Adolph I, Duke of Cleves
Adolph I, Duke of Cleves
|Born||2 August 1373|
|Died||23 September 1448 75) (aged|
Carthusian monastery at Wesel
|Noble family||La Marck|
|Spouse(s)||Agnes of the Palatinate|
Marie of Burgundy
|Father||Adolph III, Count of Mark|
|Mother||Margaret of Jülich|
Adolph I of Cleves (German : Adolf I) (2 August 1373 – 23 September 1448) was the second Count of Cleves and the fourth Count of Mark.
He was the son of Adolph III, Count of Mark, and Margaret of Jülich (and thus the brother of Margaret of Cleves).
After his father's death in 1394, he became Count of Cleves. In 1397 he defeated his uncle William VII of Jülich, 1st Duke of Berg in the battle of Kleverhamm and became Lord of Ravenstein.
When his brother Dietrich IX, Count of Mark died in battle in 1398, he also became Count of Mark. Adolph further expanded his influence by marrying a daughter of the Duke of Burgundy. As a result, Cleves was raised to a Duchy by the Holy Roman Emperor, Sigismund, in 1417.
From 1409 onwards he faced opposition from his younger brother Gerhard, who claimed the County of Mark. By 1423, their dispute resulted in an armed conflict, with Gerhard allying himself with the Archbishop of Cologne.
A peace was signed between the two brothers in 1430 and confirmed in 1437. As a result, Gerhard ruled the largest part of Mark, but was to be succeeded by his nephew John. He was not allowed to call himself Count of Mark, but has to use the title Count zur Mark. After Gerhard's death in 1461, the County of Mark and the Duchy of Cleves were reunited again.
Shortly before the year 1400 he married Agnes, daughter of Rupert of Germany and Elisabeth of Nuremberg. Agnes died a year later with no issue.
In 1406 Adolf married Marie of Burgundy, daughter of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria. They had the following issue:
Berg was a state—originally a county, later a duchy—in the Rhineland of Germany. Its capital was Düsseldorf. It existed as a distinct political entity from the early 12th to the 19th centuries.
The County of Mark was a county and state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle. It lay on both sides of the Ruhr river along the Volme and Lenne rivers.
The Duchy of Jülich comprised a state within the Holy Roman Empire from the 11th to the 18th centuries. The duchy lay left of the Rhine river between the Electorate of Cologne in the east and the Duchy of Limburg in the west. It had territories on both sides of the river Rur, around its capital Jülich – the former Roman Iuliacum – in the lower Rhineland. The duchy amalgamated with the County of Berg beyond the Rhine in 1423, and from then on also became known as Jülich-Berg.
The Duchy of Cleves was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged from the medieval Hettergau. It was situated in the northern Rhineland on both sides of the Lower Rhine, around its capital Cleves and the towns of Wesel, Kalkar, Xanten, Emmerich, Rees and Duisburg bordering the lands of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster in the east and the Duchy of Brabant in the west. Its history is closely related to that of its southern neighbours: the Duchies of Jülich and Berg, as well as Guelders and the Westphalian county of Mark. The Duchy was archaically known as Cleveland in English.
Albert I, Duke of Bavaria KG, was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland, Hainaut, and Zeeland in the Low Countries. Additionally, he held a portion of the Bavarian province of Straubing, his Bavarian ducal line's appanage and seat.
Arnold of Egmond was Duke of Guelders, Count of Zutphen.
La Marck was a noble family, which from about 1200 appeared as the counts of Mark.
John I, Duke of Cleves, Count of Mark was Duke of Cleves and Count of Mark.
Mary of Burgundy, Duchess of Cleves was the second child of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria, and an elder sister of Philip the Good. Born in Dijon, she became the second wife of Adolph, Count of Mark in May 1406. He was made the 1st Duke of Cleves in 1417. They were the grandparents of King Louis XII of France and the great-grandparents of John III, Duke of Cleves, father of Anne of Cleves, who was fourth Queen consort of Henry VIII of England. By their daughter, Catherine, they were ancestors of Mary, Queen of Scots.
Adolph III of the Marck was the Bishop of Münster from 1357 until 1363, the Archbishop of Cologne in 1363, the Count of Cleves from 1368 until 1394, and the Count of Mark from 1391 until 1393.
Dietrich VII (1256–1305) was Count of Cleves from 1275 through 1305. He was the son of Dietrich VI, Count of Cleves and his wife Aleidis von Heinsberg.
Margaret of Brieg (1342–1386) was a daughter of Ludwik I the Fair and his wife, Agnes of Sagan. She was Duchess consort of Bavaria by her marriage to Albert I, Duke of Bavaria.
Reinald IV, Duke of Guelders and Jülich aka Reginald IV was the son of William II, Duke of Jülich and Maria of Guelders, daughter of Reinald II, Duke of Guelders.
Adolf, Duke of Jülich-Berg, was the first Duke of the combined duchies of Jülich and Berg. He was the son of William VII of Jülich, 1st Duke of Berg and Anna of the Palatinate.
William VII of Jülich, 1st Duke of Berg was born in Jülich, as the son of Gerhard VI of Jülich, Count of Berg and Ravensberg, and Margaret, daughter and heiress of Otto IV, Count of Ravensberg, and Margaret of Berg.
Gerhard VI of Jülich, Count of Berg and Ravensberg was the son of William V, Duke of Jülich and Joanna of Hainaut.
Gerhard V of Jülich, Count of Jülich (1297–1328), was the youngest son of William IV, Count of Jülich and Richardis of Guelders, daughter of Gerard III, Count of Guelders.
Adolf IX of Berg was the eldest son of Henry of Berg, Lord of Windeck and Agnes of the Mark.
Margaret of Jülich was a daughter of Duke Gerhard VI of Jülich and his wife, Margaret of Ravensberg (1315-1389).
Margaret of Cleves, also spelled Margaretha or Margarethe was the wife of Count Adolf II of the Marck and mother of Adolf III of the Marck. She was a daughter of Count Dietrich VIII of Cleves and Margaret of Guelders, who was a daughter of Reginald I of Guelders.
Adolph I, Duke of ClevesBorn: 2 August 1373 Died: 23 September 1448
Dietrich IX, Count of Mark
| Count of Mark |
1398–1448/ de facto 1430
Gerhard, Count of Mark
Adolf III, Count of Cleves
| Count of Cleves |
|Raised to Duchy|
|New creation|| Duke of Cleves |
John I, Duke of Cleves
|Ancestors of Adolph I, Duke of Cleves|