|Born||18 June 1579|
|Died||21 June 1659 80) (aged|
|Known for||Patriarch of Ethiopia|
Father Afonso Mendes (18 June 1579 – 21 June 1659), was a Portuguese Jesuit theologian, and Patriarch of Ethiopia from 1622 to 1634. While E.A. Wallis Budge has expressed the commonly accepted opinion of this man, as being "rigid, uncompromising, narrow-minded, and intolerant",there are some who disagree with it. The writings of Mendes include Expeditionis Aethiopicae, which describes the customs and conditions of Ethiopia.
The Latin Patriarchate of Ethiopia was a Latin patriarchal see of the Catholic Church in Ethiopia from 1555 to 1663.
Mendes was born in Santo Aleixo.He entered the Society of Jesus, where he was ordained priest, he received his doctorate in theology at the University of Coimbra, where he subsequently taught at the College of Arts. In response to the favor Emperor Susenyos of Ethiopia showed towards Catholicism, Mendes was appointed Patriarch of Ethiopia by Pope Urban VIII, and left for Ethiopia in March 1623.
Santo Aleixo da Restauração is a former civil parish in the municipality of Moura, southern Portugal, along the Portuguese-Spanish border. In 2013, the parish merged into the new parish Safara e Santo Aleixo da Restauração.
The University of Coimbra is a Portuguese public university in Coimbra, Portugal. Established in 1290 in Lisbon, it went through a number of relocations until it was moved permanently to its current city in 1537, being one of the oldest universities in continuous operation in the world, the oldest university of Portugal, and one of the country's largest museums of higher education and research institutions.
The Emperor of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. The Emperor was the head of state and head of government, with ultimate executive, judicial and legislative power in that country. A National Geographic Magazine article called imperial Ethiopia "nominally a constitutional monarchy; in fact [it was] a benevolent autocracy".
The journey to Ethiopia was long and difficult. Mendes' party reached Portuguese Mozambique that September, where they were delayed by winter weather, and only reached Goa on 28 May 1624.After making further preparations in Goa, the Patriarch sailed for Beilul by way of Diu (where he was joined by Jerónimo Lobo), and arrived at Beilul on 2 May 1625. This port on the Red Sea was controlled by the king of the Afars, who was a vassal to the Emperor of Ethiopia; the primary port of entrance to Ethiopia, Massawa, was at the time controlled by the Ottoman Empire, which was hostile to both Ethiopian and European interests. The party crossed the desert into the Ethiopian highlands, and reached Fremona, the base of Catholic missionary efforts, on 21 June 1625, over two years after Mendes had left Lisbon.
Portuguese Mozambique or Portuguese East Africa are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory. Portuguese Mozambique constituted a string of Portuguese colonies and later a single Portuguese overseas province along the south-east African coast, which now forms the Republic of Mozambique.
Goa is a state considered to be part of western as well as southern India, within the coastal region known as the Konkan, separated from the Deccan highlands of the state of Karnataka by the Western Ghats. It is bounded by Maharashtra to the north and Karnataka to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea forming its western coast. It is India's smallest state by area and the fourth-smallest by population. Goa has the highest GDP per capita among all Indian states, two and a half times that of the country. It was ranked the best-placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators.
Beilul is a small cape town in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea.
At a public ceremony on 11 February 1626, the Emperor Susenyos and Patriarch Mendes publicly acknowledged the primacy of the Roman See and made Catholicism the state religion.A number of local practices were condemned, which included Saturday Sabbath and frequent fasts. For a time, conversions were made, the monarch frequently resorting to compulsion. Richard Pankhurst reports 100,000 inhabitants of Dembiya and Wegera alone are said to have converted to Catholicism. However, strife and rebellions over the enforced changes began within days of the public ceremony, and at one point the Emperor's son, Fasilides, sided with the native church.
Susenyos I was Emperor of Ethiopia from 1606 to 1632. His father was Abeto (Prince) Fasilides, son of Abeto (Prince) Yakob, who was a son of Dawit II. As a result, while some authorities list Susenyos as a member of the Solomonic dynasty, others consider him, instead of his son, Fasilides, as the founder of the Gondar line of the dynasty.
