexican Revolution. It was named for the Convention of Aguascalientes of October to November 1914.
General Jacinto Blas Treviño González was a Mexican military officer, noteworthy for his participation in the Mexican Revolution of 1910 to 1921.
Salvador Alvarado Rubio served in the Mexican military during the Mexican Revolution and as a statesman. He was a general of the Constitutionalist Army under the orders of Venustiano Carranza. Alvarado was the Governor of Yucatán from February 1915 to November, 1918. There is a Salvador Alvarado Municipality in the State of Sinaloa, where he was born, named in his honor.
| President of Mexico |
June 1 – November 30, 1920