Sir Ahmadu Bello
|Premier of Northern Nigeria|
|Succeeded by||Hassan Katsina|
|Born||June 12, 1909/1910|
Rabah, Sokoto State, Northern Nigeria Protectorate
|Died||January 15, 1966|
|Political party||Northern People's Congress|
Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Bello KBE (June 12, 1910 – January 15, 1966) was a Nigerian politician who was the first and only premier of the Northern Nigeria region. He also held the title of the Sardauna of Sokoto. Bello and Abubakar Tafawa Balewa were major figures in Northern Nigeria pre-independence politics and both men played major roles in negotiations about the region's place in an independent Nigeria. As leader of the Northern People's Congress, he was a dominant personality in Nigerian politics throughout the early Nigerian Federation and the First Nigerian Republic.
Sir is a formal English honorific address for men, derived from Sire in the High Middle Ages. Traditionally, as governed by law and custom, Sir is used for men titled knights i.e. of orders of chivalry, and later also to baronets, and other offices. As the female equivalent for knighthood is damehood, the suo jure female equivalent term is typically Dame. The wife of a knight or baronet tends to be addressed Lady, although a few exceptions and interchanges of these uses exist.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government. Politicians propose, support and create laws or policies that govern the land and, by extension, its people. Broadly speaking, a "politician" can be anyone who seeks to achieve political power in any bureaucratic institution.
Premier is a title for the head of government in some countries, states and sub-national governments. A second in command to a premier is designated as a vice-premier or deputy premier.
Bello was born in Rabah c. 1909 to the family of Mallam Ibrahim Bello. His father held the title of Sarkin Rabah.He is a descendant of Uthman dan Fodio, a great grandson of Sultan Muhammed Bello and a grandson of Sultan Atiku na Raba. He attended Sokoto Provincial School and the Katsina Training College. During his school days, he was known as Ahmadu Rabah. He finished school in 1931 and subsequently became the English master teacher in Sokoto Middle School.
Rabah is a Local Government Area in Sokoto State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Rabah.
Muhammadu Bello was the second Sultan of Sokoto and reigned from 1817 until 1837. He was also an active writer of history, poetry, and Islamic studies. He was the son and primary aide to Usman dan Fodio, the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate and the first Sultan. During his reign, he encouraged the spread of Islam throughout the region, increasing education for both men and women, and the establishment of Islamic courts. He died on October 25, 1837 and was succeeded by his brother Abu Bakr Atiku and then his son, Aliyu Babba.
In 1934, Bello was made the District Head of Rabah by Sultan Hassan dan Mu'azu, succeeding his brother. In 1938, he was promoted to the position of Divisional Head of Gusau (in present-day Zamfara State) and became a member of the Sultan's council. In 1938, at the age of just 28, he made attempts to become the Sultan of Sokoto but was not successful, losing to Sir Siddiq Abubakar III who reigned for 50 years until his death in 1988. The new Sultan immediately made Sir Ahmadu Bello the Sardauna (Crown Prince) of Sokoto, an honorary title, and promoted him to the Sokoto Native Authority Council. These titles automatically made him the Chief Political Adviser to the Sultan. Later, he was put in charge of the Sokoto Province to oversee 47 districts and by 1944, he was back at the Sultan's Palace to work as the Chief Secretary of the State Native Administration.
Gusau is a city and Local Government Area located in northwestern Nigeria. It is the capital of Zamfara State.
Zamfara is a state in northwestern Nigeria. Its capital is Gusau and its Governor is Bello Matawalle, a member of the People's Democratic Party (PDP). Until 1996 the area was part of Sokoto State.
Sir Siddiq Abubakar III (1903–1988) was a Nigerian Muslim leader. He served as the sultan of Sokoto between 1938 and 1988.
