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A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
Agua Prieta, Sonora
Location of Agua Prieta within Sonora
|Incorporated||August 28, 1916|
|Ascension to town status||May 8, 1933|
|Ascension to city status||November 6, 1942|
|• Total||3,631.65 km2 (1,402.2 sq mi)|
Agua Prieta (English: Dark Water, km² (1,402.2 sq mi). In the 2010 census the town had a population of 79,138 people, making it the seventh-largest community in the state, and a literacy rate of 96.3%. 89% of the homes in the city have electricity, 94% have running water, and 86% are connected to the sewer system. The city's most important economic activities, in descending order, are industry, commerce and farming. The city is the location of the CFE Agua Prieta power plant.Opata: Bachicuy) is a town in Agua Prieta Municipality in the northeastern corner of the Mexican state of Sonora. It stands on the Mexico–U.S. border, adjacent to the town of Douglas, Arizona. The municipality covers an area of 3,631.65
Ópata is either of two closely related Uto-Aztecan languages, Teguima and Eudeve, spoken by the Opata people of northern central Sonora in Mexico. It was believed to be dead already in 1930, and Carl Sofus Lumholtz reported the Opata to have become "Mexicanized" and lost their language and customs already when traveling through Sonora in the 1890s. In a 1993 survey by the Instituto Nacional Indigenista fifteen people in the Mexican Federal District self-identified as speakers of Ópata. This may not mean however that the language was actually living, since linguistic nomenclature in Mexico is notoriously fuzzy. Sometimes Eudeve is called Opata, a term which should be restricted to Teguima. Eudeve and Teguima are distinct languages, but sometimes have been considered merely dialects of one single language. The INALI does not count Opata among the currently extant indigenous languages of Mexico.
A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary considerably between different parts of the world.
Agua Prieta Municipality is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico. As of 2015, the municipality had a total population of 82,918.
Agua Prieta city began at the end of the 19th century as railroads were built between Douglas, Arizona, and Nacozari, Sonora, to transport minerals and goods. As a result, the first settlers of the city, then just a few blocks, were those employed by the U.S. mining company Phelps Dodge Corporation, which was based in Douglas, Arizona. One can say that the town was "founded" in 1899, but it was not until a "contract" was made in 1903 between officials and private citizens, to the name Camou, that area "pertaining" to those citizens was made a Commissary of Fronteras county. Agua Prieta city did not became an "independent head of municipality," with its current name and location, until August 28, 1916. Rodolfo L. Márquez was the new municipality's first president. It rose to the status of villa (town) on May 8, 1933, and it was "officially" placed in its current category of city relatively recently, on November 6, 1942.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks. It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on ties (sleepers) and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are also possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface.
The climate is cold semi-arid (Köppen: BSk). In a latitude over the geographic subtropics, located in a plateau and in the interior of the continent gives a cold winter but at the same time a climatic pattern often dry and with great thermal amplitude during the day. And on the other hand the summer is very hot due to the absence of cloud cover and the air dry with average in the afternoon well above 30 °C. Most of the time there is no precipitation, but a considerable amount of rain falls between July and August.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° and temperate zones north and south of the Equator.
|Climate data for Agua Prieta (Infonavit 1), elevation: 1,210 metres (3,970 ft), 1951–2010 normals, extremes 1961–2016|
|Record high °C (°F)||30.0|
|Mean maximum °C (°F)||23.9|
|Average high °C (°F)||16.6|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.0|
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.7|
|Mean minimum °C (°F)||−5.7|
|Record low °C (°F)||−12.5|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||19.9|
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||0.51|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||3.5||3.3||2.1||1.6||1.3||2.0||11.2||9.3||5.2||2.7||2.7||3.9||48.8|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.3||0.2||0.1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||0.3||1|
|Source #1: SMN|
|Source #2: NOAA (snow days)|
Los Apson was one of the most successful musical bands during the second half of the 60s; all original members originated from (A)gua (P)rieta, (Son)ora, hence their name. They led the phenomenon known in Mexico as the "northern invasion". Along with the British influence, Los Apson was one of the main decisive elements that brought new nuances to the Mexican musical movement.
Los Apson is a former Mexican rock-n-roll band, best known for their Spanish language cover versions of famous songs.
The main sport in Agua Prieta is baseball, closely followed by soccer and basketball. Agua Prieta's professional baseball team is the Toros de Agua Prieta. In 2012, Agua Prieta had its first ever Olympian when Luis Alberto Rivera represented Mexico in the long jump at the XXX Olympic Games in London, UK.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart.
