Agua Prieta

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Coordinates: 31°19′33″N109°32′56″W / 31.32583°N 109.54889°W / 31.32583; -109.54889

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Agua Prieta, Sonora
City
Agua Prieta
Logoaguaprieta.jpg
Coat of arms
AguaPrieta City.png
Location of Agua Prieta within Sonora
Coordinates: 31°19′33″N109°32′56″W / 31.32583°N 109.54889°W / 31.32583; -109.54889
Country Mexico
State Sonora
Municipality Agua Prieta
Settled1899
Founded1903
Incorporated August 28, 1916
Ascension to town statusMay 8, 1933
Ascension to city statusNovember 6, 1942
Area
  Total3,631.65 km2 (1,402.2 sq mi)
Population
(2010)
79,138

Agua Prieta (English: Dark Water, [1] Opata: Bachicuy) is a town in Agua Prieta Municipality in the northeastern corner of the Mexican state of Sonora. It stands on the Mexico–U.S. border, adjacent to the town of Douglas, Arizona. The municipality covers an area of 3,631.65 km² (1,402.2 sq mi). In the 2010 census the town had a population of 79,138 people, making it the seventh-largest community in the state, and a literacy rate of 96.3%. 89% of the homes in the city have electricity, 94% have running water, and 86% are connected to the sewer system. The city's most important economic activities, in descending order, are industry, commerce and farming. The city is the location of the CFE Agua Prieta power plant.

Ópata is either of two closely related Uto-Aztecan languages, Teguima and Eudeve, spoken by the Opata people of northern central Sonora in Mexico. It was believed to be dead already in 1930, and Carl Sofus Lumholtz reported the Opata to have become "Mexicanized" and lost their language and customs already when traveling through Sonora in the 1890s. In a 1993 survey by the Instituto Nacional Indigenista fifteen people in the Mexican Federal District self-identified as speakers of Ópata. This may not mean however that the language was actually living, since linguistic nomenclature in Mexico is notoriously fuzzy. Sometimes Eudeve is called Opata, a term which should be restricted to Teguima. Eudeve and Teguima are distinct languages, but sometimes have been considered merely dialects of one single language. The INALI does not count Opata among the currently extant indigenous languages of Mexico.

Town settlement that is bigger than a village but smaller than a city


A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary considerably between different parts of the world.

Agua Prieta Municipality is a municipality in Sonora in north-western Mexico. As of 2015, the municipality had a total population of 82,918.

History

Agua Prieta city began at the end of the 19th century as railroads were built between Douglas, Arizona, and Nacozari, Sonora, to transport minerals and goods. As a result, the first settlers of the city, then just a few blocks, were those employed by the U.S. mining company Phelps Dodge Corporation, which was based in Douglas, Arizona. One can say that the town was "founded" in 1899, but it was not until a "contract" was made in 1903 between officials and private citizens, to the name Camou, that area "pertaining" to those citizens was made a Commissary of Fronteras county. Agua Prieta city did not became an "independent head of municipality," with its current name and location, until August 28, 1916. Rodolfo L. Márquez was the new municipality's first president. It rose to the status of villa (town) on May 8, 1933, and it was "officially" placed in its current category of city relatively recently, on November 6, 1942.

Rail transport Conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks

Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks. It is also commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks usually consist of steel rails, installed on ties (sleepers) and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are also possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface.

Climate

The climate is cold semi-arid (Köppen: BSk). In a latitude over the geographic subtropics, located in a plateau and in the interior of the continent gives a cold winter but at the same time a climatic pattern often dry and with great thermal amplitude during the day. And on the other hand the summer is very hot due to the absence of cloud cover and the air dry with average in the afternoon well above 30 °C. Most of the time there is no precipitation, but a considerable amount of rain falls between July and August. [2] [3]

Semi-arid climate climat with precipitation below potential evapotranspiration

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.

Köppen climate classification widely used climate classification system

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.

Subtropics

The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° and temperate zones north and south of the Equator.

