Afridi

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Afridis
اپريدي
آفریدي
Group of Afridis at Jamrud, 1866 WDL11469, crop.png
Afridis at Jamrūd Fort which was located at the eastern entrance to Khyber Pass in present-day Pakistan; photo by C. Shepherd (1866)
Total population
~70,000 [1]
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan ~50,000 [2]
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan ~20,000
Languages
Pashto
Religion
Sunni Islam
Related ethnic groups
Khattaks  · Orakzais  · Wazirs  · Mehsuds
and other Karlani Pashtun tribes

The Afridi (Pashto : اپريدی، افریدی; also spelled Apridi) are a tribe of Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland is in Khyber and Darra Adam Khel in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. [2]

Contents

Most Afridis speak a northern variety  of Pashto known as Afridi Pashto.

The Afridis are historically known for the strategic location they inhabit and their belligerence against outside forces. [1] Under the leadership of Darya Khan Afridi, the Afridis fought deadly wars against the Mughal Army in the 1670s. [3] The later clashes against British expeditions comprised the most savage fighting of the Anglo-Afghan Wars. [4] Ajab Khan Afridi was a famous independence activist against the rule of the British Raj.

The British frequently classified the peoples that they conquered with fixed personality or "racial" traits and regarded the Pashtun Afridi tribesmen as "warlike" peoples and one of the martial races. Different Afridi clans cooperated with the British forces in exchange for subsidies, and some even served with the Khyber Rifles, an auxiliary force of the British Indian Army.[ citation needed ]

After the creation of Pakistan, Afridi tribesmen also helped attack Jammu and Kashmir for Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistani war of 1947. [5] Today, Afridis make use of their dominant social position in areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by controlling transport and various businesses, including trade in arms, munitions and goods. [1]

Etymology and origins

The Afridis, classically called the Abaörteans ( /ˌæbə.ɔːrˈtənz/ ; Latin : Abaortae), have their original homeland in Tirah, Khyber Agency.

A tribe of ancient Pashtuns

Herodotus mentions a tribe of Aryans as Aparytai (Ἀπαρύται). [6] Scholars Grierson, Stein and Olaf Caroe equate these with modern Afridis on the basis of linguistic and geographic analysis. [7]

Theory of Afridi descent from Israelites

The Afridis, Yusufzais and other Pashtuns of Afghanistan and Pakistan have also been alleged to be the descendants of the lost Jewish tribes such as the Efraim.[ citation needed ] However, DNA and other research towards validating such claims has been inconclusive. [8] [9] [10]

Clans

The Afridi Tribe is subclassified into eight sub-tribes listed below.

All Afridi clans have their own areas in the Tirah Valley, and most of them extend down into the Khyber Pass over which they have always exercised the right of toll. The Malikdin Khel live in the centre of the Tirah and hold Bagh, the traditional meeting place of Afridi jirgas or assemblies. The Aka Khel are scattered in the hills south of Jamrud. All of this area is included in the Khyber Agency. The Adam Khel live in the hills between Peshawar and Kohat. Their preserve is the Kohat Pass in which several of the most important Afridi gun factories are located.

Religion

All Afridis follow Islam Sunni by sect. Their conversion to Islam is attributed to Sultan (Emperor) Mahmud of Ghazni by Ibbetson [11] and Haroon Rashid. [12]

History

Resistance against the Mughals

The Afridis and their allies Khalils were first mentioned in the memoirs of Mughal Emperor Babar as violent tribes in need of subduing. [13] The Afridi tribes controlled the Khyber Pass, which has served as a corridor connecting the Indian subcontinent with Afghanistan and Central Asia. Its strategic value was not lost on the Mughals to whom the Afridis were implacably hostile. [14]

Over the course of Mughal rule, Emperors Akbar and Jahangir both dispatched punitive expeditions to suppress the Afridis, to little success. [15]

The Afridis once destroyed two large Mughal armies of Emperor Aurangzeb: in 1672, in a surprise attack between Peshawar and Kabul, and in the winter of 1673, in an ambush in the mountain passes. [16] The emperor sent his Rajpoot general Rai Tulsidas with reinforcements into the mountains to suffocate the revolt and liberate the mountain. [16] [17]

Allegedly, only five Afridis made it out of the battle alive. [18] [19] [20]

Cuisine

Meat is an important part of their diet, which they often eat in the form of kabab (minced meat fried in oil), lamb curry, chicken curry, or goat curry. The hotels in Peshawar Namak Mandi Bazar represent the traditional food of Afridis, especially lamb karahi. [21]

List of notable Afridis

Shahid Afridi at the County Ground, Taunton, during Pakistan's 2010 tour of England Shahid Afridi at the County Ground, Taunton, during Pakistan's 2010 tour of England - 20100902.jpg
Shahid Afridi at the County Ground, Taunton, during Pakistan's 2010 tour of England

Related Research Articles

Yusufzai Ethnic Pashtun tribe

The Yusufzai or Yousafzai, also referred to as the Esapzai or Yusufzai Afghans historically, are one of the largest tribes of ethnic Pashtuns. The tribes origin is Kandahar, Afghanistan.

