Ahmad Khomeini

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Ahmad Khomeini
Portrait of Ahmad Khomeini - 1995 (cropped).jpg
Born(1946-03-15)15 March 1946
Died16 March 1995(1995-03-16) (aged 49)
Resting place Mausoleum of Ruhollah Khomeini
Nationality Iranian
Political party Islamic Republican Party [2]
Spouse(s)Fatemeh Tabatabaei
Children Hassan
Yasser
Ali
Parent(s) Ruhollah Khomeini
Khadijeh Saqafi

Sayyid Ahmad Khomeini (Persian : سید احمد خمینی; 15 March 1946 – 16 March 1995) [1] was the younger son of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and father of Hassan Khomeini. He was the "right-hand" of his father before, during and after the revolution of Iran. He was a link between Ruholah Khomeini and officials and people. He had several decision-making positions.

Sayyid honorific title

Sayyid (Arabic: سيد‎ [ˈsæj.jɪd], Persian: [sejˈjed]; meaning "Mister"; plural: Saadat or Sadat Arabic: سادة‎ sādah is an honorific title denoting people accepted as descendants of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his cousin and son-in-law Imam Ali through his grandsons, Hasan ibn Ali and Imam Husayn ibn Ali, sons of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and Ali.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Ruhollah Khomeini 20th-century Iranian religious leader and politician

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini, known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian politician and marja. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution that saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of 2,500 years of Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.

Contents

He died because of a heart disease and was buried next to his father.

Early life and education

Ahmad Khomeini was born in Qom on 15 March 1946, where he did his primary and secondary education in Owhadi and Hakin Nezami school, respectively. [3] and then started seminary studies and accomplished primary and secondary hawza courses. He secretly joined his father, Ruhollah Khomeini, after his father was exiled to Najaf. [1]

Qom City in Iran

Qom is the seventh metropolis and also the seventh largest city in Iran. Qom is the capital of Qom Province. It is located 140 km to the south of Tehran. At the 2016 census its population was 1,201,158. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River.

Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination to serve as clergy, in academics, or in Christian ministry. The English word is taken from the Latin seminarium, translated as seed-bed, an image taken from the Council of Trent document Cum adolescentium aetas which called for the first modern seminaries. In the West, the term now refers to Catholic educational institutes and has widened to include other Christian denominations and American Jewish institutions.

Hawza

A Hawza or Ḥawzah ʿIlmīyah is a seminary where Shi'a Muslim clerics are educated.

Career and activities

Ahmad was regarded as Khomeini's "right-hand man", [4] the "torch-bearer for his father's anti-Western radicalism" [5] and was close to his father, the leader of the Iranian Revolution of 1979. He helped coordinate affairs during and after the Iranian Revolution, in Khomeini's office in Najaf, Paris and subsequent to the ayatollah's return to Iran in February 1979. [1] [6] He used to visit the deprived areas to learn their shortages and reported his findings to Imam Khomeini. His letters containing the issues he had encountered is available. [3] He was among the officials went through Fatah training. [7]

Iranian Revolution Revolution in Iran to overthrow the Shah replace him with Ayatollah Khomeini.

The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution, was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements.

Najaf Place in Najaf Governorate, Iraq

Najaf or Al-Najaf al-Ashraf also Baniqia is a city in central-south Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. Its estimated population in 2013 was 1,000,000 people. It is the capital of Najaf Governorate. It is widely considered the third holiest city of Shia Islam, the Shi'ite world's spiritual capital, and the center of Shi'ite political power in Iraq.

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

His political life career commenced after death of his brother, Mostafa. [8] In the 6 years after the death of his father, he had several decision-making positions. [8] He served as his father's chief of staff until his father's death in 1989. From the summer of 1988 to 1989, death of Khomeini, he was one of the decision-makers in all official issues along with Rafsanjani and Khamenei. [9] He was a member of Iran's Supreme National Security Council without assuming any executive position. [10] He was a member of Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution by Ali Khamenei's official order. [11] He became the overseer of the Mausoleum of Khomeini. He spoke against America, Israel and what he called "exploitative Iranian capitalists," on several occasions. [5]

Mostafa Khomeini Iranian religious servant

Sayyid Mostafa Khomeini was an Iranian cleric and the son of Ayatollah Khomeini. He died before the 1979 revolution.

Ali Khamenei Iranian Shiite faqih, Marja and official independent islamic leader

Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei is a marja and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989. He was previously President of Iran from 1981 to 1989. Khamenei is the second-longest serving head of state in the Middle East, as well as the second-longest serving Iranian leader of the last century, after Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi.

Supreme National Security Council

Supreme National Security Council is the national security council of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the current secretary of the Supreme National Security Council of which is Rear Admiral Upper Half Ali Shamkhani. He was appointed to position of secretary by the president Hassan Rouhani On 10 September 2013. The council for the protection and support of national interests and Islamic revolution and territorial integrity and national sovereignty of the country has been formed. This institution was founded during the 1989 revision of the constitution.