In the 1940s, he joined Jamiyya Mutanen Arewa which would later become the NPC in 1951. In 1948, he got a government scholarship and was off to England to study Local Government Administration which broadened his understanding and knowledge of governance.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
After returning from Britain, he was nominated to represent the province of Sokoto in the regional House of Assembly. As a member of the assembly, he was a notable voice for northern interests and embraced a style of consultation and consensus with the major representatives of the northern emirates namely Kano, Bornu and Sokoto. He was selected among with others as a member of a committee that redrafted the Richards Constitution and he also attended a general conference in Ibadan. His work at the assembly and in the constitution drafting committee brought him appreciation in the north and he was asked to take on leadership positions within Jamiyya Mutanen Arewa.In the first elections held in Northern Nigeria in 1952, Sir Ahmadu Bello won a seat in the Northern House of Assembly, and became a member of the regional executive council as minister of works. Bello was successfully minister of Works, of Local Government, and of Community Development in the Northern Region of Nigeria. In 1954, Bello became the first Premier of Northern Nigeria. In the 1959 independence elections, Bello led the NPC to win a plurality of the parliamentary seats. Bello's NPC forged an alliance with Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe's NCNC (National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons) to form Nigeria's first indigenous federal government which led to independence from Britain. In forming the 1960 independence federal government of the Nigeria, Bello as president of the NPC, chose to remain Premier of Northern Nigeria and devolved the position of Prime Minister of the Federation to the deputy president of the NPC, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea separates Great Britain and Ireland. The United Kingdom's 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi) were home to an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
Sokoto is a city located in the extreme northwest of Nigeria, near the confluence of the Sokoto River and the Rima River. As of 2006 it has a population of 427,760. Sokoto is the modern-day capital of Sokoto State.
Kano is the state capital of Kano State in North West, Nigeria. It is situated in the Sahelian geographic region, south of the Sahara. Kano is the commercial nerve centre of Northern Nigeria and is the second largest city in Nigeria. The Kano metropolis initially covered 137 square kilometres, and comprised six local government areas (LGAs) — Kano Municipal, Fagge, Dala, Gwale, Tarauni and Nasarawa; However, it now covers two additional LGAs — Ungogo and Kumbotso. The total area of Metropolitan Kano is now 499 square kilometres, with a population of 2,828,861 as of the 2006 Nigerian census; the latest official estimate is 3,931,300.
Bello's leadership characteristics was a blend of religious, traditional and modern values and his obligation in colonial and post-independence Nigeria was performing these different roles in the northern region.A major priority of his was making sure the region was at par politically and economically with the Western and Eastern regions. This contributed to the decision to replace both Southerners and Europeans in the Northern region's civil services with Northerners, a policy that received criticism from opposition leaders such as Ibrahim Imam.
The former Western State of Nigeria was formed in 1967 when the Western Region was subdivided into the states of Lagos and Western State. Its capital was Ibadan, which was the capital of the old region.
The Eastern Region was an administrative region in Nigeria, dating back originally from the division of the colony Southern Nigeria in 1954. Its first capital was Calabar. The capital was later moved to Enugu and the second capital was Umuahia. The region was officially divided in 1967 into three new states, the East-Central State, Rivers State and South-Eastern State. East-Central State had its capital at Enugu, which is now part of Enugu State.
Ibrahim Imam was a Kanuri politician from Borno, Nigeria who was the secretary of the Northern People's Congress and later became a patron of the Borno Youth Movement. He was elected into the Northern House of Assembly in 1961, representing a Tiv district. Prior to his election in 1961, he had represented his district of Yerwa in 1951 after supporting a strike of Native Administration workers.
Bello originally embraced the Indirect rule system of colonial Nigeria before gradually embracing reforms. During his period of premiership, his biographer, John Paden described him as a progressive conservative, because he was an agent of change and also of the traditional elites.
Various institutions were created under Bello, including the Northern Nigeria Development Corporation (NNDC), Bank of the North and Northern Nigeria Investments Ltd (NNIL). NNDC was an holding company with capital sourced from the region's marketing board while NNIL was a partnership between the Commonwealth Development Corporation and NNDC created to assist in the industrial development in Northern Nigeria.
