Ahmed Abdallah

Last updated
Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane
President of the State of Comoros
In office
July 6, 1975 August 3, 1975
Preceded byCountry gains independence, Position created
Succeeded by Said Mohamed Jaffar
Co-Chairman of the Politico-Military Directorate of the Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros
In office
May 23, 1978 October 25, 1978
Preceded byPosition created
Succeeded byPosition abolished
President of the Federal and Islamic Republic of Comoros
In office
October 25, 1978 November 26, 1989
Preceded byPosition created
Succeeded by Said Mohamed Djohar
Personal details
Born(1919-06-12)June 12, 1919
Domoni, Anjouan
Died November 26, 1989(1989-11-26) (aged 70)
Moroni, Grande Comore
Nationality Comoros
Political party Comoros Democratic Union, then Comorian Union for Progress

Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane (Arabic : أحمد عبد الله عبد الرحمن, Ahmad Abd Allah Abd ar-Rahman, 12 June 1919 26 November 1989) [1] was a Comorian politician. He was a member of the French Senate from 1959 to 1973, [2] and President of the Comoros from 25 October 1978 until his death. [3]

Comoros sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean

The Comoros, officially the Union of the Comoros, is an island country in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique, the French region of Mayotte, and northwestern Madagascar. The capital and largest city in Comoros is Moroni. The religion of the majority of the population is Sunni Islam.

Contents

Life prior to the presidency

Abdallah was born in Domoni, on the island of Anjouan. He began participating in the government in the 1940s, while the Comoros were still part of France. He was the President of the general council from 1949 until 1953, and was the chairman of the chamber of deputies during the 1970s. [4]

Domoni Place in Anjouan, Comoros

Domoni is the second largest city on the Comorian island of Anjouan in the Indian Ocean and is located on the east coast of the island. It was the capital of the island in the past while the present capital of Anjouan is Mutsamudu.

Anjouan island

Anjouan is an autonomous high island in the Indian Ocean that forms part of the Union of the Comoros. Its chief town is Mutsamudu and, as of 2006, its population is around 277,500. The total area of the island is 424 square kilometers.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

First presidency

In 1972, Abdallah, now leader of his political party, the Comoros Democratic Union (UDC), became president of the government council and Chief Minister of the Comoros; [5] he served in that position until 6 July 1975, when the islands became independent from France, (with the exception of Mayotte, which voted to remain part of France.) [6] Abdallah became the first president of the independent islands, but was overthrown by Said Mohamed Jaffar in a coup d'état on August 3, 1975. [7] Jaffar, in turn, would be overthrown by Ali Soilih in 1976. [8]

Mayotte Overseas region and department in France

Mayotte is an overseas department and region of France officially named the Department of Mayotte. It consists of a main island, Grande-Terre, a smaller island, Petite-Terre, and several islets around these two. The archipelago is located in the northern Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Southeast Africa, between northwestern Madagascar and northeastern Mozambique. The department status of Mayotte is recent and the region remains, by a significant margin, the poorest in France. Mayotte is nevertheless much more prosperous than the other countries of the Mozambique Channel, making it a major destination for illegal immigration.

Said Mohamed Jaffar President of Comoros

Prince Said Mohamed Jaffar, full name Said Mohamed Jaffar El Amjad, as the 2nd President of Comoros (État comorien) from August 1975 until January 1976, as well as chief minister of the Comoros government from July until December 1972.

Coup détat Sudden deposition of a government; illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus

A coup d'état, also known as a putsch, a golpe, or simply as a coup, means the overthrow of an existing government; typically, this refers to an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a dictator, the military, or a political faction.

Second presidency

Abdallah (who had been living in exile Paris, France) staged a coup against Soilih in 1978 with the help of mercenary Bob Denard. [7] After Said Atthoumani had served as "Chairman of the Politico-Military Directorate" for ten days, Abdallah and Mohamed Ahmed assumed the titles of "Co-Chairmen of the Politico-Military Directorate." [9] On 22 July, their titles were changed to "Co-Chairmen of the Directorate," and on 3 October, Abdallah became the lone chair. [9]

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.

Robert Denard was a French soldier and mercenary. Sometimes known under the aliases Gilbert Bourgeaud and Saïd Mustapha Mahdjoub, he was known for having performed various jobs in support of Françafrique—France's sphere of influence in its former colonies in Africa—for Jacques Foccart, co-ordinator of President Charles de Gaulle's African policy.

Said Atthoumani was a Comorian politician.

On 25 October, Abdallah assumed the title of president and remained in office until his death, despite three separate coup attempts against him. [10] In 1982, Abdallah had the UDC and all other parties abolished, and a new party, the Comorian Union for Progress (UCP), was set up. [11] Comoros became a one-party state, with the UCP being the only legal party. [11]

The Comorian Union for Progress is a political party in the Comoros.

A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution. All other parties are either outlawed or allowed to take only a limited and controlled participation in elections. Sometimes the term de facto one-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system that, unlike the one-party state, allows democratic multiparty elections, but the existing practices or balance of political power effectively prevent the opposition from winning the elections.

Abdallah was re-elected unopposed in 1984. [8] On 26 November 1989, he was shot dead in his Moroni office during a coup led by Ali Soilih's half-brother, Said Mohamed Djohar. [12] Djohar took control of the country the next day. [4]

Moroni, Comoros Place in Grande Comore, Comoros

Moroni is the largest city, federal capital and seat of the government of the Union of the Comoros, a sovereign archipelago nation in the Indian Ocean. In Comorian, Moroni translates as "in the heart of the fire", perhaps alluding to the city's location at the foot of Mount Karthala, an active volcano. Moroni is the capital of the semi-autonomous island Grande Comore, the largest of the three main islands of the republic. The city's estimated population in 2003 was 41,557 residents. Moroni, which lies along the Route Nationale 1, has a port and several mosques such as the Badjanani Mosque.

