|Ahmad Shah Qajar|
|Shah of Persia|
|Reign||16 July 1909 – 15 December 1925|
|Predecessor||Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar|
|Successor||Reza Shah Pahlavi|
|Regent|| Ali Reza Khan Azod al-Molk |
Abolqasem Naser ol-Molk
|Born||21 January 1898|
Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Persia
|Died||21 February 1930 32) (aged|
Neuilly-sur-Seine, Paris, France
| Irandokht |
|Father||Mohammad Ali Shah|
Ahmad Shah Qajar (Persian : احمد شاه قاجار; 21 January 1898 – 21 February 1930), was Shah (King) of Persia from 16 July 1909 to 15 December 1925, and the last ruling member of the Qajar dynasty.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages. It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian and Tajiki Persian. It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan, as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran. It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of Cyrillic.
Shah is a title given to the emperors, kings, princes and lords of Iran. It was also adopted by the kings of Shirvan namely the Shirvanshahs. It was also used by Persianate societies such as the rulers and offspring of the Ottoman Empire, Mughal emperors of the Indian Subcontinent, the Bengal Sultanate, as well as in Afghanistan. In Iran the title was continuously used; rather than King in the European sense, each Persian ruler regarded himself as the Shahanshah or Padishah of the Persian Empire.
Qajar Iran, also referred to as the Qajar Empire, officially the Sublime State of Persia and also known then as the Guarded Domains of Persia, was an Iranian empire ruled by the Qajar dynasty, which was of Turkic origin, specifically from the Qajar tribe, from 1789 to 1925. The Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf 'Ali Khan, the last Shah of the Zand dynasty, and re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease, putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, and Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as Shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects. In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
On 16 July 1909, Mohammad Ali Shah was overthrown by rebels seeking to restore the 1906 Constitution. The rebels then convened the Grand Majles of 500 delegates from different backgrounds, which placed Ahmad Shah, Mohammad Ali's six-year-old son, on the Sun Throne.[ citation needed ]
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar, was the sixth king of the Qajar Dynasty and Shah of Persia (Iran) from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.
The Triumph of Tehran refers to the entrance of the pro-constitutionalists in Tehran on 13 July 1909, which led Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar to seek refuge at the Russian legation in Tehran, before he would be sent in exile.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly, also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majles, is the national legislative body of Iran. The Parliament currently has 290 representatives, changed from the previous 272 seats since the 18 February 2000 election. The most recent election took place on 26 February 2016 and the new parliament was opened on 28 May 2016.
The Grand Majlis enacted many reforms. They abolished class representation and created five new seats in the Majlis for minorities: two seats for Armenians, and one seat each for Jews, Zoroastrians, and Assyrians. The Majles also democratized the electoral system, diminished the electoral dominance of Tehran, and even lowered the voting age from twenty-five to twenty.
Armenians are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia.
Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance.
Zoroastrians are the oldest religious community of Iran. Prior to the Muslim conquest of Persia, Zoroastrianism was the primary religion of the Persian Empire.
Not much is known about Ahmad's early life before his succession to the throne. Due to his young age, his uncle, Ali Reza Khan Azod al-Molk, governed as regent.
Ali Reza Khan Azod al-Molk was an Iranian politician who acted as regent for the last ruling member of the Qajar dynasty.
Ahmad Shah was formally crowned on 21 July 1914, upon reaching his majority.He attempted to fix the damage done by his father by appointing the best ministers he could find. He was, however, an ineffective ruler who was faced with internal unrest and foreign intrusions, particularly by the British Empire and Russian Empire. Russian and British troops fought against the Ottoman Empire forces in Persia during World War I.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.
The Russian Empire was an empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Ottoman Empire, historically known to its inhabitants and the Eastern world as Rome (Rûm), and known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. Although initially the dynasty was of Turkic origin, it was thoroughly Persianised in terms of language, culture, literature and habits. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.
The Second Majlis convened on November 1910 and just like the First Majlis, did not lead to any relevant accomplishment. The Majlis was rendered ineffective because the central government was weak and did not have enough influence to rein in the changes that it had proposed.