Bello initiated plans to modernise traditional koranic education in Northern Nigeria. He set up a commission to this effect and gave official recognition to the schools.The commission recommended the introduction of secular subjects in the schools and creation of different classes for pupils.
Part of his educational objectives was building a school in each province in Northern Nigeria.
|Minister of Education||Isa Kaita||1959|
|Minister of Finance||Aliyu Makama Bida||1959|
|Minister of Agriculture||Mustafa Monguno||1959|
|Minister of Social Welfare||Michael Buba||1959|
|Minister of Health||Ahman Galadima Petegi||1959|
|Minister of Lands and Survey||Ibrahim Musa Gashash||1959|
|Minister of Internal Affairs||Usman, Galadiman Maska||1959|
|Minister of Trade||Abba Habib||1959|
|Minister of Local Government||Maikano Dutse||1959|
|Minister of Animal Health||Abdullahi Jada||1959|
|Minister of Works||George Ohikere||1959|
|Ministers without portfolio|
Bello was assassinated by Major Nzeogwu on 15 January 1966 in a coup which toppled Nigeria's post-independence government. He was still serving as premier of Northern Nigeria at the time. That was the first coup in Nigeria history. Also assassinated in the coup was his long time friend Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Balewa alongside many political elites in the north and in the west.
Bello had three wives at the time of his death. Hafsatu, his first and senior wife, died alongside him.
He had three surviving daughters with another wife, Amina (Goggon Kano). His eldest daughter was Inno, followed by Aisha and Lubabatu.
Bello's greatest legacy was the modernization and unification of the diverse people of Northern Nigeria. [ citation needed ]
The Ahmadu Bello University is named after him. His portrait adorns Nigeria's 200 naira note, and he is survived by three daughters, one of whom died in 2008.
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, KBE was a Nigerian politician, and the first prime minister of an independent Nigeria.
Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) is a federal government research university in Zaria, Kaduna State Nigeria. ABU was founded on 4 October 1962, as the University of Northern Nigeria.
Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (ATBU) is a federal university of technology located in Bauchi, northern Nigeria. The university is named after the first Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. The motto of the university is "Doctrina Mater Artium", which means "Education is the mother of the practical arts".
The Lancaster House Conferences in London 1957 and 1958 were meetings where the federal constitution for an independent Nigeria was prepared. The meetings were presided over by the British Colonial Secretary, and Nigerian delegates were selected to represent each region and to reflect various shades of opinion. The delegation was led by Abubakar Tafawa Balewa of the Northern People's Congress (NPC), and included party leaders Obafemi Awolowo of the Action Group, Nnamdi Azikiwe of the NCNC, Eyo Ita of the NIP and Ahmadu Bello of the NPC – as well as the premiers of the Western, Eastern, and Northern regions. The Chiefs of the Northern Region, Sir Muhammadu Sanusi, Emir of Kano and Alhaji Usman Nagogo, Emir of Katsina' Chiefs of the Western Region, Sir Adesoji Aderemi and Oba Aladesanmi; and Chiefs of the Eastern Region Chief Nyong Essien of Uyo and Chief S. E. Onukogu
Ibrahim Muhammadu Maccido dan Abubakar, often shortened to Muhammadu Maccido, was the 19th Sultan of Sokoto in Nigeria. He was the son and primary aide to Siddiq Abubakar III (1903–1988) who had been the Sultan of Sokoto for 50 years. Maccido served in many functions of government during his life and served most prominently as the liaison to Nigerian President Shehu Shagari until a military coup removed Shagari from power. When his father died in 1988, the head of the military government in Nigeria, Ibrahim Babangida appointed Ibrahim Dasuki as the new Sultan of Sokoto, a decision which caused large-scale, violent protests throughout northern Nigeria.
The First Republic was the republican government of Nigeria between 1963 and 1966 governed by the first republican constitution.