Climate data for Agua Prieta (Infonavit 1), elevation: 1,210 metres (3,970 ft), 1951–2010 normals, extremes 1961–2016 [lower-alpha 1]
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)30.0
(86.0)
32.0
(89.6)
35.0
(95.0)
38.0
(100.4)
42.0
(107.6)
45.0
(113.0)
44.0
(111.2)
42.0
(107.6)
41.0
(105.8)
38.0
(100.4)
36.0
(96.8)
31.0
(87.8)
45.0
(113.0)
Mean maximum °C (°F)23.9
(75.0)
24.2
(75.6)
26.6
(79.9)
31.1
(88.0)
33.9
(93.0)
39.0
(102.2)
38.6
(101.5)
36.5
(97.7)
34.8
(94.6)
33.2
(91.8)
28.4
(83.1)
24.3
(75.7)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F)16.6
(61.9)
18.7
(65.7)
22.0
(71.6)
26.1
(79.0)
30.8
(87.4)
35.6
(96.1)
35.1
(95.2)
33.6
(92.5)
31.8
(89.2)
27.5
(81.5)
21.6
(70.9)
17.0
(62.6)
26.4
(79.5)
Daily mean °C (°F)8.0
(46.4)
9.8
(49.6)
12.9
(55.2)
16.6
(61.9)
21.1
(70.0)
25.9
(78.6)
27.2
(81.0)
26.1
(79.0)
23.6
(74.5)
18.2
(64.8)
12.2
(54.0)
8.2
(46.8)
17.5
(63.5)
Average low °C (°F)−0.7
(30.7)
0.9
(33.6)
3.7
(38.7)
7.0
(44.6)
11.5
(52.7)
16.2
(61.2)
19.4
(66.9)
18.6
(65.5)
15.6
(60.1)
9.0
(48.2)
2.9
(37.2)
−0.6
(30.9)
8.6
(47.5)
Mean minimum °C (°F)−5.7
(21.7)
−5.6
(21.9)
0.4
(32.7)
3.6
(38.5)
7.7
(45.9)
12.2
(54.0)
17.3
(63.1)
15.7
(60.3)
12.9
(55.2)
5.3
(41.5)
−0.4
(31.3)
−5.0
(23.0)
−5.7
(21.7)
Record low °C (°F)−12.5
(9.5)
−12.0
(10.4)
−9.0
(15.8)
−3.5
(25.7)
−1.0
(30.2)
2.1
(35.8)
2.0
(35.6)
10.0
(50.0)
2.0
(35.6)
−4.0
(24.8)
−8.5
(16.7)
−19.5
(−3.1)
−19.5
(−3.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)19.9
(0.78)
17.1
(0.67)
10.6
(0.42)
6.3
(0.25)
5.2
(0.20)
12.2
(0.48)
90.4
(3.56)
81.4
(3.20)
41.6
(1.64)
23.4
(0.92)
19.0
(0.75)
28.1
(1.11)
355.2
(13.98)
Average snowfall cm (inches)0.51
(0.2)
0.25
(0.1)
0.25
(0.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.25
(0.1)
0.76
(0.3)
2.02
(0.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)3.53.32.11.61.32.011.29.35.22.72.73.948.8
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)0.30.20.100000000.10.31
Source #1: SMN
Source #2: NOAA (snow days)

Culture

Los Apson was one of the most successful musical bands during the second half of the 60s; all original members originated from (A)gua (P)rieta, (Son)ora, hence their name. They led the phenomenon known in Mexico as the "northern invasion". Along with the British influence, Los Apson was one of the main decisive elements that brought new nuances to the Mexican musical movement.

Los Apson is a former Mexican rock-n-roll band, best known for their Spanish language cover versions of famous songs.

Sports

The main sport in Agua Prieta is baseball, closely followed by soccer and basketball. Agua Prieta's professional baseball team is the Toros de Agua Prieta. In 2012, Agua Prieta had its first ever Olympian when Luis Alberto Rivera represented Mexico in the long jump at the XXX Olympic Games in London, UK.

Olympic Games major international sport event

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart.

Luis Rivera (athlete) Mexican long jumper

Luis Alberto Rivera Morales is a Mexican long jumper. His personal best is 8.46 metres, achieved in July 2013.

Long jump track and field event

The long jump is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point. Along with the triple jump, the two events that measure jumping for distance as a group are referred to as the "horizontal jumps". This event has a history in the Ancient Olympic Games and has been a modern Olympic event for men since the first Olympics in 1896 and for women since 1948.

Economy

Agua Prieta II is the first integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) power plant in Mexico – one of the first power plants of its type in the world – and it is being equipped with the SPPA-E3000 low-voltage switchgear solution from Siemens Mexico Energy. Agua Prieta II is a combined-cycle power plant (CCPP) that has been extended with a solar field and parabolic trough collectors. In this type of power plant, the steam generated by the solar field is fed into the water-steam cycle of the CCPP to increase steam turbine output and reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The power plant in Mexico will have an output of approximately 465 Megawatts (MW) with a contribution from the solar field of 12 MW, it will supply electricity to northwest Mexico. The end customer is the Mexican state power provider Comisión Federal de Electricidad, which already operates two plants of the same type in Morocco and Algeria.