The Khattak is a Pashtun tribe numbering over 3 million, who speak a variant of the softer Pashto.

Khošāl Khān Khaṭak (1613 – 25 February 1689; Pashto: خوشال خان خټک), also known as Khushal Baba, was a Pashtun poet, chief, and warrior. Khushal Khan served the Mughal Empire protecting them from Pashtun warriors over most of his lifespan. After being expelled from his tribal chiefdom and replaced with his son by his Mughal superiors, Khushal Khan turned against the Mughals. Afterwards, Khushal preached the union of all Pashtuns, and encouraged revolt against the Mughal Empire, promoting Pashtun nationalism in the last years of his life through poetry. Khushal wrote many works in Pashto but also a few in Persian. Khushal is considered the "father of Pashto literature" and the national poet of Afghanistan.

The Bangash or Bungish are a tribe of ethnic Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland, historically known as "Bangash district," stretches from Kohat to Tall and Spīn Ghar in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, as well as smaller parts of Paktia, Afghanistan. The Bangash are also settled in large numbers in Uttar Pradesh, India, especially in the city of Farrukhabad, which was founded in 1714 by Nawab Muhammad Khan Bangash.

The Marwat is a Pashtun tribe, a branch of the Lohani tribe and belong to Lodi section, located primarily in Lakki Marwat District, parts of Dera Ismail Khan District, some villages of Tank district in Pakistan and in the Katawaz area of Afghanistan. The Marwats are also known as Spin Lohani, and their most closely related kin are other Lohani tribes like Miankhel, Daulat Khel and Tatur. The Marwats were named for their ancestor Marwat Khan Lodi.

Kohat City in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Kohat, is a city in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan which serves as the capital of the Kohat District. The city is regarded as a centre of the Bangash tribe of Pashtuns, who have lived in the region since the late 15th century. It is the 35th largest city of Pakistan and fourth largest in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Kohat's immediate environs were the site of frequent armed skirmishes between British colonialist forces and local tribesmen in the mid to late 19th century. The city centres on a British-era fort, various bazaars, and a military cantonment. The languages spoken in the city are Pashto and the Kohati dialect of Hindko.

Tirah

The Tirah also spelled Terah, Tira, Tera region, also called the Tirah Valley, is located in Khyber, Kurram and Orakzai agencies in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, while its smaller part straddles the border to the north lying in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. Tirah lies between the Khyber Pass and the Khanki Valley. It is inhabited by the Afridi, Orakzai and Shinwari tribes of Pashtuns.

Khyber District District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Khyber District is a district in Peshawar Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. Until 2018, it was an agency of Federally Administered Tribal Areas, with merger of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, it became a district. It ranges from the Tirah valley down to Peshawar. It borders Nangarhar Province to the west, Orakzai District to the south, Kurram District to south west, Peshawar to the east and Mohmand District in north.

Orakzai is a Pashtun tribe native to the Orakzai Agency and parts of Kurram Agency located in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. They speak the language Pashto.

Pashtun diaspora refers to ethnic Pashtuns who live outside their traditional homeland of Pashtunistan, which is south of the Amu River in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan. Pashtunistan is home to the majority of the Pashtun community. However, there are significant Pashtun diaspora communities in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan, in particular in the cities of Karachi and Lahore, in the Rohilkhand region of Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan States of India. Smaller populations of Pashtuns are also found in other parts of India, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Australia, Canada, Germany, Iran, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other parts of the world.

The Dilazak is a Pashtun tribe, primarily living in Pakistan.

The Ghoryakhel is a Pashtun supertribe which consists of tribes led by the son of Kand, son of Kharshbun, son of Sarban, and son of Qais Abdur Rashid, who lived in Ghwara Marghay Arghistan Qandahar but mostly settled in Ghazni on the basin of Tarnak River and Nangarhar, Logar, Kabul, Kunar, Paktia, Kunduz of Afghanistan. Daudzai are also been living in Kabul, Afghanistan which is the largest Pashtun tribe living in Kabul.

The Pathans of Punjab (Punjabi: پنجابی پٹھان; Pashto: د پنجاب پښتانه‎; also called Punjabi Pathans are originally Pashtun people who have settled in the Punjab region of Pakistan. Most of these Pashtun communities are scattered throughout the Punjab and have over time assimilated into the Punjabi society and culture.

The Mulagori, also spelled Mullagori and Mallagori, is sub section of Momand Pashtun Ghoryakhel confederacy. Predominantly, Mullagori live in the Mula Gori Tehsil of Khyber Agency District in the Province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in the and in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan.