During hostage crisis

During the Iran hostage crisis, he had a "prominent role" and made "tough anti-American statements". According to the hostages, after Ahmad's visit to the then taken over embassy, he greeted the students and congratulated them for their action. Emphasizing on that some of the hostages were CIA agents based on the discovered documents, he repeated his father's threat "to put some of the captives on trial for spying" if the recently toppled Shah was "not returned to Iran." [5]

Iran hostage crisis diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States, 1979–81

The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between the United States and Iran. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981, after a group of Iranian college students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran. It stands as the longest hostage crisis in recorded history.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi 20th-century Shah of Iran

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, also known as Mohammad Reza Shah, was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979. Mohammad Reza Shah took the title Shahanshah on 26 October 1967. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlavi. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi held several other titles, including that of Aryamehr and Bozorg Arteshtaran ("Commander-in-Chief"). His dream of what he referred to as a "Great Civilisation" in Iran led to a rapid industrial and military modernisation, as well as economic and social reforms.

During Iran-Iraq war

During the war, he had an important role reporting government general issues to his father and relaying the Imam's messages to officials and others. He also used to act as counsel for his father and other high-ranking officials. [3]

Letter to Ayatollah Montazeri

On 29 April 1989, Ahmad Khomeini wrote a "more than three pages" letter addressing Ayatollah Monatzeri saying that he was regretful for Monatzeri's being heedless of "Imam's calls." [12] Producing a list of accusations, Ahmad Khomeini tried to show that Montazeri's leadership would be harmful to the revolution. "Was it not because of your affection for Mehdi Hashemi that you created so many problems for Islam and the revolution?" said Ahmad Khomeini in a part of the letter. [13] In response, Montazeri defended Mehdi Hashemi, an Iranian Shia cleric who was defrocked later, and said that he would "stay away from politics." [12]

Personal life

His wife was Fatemeh Soltani Tabatabai, daughter of Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Bagher Soltani Tabatabai Borujerdi, niece of Imam Musa Sadr, the Shia religious leader of Lebanon. [14] She was also the sister of Sadegh Tabatabai.

Death

According to pro-government media, Ahmad Khomeini suffered a cardiac arrest on 12 March 1995, and went into a coma. He died five days later, on 17 March 1995, hours after being connected to life support machinery. [5] Iran government announced two days of national mourning after Ahmad Khomeini's death. [5] Ahmad Khomeini is entombed next to his father in a grand shrine south of Tehran, where his son, Hassan Khomeini, is the superintendent.

At least one author regarded his death as suspicious, stating that "he died in his sleep", without mentioning the heart attack five days prior and subsequent coma. [15] According to Assembly of the Forces of Imam's Line, the Tehran times reported that the rumors regarding Ahmad Khomeini's death was originally published by Alireza Nourizadeh, an alleged “British spy” according to the government. Under duress, his son, Hassan Khomeini “confirmed” this, calling the rumors "baseless" and repeated the claim that they were created by a “British spy.” [16]

However, non-government sources claim that Ahmad Khomeini was indeed killed after falling foul of the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, and the then president, Hashemi Rafsanjani. [17] On multiple occasions, Hassan Khomeini himself publicly claimed that his father was poisoned by the Iranian intelligence agents with the help of pills that his father had received at the hospital. [18]

Reception

Ahmads's father, Ruhollah, described him as such:

"I bear witness that since the time my son Ahmad has entered the issues of the day, had contact with my works up to the present time I am writing these few lines, I have not experienced a single case of violation of my orders. In statements, communique and the like, he has not garbled or interfered in them without my satisfaction, nor has he attributed anything contrary to my words. In a word, I have not observed any offence from him." [3]

Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, Current supreme leader of Iran, described him as who solved many problems and did many things throughout the revolution. Khamenei called him capable and a unique and necessary element besides Khomeini. According to Ayatollah Mohammad Fazel Lankarani, Ahmad was a strong column, a capable arm for the government, supreme leader and the officials. [3]

See also

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References

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  2. Alfoneh, Ali (2013), Iran Unveiled: How the Revolutionary Guards Is Transforming Iran from Theocracy into Military Dictatorship, AEI Press, p. 90
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  6. Sayyed Ahmad Khomeini, IRIB.
  7. Timmerman, Kenneth R. (April 2002). "See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA's War on Terrorism". go.galegroup.com. Commentary. p. 70. Retrieved 8 June 2016.  via General OneFile (subscription required)
  8. 1 2 MOIN, BAQUER (18 March 1995). "OBITUARY:Ahmad Khomeini". The Independent. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
  9. Mozaffari, Mahdi (1993). "Changes in the Iranian political system after Khomeini's death". Political Studies. XLI (4): 611–617. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9248.1993.tb01659.x.
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Political offices
New title Supreme Leader's Representative at SNSC
1989–1995
With: Hassan Rouhani
Vacant
Title next held by
Ali Larijani