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Estado Libre y Soberano de Aguascalientes
Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes
Flag of Aguascalientes.svg
Bona Terra, Bona Gens, Aqua Clara, Clarum Coelum
(Good Earth, Good People, Clear Water, Clear Sky)
Anthem: Himno de Aguascalientes
"Anthem of Aguascalientes"
Aguascalientes in Mexico (zoom).svg
State of Aguascalientes within Mexico
Coordinates: 22°1′N102°21′W / 22.017°N 102.350°W / 22.017; -102.350 Coordinates: 22°1′N102°21′W / 22.017°N 102.350°W / 22.017; -102.350
Country Mexico
Capital (and largest city) Aguascalientes City
Municipalities 11
Admission February 5, 1857 [1]
Order 24th
   Governor Martín Orozco PAN Party (Mexico).svg
   Senators [2] Martha Cecilia Márquez Alvarado PAN Party (Mexico).svg
Juan Antonio Martín del Campo PAN Party (Mexico).svg
Daniel Gutiérrez Castorena Morena Party (Mexico).svg
   Deputies [3]
  Total5,617.80 km2 (2,169.04 sq mi)
  Ranked 29th
Highest elevation
3,050 m (10,010 ft)
(2015) [6]
  Rank 27th
  Density230/km2 (610/sq mi)
  Density rank 4th
Demonym(s) Hidrocálido (a)
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
Postal code
Area code
ISO 3166 code MX-AGU
HDI Increase2.svg 0.794 high Ranked 8th
GDP US$ 7,435.49 mil [a]
Website Official Web Site
^ a. The state's GDP was 95,174,314 thousand pesos in 2008, [7] amount corresponding to 7,435,493.3 thousand dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010). [8]

Aguascalientes (Spanish pronunciation:  [ˌa.ɣwas.kaˈljen.tes] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes (Spanish : Estado Libre y Soberano de Aguascalientes, literally: Hot Waters), is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 11 municipalities and its capital city is Aguascalientes.

Spanish language Romance language

Spanish or Castilian is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in the Americas and Spain. It is a global language and the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese.

Mexico City Capital in Mexico

Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.

Municipalities of Aguascalientes Wikimedia list article

Aguascalientes is a state in North Central Mexico that is divided into eleven municipalities. According to the 2015 Mexican Intercensal Survey, Aguascalientes is the sixth least populous state with 1,312,544 inhabitants and the fourth smallest by land area spanning 5,630.27 square kilometres (2,173.86 sq mi).


It is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Zacatecas to the north and Jalisco to the south. Its name means "hot waters" in Spanish and originated from the abundance of hot springs in the area. The demonym for the state's inhabitants is hidrocálido or aguascalentense.

Zacatecas State of Mexico

Zacatecas, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Zacatecas, is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 58 municipalities and its capital city is Zacatecas City.

Jalisco State of Mexico

Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and is bordered by six states which are Nayarit, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Michoacán and Colima. Jalisco is divided into 125 municipalities, and its capital city is Guadalajara. Jalisco is one of the most important states in Mexico because of its natural resources as well as its history. Many of the characteristic traits of Mexican culture, particularly outside Mexico City, are originally from Jalisco, such as mariachi, ranchera music, birria, tequila, jaripeo, etc., hence the state's motto: "Jalisco es México." Economically, it is ranked third in the country, with industries centered in the Guadalajara metropolitan area, the second largest metropolitan area in Mexico. The state is home to two significant indigenous populations, the Huichols and the Nahuas. There is also a significant foreign population, mostly retirees from the United States and Canada, living in the Lake Chapala and Puerto Vallarta areas.

A demonym is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place and is derived from the name of the place.


Pre-Columbian era arrowheads, potshards, and rock paintings in the caverns of the Sierra del Laurel and near the present village of Las Negritas testify to the presence of man in this territory for more than 20,000 years. Later in the colonial times, Pedro Almíndez Chirino was the first Spaniard who entered the territory, perhaps by the end of 1530 or the beginning of 1531, following the instructions given by Nuño de Guzmán.