In 1917, Britain used Persia as the springboard for an attack into Russia in an unsuccessful attempt to reverse the Russian Revolution of 1917. The newly born Soviet Union responded by annexing portions of northern Persia as buffer states much like its Tsarist predecessor. Marching on Tehran, the Soviets extracted ever more humiliating concessions from the Persian government – whose ministers Ahmad Shah was often unable to control. The weakness of the government in the face of such aggression by an atheist foreign power sparked seething anger among many traditional Persians – including the young Ruhollah Khomeini, who would later condemn both Communism and monarchy as treason against Persia's sovereignty and the laws of Islam.
Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War consisted of a series of multi-national military expeditions in 1918. The stated goals were to help the Czechoslovak Legion, to secure supplies of munitions and armaments in Russian ports, and to re-establish the Eastern Front. Overthrow of the new Bolshevik regime was an additional, covert motivation.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a Marxist-Leninist sovereign state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centers were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometers (6,200 mi) east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometers (4,500 mi) north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.
Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.
By 1920, the government had virtually lost all power outside the capital and Ahmad Shah had lost control of the situation. The Anglo-Persian Agreement, along with new political parties, further immobilized the country. The Moderates and Democrats often clashed, particularly when it came to minority rights and secularism. The debates between the two political parties led to violence and even assassinations.
The weak economic state of Persia put Ahmad Shah and his government at the mercy of foreign influence; they had to obtain loans from the Imperial Bank of Persia.[ clarification needed ] Furthermore, under the Anglo-Persian Agreement, Persia received only a small fraction of the income generated by the Anglo-Persian Oil Company. On the other hand, the Red Army along with rebels and warlords ruled much of the countryside.
On 21 February 1921, Ahmad Shah was pushed aside in a military coup by Colonel Reza Khan, Minister of War and commander of the Persian Cossack Brigade, who subsequently seized the post of Prime Minister. During the coup, Reza Khan used three thousand men and only eighteen machine guns, a very bloodless coup that moved forward quickly. Reza Khan was a self-made man who climbed his way up through the military ranks and appeared to be the right man to take back control of Persia. One of his first actions was to rescind the Anglo-Persian Agreement, and this was seen as a very successful diplomatic move since the treaty was very unpopular. In addition, he signed the Russo-Persian Treaty of Friendship. This agreement canceled all previous treaties between the two countries and also gave Persia full and equal shipping rights in the Caspian Sea.
Stripped of all his remaining powers, Ahmad Shah went into exile with his family in 1923. Ahmad Shah's apparent lack of interest in attending to the affairs of the state and poor health had prompted him to leave Persia on this extended "European Tour". He was formally deposed on 31 October 1925, when Reza Khan was proclaimed Shah by the Majlis, as Reza Shah Pahlavi. This terminated the Qajar Dynasty and established the Pahlavi Dynasty.
The coup of 1921 rendered Ahmad Shah politically weaker and less relevant. In 1923, Ahmad Shah left Persia for Europe for health reasons. Later, the formal termination of the Qajar Dynasty by the Majles turned Ahmad Shah's 1923 European tour into exile.
Ahmad Shah died in 1930 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, outside Paris, France, and was buried in his family crypt in Kerbela, Iraq.His brother, former crown prince Mohammad Hassan Mirza, assured the continuation of the dynasty through his descendants.
Ahmad Shah Qajar married five times. His first wife was Lydia Jahanbani. He had four children, each by a different wife.
He had 12 grandchildren, who respectively carry the last names Albertini, Faroughy, Panahi and Qajar (also spelled Kadjar).
Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar,, was the fifth Qajar king of Persia (Iran), reigning from 1896 until his death in 1907. He is often credited with the creation of the Persian constitution, which he approved of as one of his final actions of Shah.
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, also Nassereddin Shah Qajar, was the King of Persia from 5 September 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated. He was the son of Mohammad Shah Qajar and Malek Jahān Khānom and the third longest reigning monarch in Iranian history after Shapur II of the Sassanid dynasty and Tahmasp I of the Safavid Dynasty. Nasser al-Din Shah had sovereign power for close to 50 years and was also the first modern Iranian monarch to formally visit Europe.
Dar ul-Funun, established in 1851, was the first modern university and modern institution of higher learning in Iran (Persia).