Agua Prieta is home to several maquiladoras, including Levolor, Commercial Vehicle Group, Takata, Velcro, Standex-Meder Electronics, and Alstyle Apparel & Activewear (Gildan). [4]

Politics

The Plan of Agua Prieta was a political manifesto signed in the city of Agua Prieta on April 23, 1920 by the governor of Sonora, Adolfo de la Huerta, and Plutarco Elías Calles in support of Álvaro Obregón, with the principal objective of bringing an end to the presidency of Venustiano Carranza, who was forced to flee Mexico City and was killed a month later. The Plan of Agua Prieta used as its political banner the 1917 Constitution, with which Carranza had not complied. It also advocated the convening of elections, appointed Huerta as supreme commander of the Constitutionalist Army, and dictated the rules for electing a provisional president, resulting in Huerta being named president by Congress in June.

Timeline icon.svgA graphical timeline is available at
Timeline of the Mexican Revolution

Agua Prieta played an important role in the Mexican Revolution. Plutarco Elías Calles and Lázaro Cárdenas, two future presidents of Mexico, both lived in the town during its early years. In 1914, the Hotel Central, a now-demolished hotel in the center of the city, was the seat of Carranza's constitutional government. [5] In 1915, Pancho Villa made a night attack on Agua Prieta that was repelled by the forces of Plutarco Elías Calles, assisted by large searchlights (possibly powered by American electricity). The Plan de Agua Prieta, a manifesto which called for the rejection of the government headed by Venustiano Carranza, was signed in a curiosity shop near the international border in 1920. The army headed by Álvaro Obregón eventually deposed Carranza.

List of Mayors

1952–1954 Don Jesus Siqueiros PRI PRI logo (Mexico).svg

1979–1982 Luis Córdova Corrales PAN PAN Party (Mexico).svg

1982–1985 Leonardo Yáñez Vargas PAN PAN Party (Mexico).svg

1985–1988 Bernardino Meza Ortíz PRI PRI logo (Mexico).svg

1988–1991 Baudelio Vildósola Teran PRI PRI logo (Mexico).svg

1991–1994 Bernardino Ibarrola Serrano PRI PRI logo (Mexico).svg

1994–1997 Óscar Ochoa Patrón PAN PAN Party (Mexico).svg

1997–2000 Vicente Terán Uribe PRI PRI logo (Mexico).svg

2000–2003 Irma Villalobos Rascón PRI PRI logo (Mexico).svg

2003–2006 David Figueroa Ortega PAN PAN Party (Mexico).svg

2006–2009 Antonio Cuadras PRI PRI logo (Mexico).svg

2009–2012 Vicente Terán Uribe PSD

2012 (March – September) Francisco Javier Carrera Hernandez PRI PRI logo (Mexico).svg

2012–2015 Irma Villalobos Rascón PRI PRI logo (Mexico).svg

Notable People

Notes

  1. Except snowy days and snowfall that correspond to the Bisbee Douglas International Airport, approximately 5 km to the northeast of the meteorological station of the SMN and to about 39 m. The data from the border city are from 1971–2000 and there are no standard combined from 1951 to 2010.

Related Research Articles

Pancho Villa Mexican revolutionary

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Mexican Revolution major nationwide armed struggle in Mexico between 1910 and 1920

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Venustiano Carranza Mexican politician and president of Mexico

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Álvaro Obregón Mexican politician, president of Mexico

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Plutarco Elías Calles President of Mexico (1924–1928)

Plutarco Elías Calles was a Mexican general and politician. He was the powerful interior minister under President Álvaro Obregón, who chose Calles as his successor. The 1924 Calles presidential campaign was the first populist presidential campaign in the nation's history, as he called for land redistribution and promised equal justice, more education, additional labor rights, and democratic governance. Calles indeed tried to fulfill his promises during his populist phase (1924–26) but later entered a State atheism phase (1926–28).

Ignacio Bonillas Mexican diplomat

Ignacio Bonillas Frajio was a Mexican diplomat. He was a Mexican ambassador to the United States and held a degree in mine engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was tapped by President Venustiano Carranza as his successor in the 1920 presidential elections, but the revolt of three Sonoran revolutionary generals overthrew Carranza before those elections took place.