Pedro Almíndez Chirino was a conquistador born in Úbeda and member of several councils that governed New Spain while Hernán Cortés was traveling to Honduras, in 1525-26. Almíndez was an ally of Gonzalo de Salazar; the events of this period are recounted in that article.

Nuño de Guzmán Spanish conqueror

Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán was a Spanish conquistador and colonial administrator in New Spain. He was the governor of the province of Pánuco from 1525 to 1533 and of Nueva Galicia from 1529 to 1534, President of the first Royal Audiencia of Mexico from 1528 to 1530. He founded several cities in Northwestern Mexico, including Guadalajara.

Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the territory of what is now the State of Aguascalientes was inhabited by Chichimecas, who made the territory difficult to access. In fact, the total occupation of the lands of El Bajío was a task that would take about two centuries. With respect to this, Viceroy Luis de Velasco offered municipal benefits to those who established settlements to confront the Chichimeca. And for his part, Viceroy Gastón de Peralta decided to confront them directly, which did not end with good results.

It was in order to be in the territory that is presently the state inhabited by Chichimecas, the so-called Guachichiles, that the conquistadors built several forts or presidios.

This was a system devised by Martín Enríquez de Almanza following the strategy that had been developing in Spain throughout the Reconquista period. Therefore, in order to protect the Camino de la Plata, [9] which stretched between Zacatecas and Mexico City, three presidios [garrisoned fortifications] founded by the Indian fighter Juan Domínguez, were to be created, which were: the presidio at Las Bocas, later called Las Bocas de Gallardo, situated on the border of Aguascalientes, in what was the jurisdiction of the mayor of Teocaltiche, presently the border of Aguascalientes and Zacatecas; the presidio at Palmillas, which was located near what is now Tepezalá; and the Ciénega Grande presidio, established around 1570. The latter was located on what are now Moctezuma and Victoria Streets, although some historians place it on the Calle 5 de Mayo (once the Camino Real) at Moctezuma, just in front of the Plaza de Armas. This was a fortress whose purpose was the protection of the Valle de los Romero and the road to Zacatecas, entering this way to secure the passage of convoys loaded with silver and other metals.

Martín Enríquez de Almanza fourth viceroy of New Spain

Martín Enríquez de Almanza y Ulloa, KOS was the fourth viceroy of New Spain, who ruled in the name of Philip II from November 5, 1568 until October 3, 1580. Like many of the viceroys of New Spain, Almanza was of royal heritage. He was a member of the House of Enríquez, one of the four cadet branches of the House of Burgundy, the ruling dynasty in Castile, yet never inherited a title. Enríquez was 60 when he was appointed viceroy in New Spain. He brought strength and stability in the wake of the encomenderos' conspiracy of the son of conqueror Hernán Cortés, Don Martín Cortés and other encomenderos who challenged the crown's power. He was subsequently viceroy of Peru, from September 23, 1581 until his death in 1583, a post he reluctantly accepted at age 72. He was a very able administrator in Mexico, asserting crown control, and effective in establishing defenses against northern natives who threatened the vital link between the silver mines in north and Mexico's center.

Teocaltiche Municipality and Town in Jalisco, Mexico

Teocaltiche is a town and municipality in the central-western Mexican state of Jalisco. Teocaltiche is located in the northeastern highlands region of Jalisco, commonly referred to in Spanish as "Los Altos de Jalisco". The grasshopper or "chapulin" is a popular icon for the town.

Silver Chemical element with atomic number 47

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

The founding of Aguascalientes as a town came from the order that King Felipe II gave the judge of the court of Nueva Galicia, Don Gerónimo de Orozco, in which he stated that he should look for a rich man to settle in the territory with the purpose of expelling the Chichimecas and of assuring safe passage. Gerónimo de Orozco, following that order, looked for someone who would accept the king's order and found a man named Juan de Montoro [10] in the city of Santa María de los Lagos. He accepted the assignment and, accompanied by eleven other people, headed to the territory and thus founded the town of Aguas Calientes on October 22, 1575. It has been noted that it was called San Marcos originally, changing its name on August 18, 1611, to the Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes. And finally, from June 2, 1875, it was called the Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes; later changing to the city of Aguascalientes, which remains its name today. [11]

Province of Zacatecas including Aguascalientes, early 19th Century period map. Zacatecas-1819.png
Province of Zacatecas including Aguascalientes, early 19th Century period map.