Muhammadu Ribadu was a Nigerian politician, who was the first Minister of Defence after independence. The son of a district head from Adamawa's Balala district, he was educated early on at a Koranic school before proceeding to the middle school at Yola.
Barewa College is a college in Zaria, Kaduna State, northern Nigeria. Founded in 1921 by British Governor General Hugh Clifford, it was originally known as Katsina College. It switched its name to Kaduna College in 1938 and to Government College, Zaria in 1949 before settling on Barewa College. It is one of the largest boarding schools in Northern Nigeria and was the most-celebrated post-primary schools there up to the early 1960s. The school is known for the large number of elites from the region who attended and counts among its alumni five who were Nigerian presidents including the late Umaru Musa Yar'Adua.
Aminu Kano was a Muslim politician from Nigeria. In the 1940s he led a socialist movement in the northern part of the country in opposition to British rule. The Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport, the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, and the Aminu Kano College of Islamic Studies all in Kano, are named after him.
Chief Victor Babaremilekun Adetokunboh Fani-Kayode, Q.C., SAN, CON (1921–1995) was a leading Nigerian politician, aristocrat, nationalist, statesman and lawyer. He was elected deputy premier of the Western Region of Nigeria in 1963 and he played a major role in Nigeria's legal history and politics from the late 1940s until 1995.
Northern People's Congress (NPC) is a political party in Nigeria. Formed in June 1949, the party held considerable influence in the Northern Region from the 1950s until the military coup of 1966.
Jama'atu Nasril Islam (JNI) is an umbrella group for the Nigerian Muslim community its headquarter is in the city of Kaduna, and its president is the Sultan of Sokoto. The organisation conducts Islamic education and missionary work in Nigeria, and has had particular success amongst recent converts from the Igbo tribe.
William Walbe, was a colonel in the Nigerian Army who served as the military aide-de-camp (ADC) to General Yakubu Gowon, the third Nigerian Head of State.
The 1966 Nigerian coup d'état began on 15 January 1966, when mutinous Nigerian soldiers led by Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu and Emmanuel Ifeajuna killed 22 people including the Prime Minister of Nigeria, many senior politicians, many senior Army officers, and sentinels on protective duty. The coup plotters attacked the cities of Kaduna, Ibadan, and Lagos while also blockading the Niger and Benue River within a two-day span of time before the coup plotters were subdued. The General Officer Commanding, of the Nigerian Army, Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi was compelled to take control of the government of a country in upheaval, inadvertently putting Nigeria's nascent democracy on hold. His ascendancy to power was deemed a conspiracy by the coup plotters, who were mainly Igbo officers, to pave the way for General Aguiyi-Ironsi to be Head of State of Nigeria. Consequently, the retaliatory events by Northern members of the Nigerian Army that led to deaths of many innocent Igbo soldiers and civilians caused the Nigerian Civil War.
The Cabinet of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa was the government of Nigeria, headed by Prime Minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, in the years leading up to and following independence. There were three cabinets. The first was established in 1957 when Balewa was appointed Prime Minister by the British Governor-General. The second was formed after the general elections of December 1959, just before independence, in a coalition government. The third was formed after the disputed general elections of December 1964, and was dissolved after the military coup of 15 January 1966.
Alhaji Yahaya Madawaki, MFR, OBE, DLL and holder of the Coronation medal of King George VI was a prominent Nigerian politician, former Minister of Health, the Madawaki of Ilorin and the Atunluse of Erin-Ile, Kwara State.
Arewa House Museum or Arewa House is a house museum located in Kaduna, Kaduna State, in Northwest Nigeria. It is also serves as a center for historical documentation and research of the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Aliyu Makama Bida (1905–1980), MHA, CMG, CFR, OBE, was a Nigerian politician. He was the first Northern Minister of Education and Social Welfare, and later Minister of Finance and Treasurer of the NPC.
Alhaji Hassan Lemu, OON, was the private secretary of late Ahmadu Bello, Sardauna of Sokoto, the Premier of Northern Nigeria.