Eulalio Gutiérrez President of Mexico

Eulalio Gutiérrez Ortiz was a general in the Mexican Revolution from state of Coahuila. He is most notable for his election as provisional president of Mexico during the Aguascalientes Convention and led the country for a few months between November 6, 1914, and January 16, 1915. The Convention was convened by revolutionaries who had successfully ousted the regime of Victoriano Huerta after more than a year of conflict. Gutiérrez rather than "First Chief" Venustiano Carranza was chosen president of Mexico and a new round of violence broke out as revolutionary factions previously united turned against each other. "The high point of Gutiérrez's career occurred when he moved with the Conventionist army to shoulder the responsibilities of his new office [of president]." Gutiérrez's government was weak and he could not control the two main generals of the Army of the Convention, Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata. Gutiérrez moved the capital of his government from Mexico City to San Luis Potosí. He resigned as president and made peace with Carranza. He went into exile in the United States, but later returned to Mexico. He died in 1939, outliving many other major figures of the Mexican Revolution.

Events in the year 1920 in Mexico.

Luis N. Morones Mexican politician

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The Constitutional Army was the army that fought against the Federal Army, and later, against the Villistas and Zapatistas during the Mexican Revolution. It was formed in March 1913 by Venustiano Carranza, so-called "First-Chief" of the army, as a response to the murder of President Francisco I. Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez by Victoriano Huerta during La Decena Trágica of 1913, and the resulting usurpation of presidential power by Huerta.

Adolfo de la Huerta President of Mexico

Felipe Adolfo de la Huerta Marcor, known as Adolfo de la Huerta, was a Mexican politician and 38th President of Mexico from June 1 to November 30, 1920, following the overthrow of Mexican president Venustiano Carranza.

Benjamín G. Hill Mexican general

Gen. Benjamín Hill was a military commander during the Mexican Revolution.

Plan of Agua Prieta

The Plan of Agua Prieta was a manifesto, or plan, drawn up by three revolutionary generals of the Mexican Revolution, declaring themselves in revolt against the government of President Venustiano Carranza. It was proclaimed by Obregón on 22 April 1920, in English and 23 April in Spanish in the northern border city of Agua Prieta, Sonora.

Conventionists (Mexico)

The Conventionists were a faction led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata which grew in opposition to the Constitutionalists of Venustiano Carranza and Álvaro Obregón during the Mexican Revolution. It was named for the Convention of Aguascalientes of October to November 1914.

Roberto V. Pesqueira Mexican federal deputy and confidential agent in the United States.

Roberto V. Pesqueira Morales was a Mexican politician who was elected twice to the Chamber of Deputies and was commissioned by President Venustiano Carranza to work as a confidential agent in the United States and secure diplomatic recognition to his regime.

Second Battle of Agua Prieta

The Second Battle of Agua Prieta, 1 November 1915, was fought between the forces of Pancho Villa and those of the future President of Mexico, Plutarco Elías Calles, a supporter of Venustiano Carranza, at Agua Prieta, Sonora, as part of the Mexican Revolution. Villa's attack on the town was repulsed by Calles. The battle helped to establish Carranza's control over Mexico and directly led to his becoming, with United States recognition, president. Villa believed that Calles had received tactical and strategic support from the United States since the town is located across the border from Douglas, Arizona and launched his raid on Columbus, New Mexico partly as a reprisal.

Salvador Alvarado Mexican statesman and politician

Salvador Alvarado Rubio served in the Mexican military during the Mexican Revolution and as a statesman. He was a general of the Constitutionalist Army under the orders of Venustiano Carranza. Alvarado was the Governor of Yucatán from February 1915 to November, 1918. There is a Salvador Alvarado Municipality in the State of Sinaloa, where he was born, named in his honor.

Events from the year 1915 in Mexico.

José Gonzalo Escobar Mexican military personnel (1892-1969)

General Don José Gonzalo Escobar (1892-1969) was an officer in the Mexican Army and leader of the failed Escobar Rebellion in 1929, which challenged the political power of Plutarco Elías Calles.

Jose Emilio Salinas Balmaceda was a military man and Mexican politician that participated in Mexican Revolution and Governor of Querétaro and Chihuahua.

References

  1. "Prieto – Spanish to English Translation – Spanish Central". Spanishcentral.com. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  2. "Agua Prieta, Sonora Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved February 12, 2019.
  3. "NORMALES CLIMATOLOGICAS: 1951–2010 – Agua Prieta". SMN . Retrieved February 12, 2019.
  4. Our Communities – Douglas Archived March 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  5. "Distinguen sede de gobierno constitucionalista en Agua Prieta" [Seat of constitutionalist government in Agua Prieta recognized]. Notimex. August 27, 2016. Retrieved August 27, 2016.