In the act of its establishment, the Villa de San Marcos (Aguascalientes) was awarded the highest mayoral jurisdiction under the Kingdom of New Galicia. As of December 4, 1786, on the occasion of the issuance of the "Ordinance of Mayors," it became a quartermaster sub-delegation.

On April 24, 1789, by order of the Superior Board of Royal Property, the sub-delegation of Aguascalientes became a dependency of Zacatecas.

In the Mexican War of Independence, in the territory which is today the state of Aguascalientes, the fires of independence were stoked by illustrious and courageous men such as Valentin Gómez Farías, Rafael Iriarte, Rafael Vázquez, and Pedro Parga.

Territory de Aguascalientes annexed to Zacatecas in the Mexico of 1824. Mexico - Zacatecas (1824).svg
Territory de Aguascalientes annexed to Zacatecas in the Mexico of 1824.

Confusion has arisen regarding the exact date when Aguascalientes formally separated from the territory of Zacatecas. By virtue of having, de facto, defeated the liberal government of Zacatecas by rising against the central government, president Antonio López de Santa Anna passed through Aguascalientes, where he was well received by the people who had wanted to separate from Zacatecas for some time. Taking advantage of the independent souls of the Aguascalentenses, and by way of punishing Zacatecas for supporting the Revolution against them, by Federal Decree of General López de Santa Anna dated May 23, 1835, in the third article; ordered that Aguascalientes to be separated from Zacatecas territory, without granting the territory any specific category, reinstating the appointment of the political boss, Pedro Garcia Rojas. With respect to this, it must be mentioned that said order was not made official as it did not meet the legal requirements to take effect, since it was necessary that two thirds of each house, both Senators and Representatives, approved the order; furthermore it would be required that two thirds of the legislatures of the states also approved it. The second requirement not being completed, the constitutional congress convened again to develop the centralized constitution that would be known later as the Seven Laws. The constitution did not acknowledge Aguascalientes in the rank of department, but it saw fit to eliminate the states, together with the federal regime, replacing the states with departments, and because of this it continued to belong to Zacatecas. What can be said, since in the local constitution of Zacatecas of 1825, Aguascalientes was contemplated as a member of said state.

It was general José Mariano Salas who, on August 5, 1846, announced the reestablishment of federalism, convening a constitutional congress that declared current the constitution of 1824, but still didn't consider Aguascalientes as a state. Subsequently, on May 18, 1847, amendments were approved to the Constitution of 1824, but neither granted to Aguascalientes the status of a state. That brought about a war between Aguascalientes and Zacatecas, and as a consequence Zacatecas would strengthen the partitions, now municipalities, of Cavillo and Rincón de Romos. In July 1848, Aguascalientes accepted the peaceful annexation to Zacatecas; but continued making efforts to separate through Miguel García Rojas. It was not until December 10, 1853, that López de Santa Anna, using his extraordinary powers, issued a decree declaring Aguascalientes a department, based on the decrees of December 30, 1836, and June 30, 1838, without ever referring to the one from March 23, 1835. Finally, in the project that would be the Constitution of 1857, that was presented on June 16, 1856, Aguascalientes was included as a state in Article 43; it was passed unanimously by the 79 deputies present, ensuring the establishment of the state of Aguascalientes on December 10, 1856. On September 16, 1857, on the strength of said constitution, Lic. Jesús Terán Peredo reclaimed his post as constitutional governor of the state.

In the independent state, hidrocálidos (people of Aguascalientes) Jesus R. Macías, Manuel Rangel, Augustín Orona, José María Arellano and many other anonymous heroes distinguished themselves in the War of Reform.