Luis Alberto Rivera Morales is a Mexican long jumper. His personal best is 8.46 metres, achieved in July 2013.
The long jump is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. Along with the triple jump, the two events that measure jumping for distance as a group are referred to as the "horizontal jumps". This event has a history in the Ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympic event for men since the first Olympics in 1896 and for women since 1948.
Agua Prieta II is the first integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) power plant in Mexico – one of the first power plants of its type in the world – and it is being equipped with the SPPA-E3000 low-voltage switchgear solution from Siemens Mexico Energy. Agua Prieta II is a combined-cycle power plant (CCPP) that has been extended with a solar field and parabolic trough collectors. In this type of power plant, the steam generated by the solar field is fed into the water-steam cycle of the CCPP to increase steam turbine output and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The power plant in Mexico will have an output of approximately 465 Megawatts (MW) with a contribution from the solar field of 12 MW, it will supply electricity to northwest Mexico. The end customer is the Mexican state power provider Comisión Federal de Electricidad, which already operates two plants of the same type in Morocco and Algeria.
Agua Prieta is home to several maquiladoras, including Levolor, Commercial Vehicle Group, Takata, Velcro, Standex-Meder Electronics, and Alstyle Apparel & Activewear (Gildan).
The Plan of Agua Prieta was a political manifesto signed in the city of Agua Prieta on April 23, 1920 by the governor of Sonora, Adolfo de la Huerta, and Plutarco Elías Calles in support of Álvaro Obregón, with the principal objective of bringing an end to the presidency of Venustiano Carranza, who was forced to flee Mexico City and was killed a month later. The Plan of Agua Prieta used as its political banner the 1917 Constitution, with which Carranza had not complied. It also advocated the convening of elections, appointed Huerta as supreme commander of the Constitutionalist Army, and dictated the rules for electing a provisional president, resulting in Huerta being named president by Congress in June.
|A graphical timeline is available at|
Timeline of the Mexican Revolution
Agua Prieta played an important role in the Mexican Revolution. Plutarco Elías Calles and Lázaro Cárdenas, two future presidents of Mexico, both lived in the town during its early years. In 1914, the Hotel Central, a now-demolished hotel in the center of the city, was the seat of Carranza's constitutional government.In 1915, Pancho Villa made a night attack on Agua Prieta that was repelled by the forces of Plutarco Elías Calles, assisted by large searchlights (possibly powered by American electricity). The Plan de Agua Prieta, a manifesto which called for the rejection of the government headed by Venustiano Carranza, was signed in a curiosity shop near the international border in 1920. The army headed by Álvaro Obregón eventually deposed Carranza.
1952–1954 Don Jesus Siqueiros PRI
1979–1982 Luis Córdova Corrales PAN
1982–1985 Leonardo Yáñez Vargas PAN
1985–1988 Bernardino Meza Ortíz PRI
1988–1991 Baudelio Vildósola Teran PRI
1991–1994 Bernardino Ibarrola Serrano PRI
1994–1997 Óscar Ochoa Patrón PAN
1997–2000 Vicente Terán Uribe PRI
2000–2003 Irma Villalobos Rascón PRI
2003–2006 David Figueroa Ortega PAN
2006–2009 Antonio Cuadras PRI
2009–2012 Vicente Terán Uribe PSD
2012 (March – September) Francisco Javier Carrera Hernandez PRI
2012–2015 Irma Villalobos Rascón PRI
Francisco "Pancho" Villa was a Mexican revolutionary general and one of the most prominent figures of the Mexican Revolution.
The Mexican Revolution, also known as the Mexican Civil War, was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.
Venustiano Carranza Garza was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster. He secured power in Mexico, serving as head of state from 1915–1917. With the promulgation of a new revolutionary Mexican Constitution of 1917, he was elected president, serving from 1917 to 1920.
Álvaro Obregón Salido was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. He supported Sonora's decision to follow Governor of Coahuila Venustiano Carranza as leader of a revolution against the Huerta regime. Carranza appointed Obregón commander of the revolutionary forces in northwestern Mexico and in 1915 appointed him as his minister of war. In 1920, Obregón launched a revolt against Carranza, in which Carranza was assassinated; he won the subsequent election with overwhelming support.
Plutarco Elías Calles was a Mexican general and politician. He was the powerful interior minister under President Álvaro Obregón, who chose Calles as his successor. The 1924 Calles presidential campaign was the first populist presidential campaign in the nation's history, as he called for land redistribution and promised equal justice, more education, additional labor rights, and democratic governance. Calles indeed tried to fulfill his promises during his populist phase (1924–26) but later entered a State atheism phase (1926–28).