History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

The History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa refers to the history of the modern-day Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, including the former Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which has colloquially been referred to as Pashtunistan. The earliest evidence from the region indicates that trade was common via the Khyber Pass; originating from the Indus Valley Civilization. The early people of the region were a Vedic people known as the Pakthas, identified with the modern day Pakhtun peoples. The Vedic culture reached its peak between the 6th and 1st centuries B.C under the Gandharan Civilization, and was identified as a center of Hindu and Buddhist learning and scholarship.

Kakazai

The Kakazai, also known as Loi or Loye Mamund, a division of the Mamund clan, are part of the larger Tarkani (ترکاڼي) tribe who are primarily settled in Bajaur Agency, Pakistan, but originally hailed from the Laghman province of Afghanistan. However, it has grown and scattered around to such an extent that it is recognized as tribe of its own.

Dasht-e Yahudi, or the Jewish Desert, is a region referred to by Persian and early Mughal historians for a stretch of territory that comprised the most western parts of modern-day Peshawar, Charsadda, Malakand and Mardan districts where these border with Khyber Agency and Mohmand Agency. Although not a desert, it is a semi-arid area in most of its parts.

Afridi Adam Khel is one of the 8 clans of the Afridi tribe that originated in the Pashtun region of modern-day India Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Kala Khel is a clan of Tirah Adam Khel. Adam Khel is a sub-tribe of Afridi that has originated from the Karlanee or Karlani group of Pashtuns. The Kala Khel clan of Tirah Adam Khel inhabits in FR Peshawar region and in Bara and Torghar as well. It can be found on Google Maps at 33.728623N,71.55256E and Tirah valley of Khyber agency at 33.73N, 71.01E.

The Kheshgi, Khaishgi, Kheshagi, Khweshgi, or Kheshki is a prominent Sarbani Pashtun tribe.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Afridi demographics in Pakistan and Afghanistan The excessive figure sometimes mentioned in Afghanistan reflects in a particular way the Afghan claim to Pashtunistan and actually represents an estimate of the whole of the Afridi tribe on both sides of the frontier.
  2. 1 2 "Afridi demographics in FATA and FR Kohat". Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
  3. Momand, Ahmad Gul. The Bare Language of Khoshal's Poetry. Nangarhar University. p. 13.
  4. L. Thomas, Beyond Khyber Pass, London, n.d. (ca. 1925)
  5. M.K. Teng (2001) Kashmir: The Bitter Truth Archived 26 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine Kashmir Information Network
  6. "The History of Herodotus Chapter 3, Verse 91; Written 440 B.C.E, Translated by G. C. Macaulay". sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
  7. Caroe, Olaf (1957). The Pathans, 550 B.C.-A.D. 1957. Oxford University Press. p. 37. ISBN   0-19-577221-0.
  8. Amir Mizroch (9 January 2010). "Are Taliban descendants of Israelites?". The Jerusalem Post . Archived from the original on 16 June 2011.
  9. Sachin Parashar (11 January 2010). "Lucknow Pathans have Jewish roots?". The Times of India . Archived from the original on 11 August 2011.
  10. Rory McCarthy (17 January 2010). "Pashtun clue to lost tribes of Israel". The Observer .
  11. Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H. A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Castes of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1911 AD, Page 217, Vol. III, Published by Asian Educational Services
  12. History of the Pathans by Haroon Rashid Published by Haroon Rashid, 2002 Item notes: v. 1 Page 45 Original from the University of Michigan
  13. A. S. Beveridge, Babor-nama London, 1922 [repr. 1969], p. 412
  14. History of Khyber Agency: Gateway to the Subcontinent Archived 13 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine , Office of the Political Agent, Khyber Agency
  15. C.M. Kieffer, Afridi, Encyclopædia Iranica
  16. 1 2 Richards, John F. (1996), "Imperial expansion under Aurangzeb 1658–1869. Testing the limits of the empire: the Northwest.", The Mughal Empire, New Cambridge history of India: The Mughals and their contemporaries, 5 (illustrated, reprint ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 170–171, ISBN   978-0-521-56603-2
  17. Khyber Agency Khyber.org, 3 July 2005
  18. Geoffrey Powell; J. S. W. Powell (1983), Famous regiments (illustrated ed.), Secker & Warburg, p. 69, ISBN   978-0-436-37910-9
  19. Robert E. L. Masters; Eduard Lea (1963). Perverse crimes in history: evolving concepts of sadism, lust-murder, and necrophilia from ancient to modern times. Julian Press. p. 211. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  20. Robert E. L. Masters; Eduard Lea (1963). Sex crimes in history: evolving concepts of sadism, lust-murder, and necrophilia, from ancient to modern times. Julian Press. p. 211. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  21. "The End of Afghan Cuisine in Pakistan?". 8 May 2018.