Said Mohammed Djohar was a Comorian politician who served as the 4th President of the Comoros during the 1990s.

See also

Related Research Articles

The history of the Comoros goes back some 1,500 years. The Comoros have been inhabited by various groups throughout this time. France colonised the islands in the 19th century, and they became independent in 1975.

Comorian is a Bantu language spoken in Comoros, an island country archipelago Indian Ocean, off the coast of Mozambique and Madagascar, where it is also the official language. It is also widely spoken on the disputed territory of Mayotte, a region of France claimed by Comoros. It is part of the Sabaki languages branch of the Bantu languages, along with highly mutually intelligible Swahili. Each island has a different dialect and the four are conventionally divided into two groups: the eastern group is composed of Shindzuani and Shimaore (Mayotte), while the western group is composed of Shimwali (Mohéli) and Shingazija. Although the two groups share about 80% of their lexicon, they are not usually mutually intelligible, thus suggesting that they should be considered two language groups rather than four dialects.

Ali Soilih President of Comoros

Ali Soilih, full name Ali Soilih M'tsashiwa, was a Comorian socialist revolutionary and political figure who served as the 3rd President of the Comoros.

Elections in the Comoros

Elections in the Comoros take place within the framework of a multi-party democracy and a presidential system. The President and the majority of the seats in the Assembly of the Union are directly elected.

Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim President of Comoros

Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarim was President of the Comoros from 25 March 1996 until his death on 6 November 1998.

Mohamed Ahmed was a Comorian politician. He was born in Mutsamudu on the island of Anjouan. During the 1950s, he became one of the most important non-French political leaders in the Comoros, and served as vice-president of the government council from 1957 until 1962. After this he became less influential until after Comoros became an independent nation in 1975. Ahmed was a strong supporter of the May 1978 coup in which Ali Soilih was overthrown. He became a co-chairman of a directorate which took charge of the government, but lost this position in October 1978 as the other co-chairman, Ahmed Abdallah took complete power.

Abdallah Mohamed was a Comorian politician. He served as prime minister of Comoros from January 7, 1976, until December 22, 1978. He was a nephew of Mohamed Ahmed. For most of that time he was serving under President Ali Soilih. After Soilih was overthrown and killed in a Coup d'état, Mohamed remained in his post for a few months under the new regime of Ahmed Abdallah. He was eventually dismissed, however. He died in Mutsamudu, on the island of Anjouan in 2000.

The Comoros is an island nation in the Indian Ocean, located off the eastern coast of Africa. France first established colonial rule in the Comoros in 1841. Agreement was reached with France in 1973 for the Comoros to become independent in 1978. On July 6, 1975, but the Comorian parliament passed a unilateral resolution declaring independence. The deputies of Mayotte, which remained under French control, abstained. Referendums on all four of the islands excluding Mayotte showed strong support for independence. Ahmed Abdallah proclaimed the Comoros' independence on September 5, 1975 and became its first president.

1974 Comorian independence referendum

An independence referendum was held in the Comoros on 22 December 1974. The overall result was a strong "yes" vote, with 94.57% of voters voting for independence and almost all the "no" votes being cast in Mayotte, where there was a majority for remaining under French control. In contrast, on Mohéli only five out of 6,059 votes were against independence. Voter turnout was 93.3%.

Rally for Change and Democracy

The Rally for Change and Democracy was a political party in the Comoros led by Said Hassane Said Hachim.

This is a list of foreign ministers of the Comoros.

Comoros–North Korea relations

Comoros–North Korea relations refers to the current and historical relationship between the Comoros and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly known as North Korea. Neither nation maintains an embassy in their respective capitals. Formerly the DPRK had an ambassador stationed in Moroni.

References

  1. "Ahmed Abdallah". Kentix Computing. Archived from the original on 8 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  2. Page on the French Senate website
  3. "Histoire des Comores". MweziNet. 2006-11-16. Retrieved 2006-12-26.
  4. 1 2 Security concerns - Comoros
  5. A Political Chronology of Africa. Taylor & Francis, 2001, ISBN   1857431162, p. 92.
  6. Mayotte. Central Intelligence Agency. 2006-12-29. Archived from the original on 2012-09-21. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  7. 1 2 Thomson Gale authors. Comoros History. Encyclopedia of the Nations. Archived from the original on 24 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  8. 1 2 Ottenheimer, Martin; Harriet Joseph Ottenheimer. History (from Comoros). Encyclopædia Britannica . Archived from the original on 16 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  9. 1 2 Cahoon, Benjamin M. "Comoros". Worldstatesmen.org. Archived from the original on 5 December 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
  10. Chernow, Barbara A.; George A. Vallasi, eds. (1993). "Comoros". The Columbia Encyclopedia (Fifth ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 615. ISBN   0-395-62438-X.
  11. 1 2 Thomson Gale authors. Comoros Political Parties. Encyclopedia of the Nations. Archived from the original on 24 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-28.
  12. World: Africa Comoros mercenary cleared of assassination BBC, 19 May 1999.
Political offices
Preceded by
position created
Head of State of the Comoros
6 July 19753 August 1975
Succeeded by
Said Mohamed Jaffar
Preceded by
position created
Chairman of the Directorate
3 October 197825 October 1978
Succeeded by
position abolished
Preceded by
position created
President of the Comoros
25 October 1978 26 November 1989
Succeeded by
Said Mohamed Djohar