Ignacio Bonillas Frajio was a Mexican diplomat. He was a Mexican ambassador to the United States and held a degree in mine engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was tapped by President Venustiano Carranza as his successor in the 1920 presidential elections, but the revolt of three Sonoran revolutionary generals overthrew Carranza before those elections took place.
Eulalio Gutiérrez Ortiz was a general in the Mexican Revolution from state of Coahuila. He is most notable for his election as provisional president of Mexico during the Aguascalientes Convention and led the country for a few months between November 6, 1914, and January 16, 1915. The Convention was convened by revolutionaries who had successfully ousted the regime of Victoriano Huerta after more than a year of conflict. Gutiérrez rather than "First Chief" Venustiano Carranza was chosen president of Mexico and a new round of violence broke out as revolutionary factions previously united turned against each other. "The high point of Gutiérrez's career occurred when he moved with the Conventionist army to shoulder the responsibilities of his new office [of president]." Gutiérrez's government was weak and he could not control the two main generals of the Army of the Convention, Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. Gutiérrez moved the capital of his government from Mexico City to San Luis Potosí. He resigned as president and made peace with Carranza. He went into exile in the United States, but later returned to Mexico. He died in 1939, outliving many other major figures of the Mexican Revolution.
Events in the year 1920 in Mexico.
Luis Morones Negrete, also known as Luis Napoleón Morones, was a major Mexican union leader, politician, and government official. He was a pragmatic politician who experienced a rapid rise to prominence from modest roots and made strategic alliances. He served as Secretary General of the Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers and as secretary of economy under President Plutarco Elías Calles, 1924-1928. He is considered the "most important union leader of the 1920s...and undoubtedly decisive in Mexico's post-Revolutionary reconstruction." He was criticized for tying the labor movement closely to the national government and his displays of wealth were unseemly. He fell from power following the successful 1928 presidential run by Alvaro Obregón, who was assassinated before being inaugurated.
The Constitutional Army was the army that fought against the Federal Army, and later, against the Villistas and Zapatistas during the Mexican Revolution. It was formed in March 1913 by Venustiano Carranza, so-called "First-Chief" of the army, as a response to the murder of President Francisco I. Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez by Victoriano Huerta during La Decena Trágica of 1913, and the resulting usurpation of presidential power by Huerta.
Felipe Adolfo de la Huerta Marcor, known as Adolfo de la Huerta, was a Mexican politician and 38th President of Mexico from June 1 to November 30, 1920, following the overthrow of Mexican president Venustiano Carranza.
Gen. Benjamín Hill was a military commander during the Mexican Revolution.
The Plan of Agua Prieta was a manifesto, or plan, drawn up by three revolutionary generals of the Mexican Revolution, declaring themselves in revolt against the government of President Venustiano Carranza. It was proclaimed by Obregón on 22 April 1920, in English and 23 April in Spanish in the northern border city of Agua Prieta, Sonora.
The Conventionists were a faction led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata which grew in opposition to the Constitutionalists of Venustiano Carranza and Álvaro Obregón during the Mexican Revolution. It was named for the Convention of Aguascalientes of October to November 1914.
Roberto V. Pesqueira Morales was a Mexican politician who was elected twice to the Chamber of Deputies and was commissioned by President Venustiano Carranza to work as a confidential agent in the United States and secure diplomatic recognition to his regime.
The Second Battle of Agua Prieta, 1 November 1915, was fought between the forces of Pancho Villa and those of the future President of Mexico, Plutarco Elías Calles, a supporter of Venustiano Carranza, at Agua Prieta, Sonora, as part of the Mexican Revolution. Villa's attack on the town was repulsed by Calles. The battle helped to establish Carranza's control over Mexico and directly led to his becoming, with United States recognition, president. Villa believed that Calles had received tactical and strategic support from the United States since the town is located across the border from Douglas, Arizona and launched his raid on Columbus, New Mexico partly as a reprisal.
Salvador Alvarado Rubio served in the Mexican military during the Mexican Revolution and as a statesman. He was a general of the Constitutionalist Army under the orders of Venustiano Carranza. Alvarado was the Governor of Yucatán from February 1915 to November, 1918. There is a Salvador Alvarado Municipality in the State of Sinaloa, where he was born, named in his honor.
Events from the year 1915 in Mexico.
General Don José Gonzalo Escobar (1892-1969) was an officer in the Mexican Army and leader of the failed Escobar Rebellion in 1929, which challenged the political power of Plutarco Elías Calles.
Jose Emilio Salinas Balmaceda was a military man and Mexican politician that participated in Mexican Revolution and Governor of Querétaro and Chihuahua.
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