Silvestre Dorador, Román Morales, Pedro Vital, Alfonso Guerrero Aguilera and Alberto Fuentes Dávila were forerunners of the Revolution. The explosion of the Maderist movement embraced the cause in the company of some other compatriots, and the rebel action of the town and the region stayed formalized.


Mountain ranges seen from Aguascalientes Cerro del Muerto.png
Mountain ranges seen from Aguascalientes

The state is located about 480 km (300 mi) from Mexico City in the macroregion of El Bajío, specifically the Bajío Occidental (western Bajío).

It covers 5,471 square kilometers (2,112 sq mi), or 0.3% of the area of the country, and has a little more than one million inhabitants. Most of its inhabitants live in the densely populated metropolitan area of its capital city.

The state as it is now was created on October 27, 1857, when it was separated from Zacatecas after the tale says that the wife of the governor of the state promised to give a kiss to the President of the time, in exchange for the separation of Aguascalientes from Zacatecas, which explains the shape of a kiss the state has. It bears the name Aguascalientes taken from its largest city and capital also called Aguascalientes.


The state mostly has a semi-arid climate, except in the southeastern and northeastern parts where the climate is wetter and cooler. [12] Mean annual temperature of the state is around 17 to 18 °C (62.6 to 64.4 °F) in which May and June are the hottest months with mean temperatures between 22 to 23 °C (71.6 to 73.4 °F). [12] [13] In these months, temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86.0 °F). [12] January is the coldest month, averaging 13 to 14 °C (55.4 to 57.2 °F) with temperatures dropping down to 4 °C (39.2 °F). [12] [13] Frosts frequently occur from November to February. Mean rainfall is low, averaging 526 mm (20.7 in) and is mostly concentrated in summer with winters being dry. [12]


Historical population
1895 104,693    
1900 102,416−2.2%
1910 120,511+17.7%
1921 107,581−10.7%
1930 132,900+23.5%
1940 161,693+21.7%
1950 226,965+40.4%
1960 243,363+7.2%
1970 338,142+38.9%
1980 519,439+53.6%
1990 719,659+38.5%
1995 862,720+19.9%
2000 944,285+9.5%
2005 1,065,416+12.8%
2010 1,184,996+11.2%
2015 1,312,544 [14]     
Religion in Aguascalientes (2010 census) [15]
Roman Catholicism
Other Christian
Other Religion
No religion

Economy and industry

The Museo Espacio of the MECA (Macroespacio para la Cultura y las Artes), housed in a former railway workshop. The 86 hectare MECA complex is composed of museums, a library, auditorium, former industrial buildings and sports facilities. Vista del Museo Espacio del MECA, Aguascalientes 11.JPG
The Museo Espacio of the MECA (Macroespacio para la Cultura y las Artes), housed in a former railway workshop. The 86 hectare MECA complex is composed of museums, a library, auditorium, former industrial buildings and sports facilities.

This state originated around the times of colonial Spanish influence. It is located in the middle of the country and is now beginning to make a name for itself as an industrial power within Mexico. The state was once a major silver miner and a major source of railroad transportation, the latter due to its strategic location, midway between the three most populous areas, namely Mexico City, Guadalajara, and Monterrey.

Today, Mexico's fast growing car industry is especially important in this state. There are two Nissan factories in Aguascalientes which together produce more than half a million cars per year.[ citation needed ] Infiniti may build a plant to make vehicles like the QX30.[ citation needed ]

In the rural area, Aguascalientes was once the largest national producer of grapes and wines. This tradition ceased gradually due to the Spanish Royalty's wishes that grape and wine production be limited to the mother country. Thanks to the influx of immigrants into Mexico, the wineries and vineyards remain and flourish. Guavas are also produced in the state, specifically in the municipality of Calvillo. This county is one of the richest counties in Aguascalientes.