Richard Keir Pethick Pankhurst OBE was a British academic, founding member of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies, and former professor at the University of Addis Ababa in Ethiopia. His books have been reviewed in scholarly journals, with Edward Ullendorff calling his The Ethiopians as another testimony to his "remarkable diligence and industry in the service of Ethiopian studies". He is known for his research on economic history and socio-cultural studies on Ethiopia.
After many years of chronic civil war, on 14 June 1632, Emperor Susenyos issued a formal declaration that those who would follow the Catholic faith were allowed to do so, but no one would be forced to do so any further. Patriarch Mendes could only confirm that this was, indeed, the actual will of the Emperor, his protector.Upon succeeding his father, Fasilides first confined the Catholic hierarchy to Fremona, then in 1634 exiled the Patriarch and several of the foreign priests from Ethiopia, who were exposed to robbery, assaults and other indignities by the local population before reaching the Ottoman Naib at Massawa. The Naib sent them to his superior at Suakin, where the Pasha forced the party to pay a ransom before they could proceed to India. Despite settling for a ransom of 4300 patacas (which he borrowed from local Banyan merchants), at the last moment the Pasha insisted on keeping Patriarch Mendes, two priests, three cleric and two of his servants. Amongst those who departed Suakin on 26 August was Jerónimo Lobo. These were kept prisoner until Mendes managed to raise 4000 pieces of eight as their ransom, and the Pasha put them on a ship bound for Diu on 24 April 1635. They reached Diu a month later, and Mendes immediately continued on to Goa, where he unsuccessfully sought military support for his restoration. He appears to have spent the rest of his life in Goa, where he wrote his book on Ethiopian history and geography and the Jesuit mission in Ethiopia, Expeditionis Aethiopicae. His letters and annual reports in Latin appear in other volumes of the series Rerum Aethiopicarum Scriptores Occidentales.
Suakin or Sawakin is a port city in northeastern Sudan, on the west coast of the Red Sea, it was formerly the region's chief port, but is now secondary to Port Sudan, about 50 kilometres (30 mi) north.
Pasha or Paşa, in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman political and military system, typically granted to governors, generals, dignitaries and others. As an honorary title, Pasha, in one of its various ranks, is similar to a British peerage or knighthood, and was also one of the highest titles in the 20th century Kingdom of Egypt.
Banyan merchants is an expression used widely in the Indian Ocean trade to refer to Indian merchants who are clearly distinguished from others, by their clothing, by their religious and cultural dietary choices, and by the manner in which they conduct trade.
Pedro Páez Jaramillo was a Spanish Jesuit missionary in Ethiopia. Páez is considered by many experts on Ethiopia to be the most effective Catholic missionary in Ethiopia. He is believed to be the first European to see and describe the source of the Blue Nile.
Fernão Mendes Pinto was a Portuguese explorer and writer. His voyages are recorded in Pilgrimage (1614), his autobiographical memoir. The historical accuracy of the work is debatable due to the many events which seem far fetched or at least exaggerated, earning him the nickname "Fernão Mentes Minto". Some aspects of the work can be verified, particularly through Pinto's service to the Portuguese Crown and by his association with Jesuit missionaries.
Jerónimo Lobo was a Portuguese Jesuit missionary. He took part in the unsuccessful efforts to convert Ethiopia from the native Ethiopian church to Roman Catholicism until the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1643. Afterwards he wrote an account of his time in Ethiopia, Itinerário, which is an important source for the history and culture of that country.
The Kebra Nagast is a 14th-century account written in Ge'ez, an ancient South Semitic language that originated in modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea. Wallis Budge, an English Egyptologist, Orientalist, and philologist who worked for the British Museum created an English translation called The Glory of the Kings. It is considered to hold the genealogy of the Solomonic dynasty, which followed the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.