Imamzadeh Saleh is one of many imamzadeh mosques in Iran. The mosque is located at Tajrish Square in Tehran's northern Shemiran district. The mosque entombs the remains of Saleh, a son of the Twelver Shia Imam, Musa al-Kadhim, and is one of the most popular Shia shrines in northern Tehran.
Mirza Hasan Ashtiani, commonly known by the bestowed title Mostowfi ol-Mamalek was an Iranian politician who served as Prime Minister on six occasions from 1910 to 1927.
PrinceAbdol-Hossein Farman Farma was one of the most prominent Qajar princes, and one of the most influential politicians of his time in Persia. He was born in Tehran to Prince Nosrat Dowleh Firouz in 1857, and died in November 1939 at the age of 82. He was the 16th grandson of the Qajar crown prince Abbas Mirza. He fathered 26 sons and 13 daughters by 8 wives. He lived to see four sons of his first wife die within his lifetime.
Prince Abbas Mirza Farman Farmaian Qajar (1890–1935) Iranian royal prince of the Persian Imperial Qajar Dynasty, was the second son of Prince Abdol-Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma of Persia, one of the most preeminent political figures of his time and of the royal Princess Ezzat ed-Dowleh Qajar, the daughter of king Mozaffar-al-Din Shah. He was named after his great-grand father, crown prince Abbas Mirza son of Fath Ali Shah Qajar.
Ahmad Qavam, also known as Qavam os-Saltaneh, was a politician who served as Prime Minister of Iran five times.
Hassan Vossug ed Dowleh was Prime Minister of Qajar era Iran. He served as Prime Minister of Iran twice.
The Shrine of Fatima Masumeh is located in Qom, which is considered by Shia Muslims to be the second most sacred city in Iran after Mashhad.
Prince Firouz Nosrat-ed-Dowleh III, GCMG (1919) was the eldest son of Prince Abdol-Hossein Farmanfarma and Princess Ezzat-ed-Dowleh Qajar. He was born around 1889 and died in April 1937. He was the grandson of his namesake, Nosrat Dowleh Firouz Mirza, and of Mozzafar-al-Din Shah Qajar through his mother, Princess Ezzat-Dowleh.
Kamran Mirza, was the Persian Prince of Qajar Dynasty and third surviving son of Nasser al-Din Shah. He was brother of Mass'oud Mirza Zell-e Soltan and Mozzafar al-Din Shah. He is also the progenitor of Kamrani Family. He might have been Prime minister of Iran for a few days in April–May 1909, but this is not clearly referenced. Kamran Mirza also served as Iran's Commander-in-Chief, appointed in 1868 for the first time, and minister of war from 1880 to 1896 and from 1906 to 1907.
Hassan Pirnia, was a prominent Iranian politician of 20th-century Iran. He held a total of twenty-four posts during his political career, serving four times as Prime Minister of Iran. He was also a historian, co-founding the Society for the National Heritage of Iran.
Mirza Nasrullah Khan, titled Moshir al-Dowleh, was the first Iranian Prime Minister. He became Prime Minister of Iran following the introduction of the Persian Constitution of 1906, establishing Iran's first legitimate government approved by the Majlis on 7 October 1906. Before becoming Prime Minister, he had served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs. He died in circumstances said to be suspicious and was buried in Imamzadeh Saleh of Tajrish.
Mahmoud Afshartous, also written Afshartoos, was an Iranian general and chief of police during the government of Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh. Afshartous was abducted and killed by anti-Mossadegh conspirators, which helped pave the way for the 1953 coup d'état.
Hajji Mohammad Hossein Isfahani was an architect and political leader in Isfahan, Persia under the rule of Qajar Persian emperor Fath Ali Shah.
Moshir od-Dowleh, also transliterated as Moshir al-Dowleh, is the title of several Iranian politicians of the Qajar era:
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ahmad Shah Qajar .|
Ahmad Shah QajarBorn: January 21 1898 Died: 21 February 1930
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
| Shah of Persia |
Reza Shah Pahlavi
Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar
| Head of the Imperial House of Qajar |
Fereydoun Mirza Qajar
Mohammad Hassan Mirza