There are several projects for economic development such as: the Financial District Río San Pedro, a monorail, a suburban train, the construction of the newest and most modern WTC in Mexico, over four shopping malls, two theme parks, two Executive Hotels and one whose qualification is five stars, eight bridges for the next five years, a Financial District around the Airport, A Texas Instruments Assembly-Test Plant, A Nissan Assembly plant, a Toyota assembly plant and several others projects place Aguascalientes as the third most competitive state in Mexico with more than US$12,000,000 in foreign direct investment per year (around 8 percent of Mexico's FDI) even though its population is just about 1.03 percent of the country.

However, recently it has also benefited from heavier tourism, since the capital city has gained prestige and status as a national destination for its colonial beauty and cleanliness. In addition, the haciendas and baths around the state have historic and recreational importance.


Headquarters of INEGI INEGI-Sede.jpg
Headquarters of INEGI
Templo San Antonio Templo San Antonio Ags doble cupula.jpg
Templo San Antonio
Complejo Ferrocarrilero Tres Centurias Complejo Ferrocarrilero Tres Centurias.JPG
Complejo Ferrocarrilero Tres Centurias

Although this state is not often billed as a tourist center, international visitors, as well as citizens from all over Mexico, are attracted to San Marcos Fair, which is considered the national fair of Mexico [16] and contributes much to Mexico's economy.

Recently, its capital city has gained the reputation as a great destination for its superb colonial architecture visible in the colonial center, as well as the modernity and dynamism in the outskirts.

The city is home to Lic. Jesús Terán Peredo International Airport, where 9 flights per day depart to Mexico City, Tijuana, Dallas/Fort Worth and Houston. [17]

The city also hosts many conventions every year. It benefits from its excellent central location. The city is also famed for its environment of relaxation, and for its safety and cleanliness, as it is often described by people when traveling to this part of the country for conventions or tourism.

Most tourists go to the capital. A few tourists explore the former mining towns in the north of the state (in the municipalities of Asientos and Tepezalá), which are now almost ghost cities. The haciendas, hot springs, and baths scattered around the state are also of historical and recreational relevance.

The municipality of Calvillo has a semi-tropical climate, The largest producer of guavas in Mexico, [18] it attracts some fans of watersports to its reservoirs.

The state has a Natural Protected Reserve in the higher mountains called Sierra Fría. Located at a height of 2,500 to 3,000 meters (8,202 to 9,843  ft ) above sea level, it comprises oak and pine forests. Its attractions include observing exuberant landscape and wide ravines, in which, there are pumas, lynxes, boar, white-tailed deer, wild turkey, raccoons and many other animals. There are steep-sided cycle paths, camping and picnic areas as well as several hunting clubs. It is the mountain climate and fauna that attracts locals for camping activities. In winter, the temperature sometimes falls to −4.44 °C (24.01 °F) when the weather is poor. Usually, Sierra Fría is the only part of the state that gets snow during winter.

In the city of Aguascalientes one of the best sunsets in the world can be seen in Cerro del Muerto; the hill resembles the shape of a man lying down. The city of Aguascalientes is called "el corazón" which means "the heart" of Mexico because it lies in the middle of the country. This city is often considered, by its locals, to be one of the safest and cleanest in Mexico. Also, the city of Aguascalientes is known as "the land of the good people".


The state has one football team in the Mexican Premiere League, Club Necaxa, one professional baseball team in the Mexican League, Rieleros de Aguascalientes (The railroad men), and one professional basketball team, Las Panteras (The Panthers)

In December 2009, Necaxa was represented on the field and played their final 2009 match within the Primera División (First Division) tier in the 2009 season after losing 1-0 vs Club América. Under the rules of regulation, Necaxa would not be able to participate in the First Division competition play in the fall 2009 and spring 2010 year.

Necaxa's closing spring 2010 league performance had some accomplishments. They had an undefeated record at home throughout the fall 2009. In the spring 2010 campaign, Necaxa's only loss in the season came against F.C León, Necaxa faced this other soccer team on May 8, 2010 for the second leg of the Bicentennial Closing Spring Tournament of 2010. Necaxa won 4-2 on aggregate. Necaxa abandoned the Liga de Ascenso and returned to First Division fall 2010 season. As a result of this match Necaxa won the bi-championship in the Liga de Ascenso and First Promotion title in their franchise history.