Dom Pedro Mascarenhas was a Portuguese explorer and colonial administrator. He was the first European to discover the island of Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean in 1512. He also encountered the Indian Ocean island of Mauritius in 1512, although he may not have been the first Portuguese explorer to do so; earlier expeditions by Diogo Dias and Afonso de Albuquerque along with Diogo Fernandes Pereira may have encountered the islands. In 1528 explorer Diogo Rodrigues named the islands of Réunion, Mauritius, and Rodrigues the Mascarene Islands, after Mascarenhas.
Gelawdewos was Emperor (throne name Asnaf Sagad I of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was a younger son of Dawit II by Sabla Wengel.
Fasilides, also known as Fasil or Basilide, was emperor of Ethiopia from 1632 to 18 October 1667, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. His throne name was ʿAlam Sagad, meaning "to whom the world bows". He was the son of Emperor Susenyos I and Empress Sultana Mogassa, born at Magazaz in Shewa before 10 November 1603. His paternal grandfather's name was also Fasilides.
Fremona was a town in Tigray, Ethiopia. It was about a mile in circumference and was flanked with towers. The town served as the base of the Roman Catholic missionaries to Ethiopia during the 16th and 17th centuries. Bernhard Lindahl identifies Fremona with the modern settlement of Endiet Nebersh, located 10 kilometers from Adwa.
The Semien Mountains, in northern Ethiopia, north east of Gondar in Amhara region, are part of the Ethiopian Highlands. They are a World Heritage Site and include the Simien Mountains National Park. The mountains consist of plateaus separated by valleys and rising to pinnacles. The tallest peak is Ras Dejen ; other notable heights include Mounts Biuat and Kidis Yared.
The Catholic Church in Ethiopia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope in Rome.
The Ethiopian Catholic Church is a Metropolitan sui iuris Eastern particular church within the Catholic Church, established in 1930 in Ethiopia.
Manuel de Almeida was a native of Viseu who entered at an early age into the Society of Jesus and went out as a missionary to India. He is noted to have travelled to Ethiopia and Eritrea and Lake Tana and built a number of churches and monasteries, particularly on the small islands of the lake.
António Fernandes was a Portuguese Jesuit missionary.
The Siege of Diu occurred when an army of the Sultanate of Gujarat under Khadjar Safar, aided by forces of the Ottoman Empire attempted to capture the city of Diu in 1538, then held by the Portuguese. The Portuguese successfully resisted the four months long siege. It is part of The Ottoman-Portuguese War.
Abba Pentelewon was a Christian monk who is traditionally credited with founding Pentalewon Monastery located on the top of Mai Qoho Hill northwest of Axum in Tigray, Ethiopia. He is one of the members of the group known as the Nine Saints.
The Ottoman Empire conquered the Habesh starting in 1557, when Özdemir Pasha took the port city of Massawa and the adjacent city of Arqiqo, even taking Debarwa, then capital of the local ruler Bahr negus Yeshaq. They administered this area as the province of Habesh. Yeshaq rallied his peasants and recaptured Debarwa, taking all the gold the invaders had piled within. In 1560 Yeshaq, disillusioned with the new Emperor of Ethiopia, revolted with Ottoman support but pledged his support again with the crowning of Emperor Sarsa Dengel. However, not long after, Yeshaq revolted once again with Ottoman support but was defeated once and for all in 1578, Kifle was the king of Massawa, leaving the Ottomans with domain over Massawa, Arqiqo and some of the nearby coastal environs, which were soon transferred to the control of Beja Na'ibs (deputies).
The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church with its headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea. Its autocephaly was recognised by Shenouda III, Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria after Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia in 1993.
Orthodox Tewahedo is the common and historical name of two Oriental Orthodox churches. These are the predominant Orthodox Christian denominations in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Zaga Christ, also referred to as Ṣägga Krəstos, Atənatewos, and Lessana Krəstos, was a seventeenth-century Ethiopian man who, after having been imprisoned, claimed to be the son of Emperor Yaˁəqob I of Ethiopia. Zaga Christ travelled extensively, living in Sudan, Egypt, Palestine, Greece, and later Italy. There he met the Pope and fell in love with the franciscan nun Caterina Massimi, who he corresponded with from the years of 1633 to 1637 with letters of love written in their own blood. Zaga Christ died the following year of pleurisy while in France, where the letters were later discovered.