On April 16, 2011, after a draw 1–1 with Atlante F.C., the club's first key game in 2011, Necaxa could not cumulate enough points in order to evade relegation. For a second time, Club Necaxa was relegated to the Liga de Ascenso, the second tier, for the 2011–2012 season. One of the biggest soccer to live Judith Ramírez played for this team from 2001–2017.


Aguascalientes hosts the Panteras de Aguascalientes headquarters. This team plays in the Mexican Professional Basketball League.


Aguascalientes also hosts the baseball professional team Rieleros.


Aguascalientes also has important racetracks for the car and motorbike races at a national and international level.

Government and politics


Aguascalientes is subdivided into 11 municipios ("municipalities").

Municipalities of Aguascalientes, by INEGI code. Municipios de Aguascalientes.svg
Municipalities of Aguascalientes, by INEGI code.
INEGI codeMunicipalityMunicipal SeatArea (km2)Population (2015)
001 Aguascalientes Aguascalientes 1178.85877,190
002 Asientos Asientos 547.2246,464
003 Calvillo Calvillo 932.6256,048
004 Cosío Cosío 129.2154,048
005 Jesús María Jesús María 506.32120,405
006 Pabellón de Arteaga Pabellón de Arteaga 199.7246,473
007 Rincón de Romos Rincón de Romos 376.7753,866
008 San José de Gracia San José de Gracia 866.088,896
009 Tepezalá Tepezalá 231.7020,926
010 El Llano Palo Alto 509.7720,245
011 San Francisco de los Romo    San Francisco de los Romo   139.5446,454


Presidential elections results [19]
2012 38.79%189,02730.83% 150,23120.72% 100,958
2006 23.64% 97,93546.72%193,58821.70% 89,920
2000 33.89% 127,13453.93%202,3357.00% 26,264
1994 46.45%157,73636.65% 124,4848.61% 29,236

Major communities

Famous Hidrocálidos

See also articles in the category People from Aguascalientes
Mexican-Born WIlliam Yarbrough William Yarbrough at Walter Reed 150903-D-FW736-009 (cropped).jpg
Mexican-Born WIlliam Yarbrough

See also

Related Research Articles

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Aguascalientes is a municipality of the Mexican state of Aguascalientes. Its municipal seat is the city of Aguascalientes, which is also the state capital. As of 2010, its population was 797,010, most of whom lived in the city of Aguascalientes.

Calvillo Municipality Municipality in Aguascalientes, Mexico

Calvillo is a municipality in the Mexican state of Aguascalientes. The city of Calvillo, the second largest in the state, serves as the municipal seat. It is located to the western part of the state, at about 52 kilometers of the city of Aguascalientes. It stands at 21°51′N102°43′W in the southwestern corner of the state. It is bounded by Jalisco and Zacatecas. The municipality, which has an area of 931.26 km², reported a population of 54,136 by 2010. The town of Ojocaliente is another significant community in the municipality. Calvillo is one of the richest, most prosperous municipalities in Aguascalientes.

Los Altos de Jalisco Region of Mexico

Los Altos de Jalisco, or the Jaliscan Highlands, are a geographic and cultural region in the eastern part of the Mexican State of Jalisco, famed as a bastion of Mexican culture, cradling traditions from Tequila production to Charrería equestrianism. Los Altos are part of the greater Bajío region of Mexico, considered to be one of safest regions with one of the highest qualities of life in Latin America

Río Grande Municipality, Zacatecas Municipality in Zacatecas, Mexico

Río Grande is a municipality in the Mexican state of Zacatecas.

Carácuaro Municipality in Michoacán, Mexico

Carácuaro is a municipality in the Mexican state of Michoacán, located 77 kilometres (48 mi) south of the state capital of Morelia.


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