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An aide-de-camp ( UK: // , US: /-/ ; French expression meaning literally helper in the [military] camp ) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, or to a member of a royal family or a head of state.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom. Variations exist in formal, written English in the United Kingdom. For example, the adjective wee is almost exclusively used in parts of Scotland and Ireland, and occasionally Yorkshire, whereas little is predominant elsewhere. Nevertheless, there is a meaningful degree of uniformity in written English within the United Kingdom, and this could be described by the term British English. The forms of spoken English, however, vary considerably more than in most other areas of the world where English is spoken, so a uniform concept of British English is more difficult to apply to the spoken language. According to Tom McArthur in the Oxford Guide to World English, British English shares "all the ambiguities and tensions in the word 'British' and as a result can be used and interpreted in two ways, more broadly or more narrowly, within a range of blurring and ambiguity".
American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. American English is considered one of the most influential dialects of English globally, including on other varieties of English.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
An aide-de-camp may participate at ceremonial functions, and the first aide-de-camp is typically the foremost personal aide. This is not to be confused with an adjutant, who is the senior administrator of a military unit.
Adjutant is a military appointment given to an officer who assists the commanding officer with unit administration, mostly the management of human resources in army unit. The term adjudant is used in French-speaking armed forces as a non-commissioned officer rank similar to a staff sergeant or warrant officer but is not equivalent to the role or appointment of an adjutant.
The badge of office for an aide-de-camp is usually the aiguillette , a braided cord in gold or other colours, worn on the shoulder of a uniform. Whether it is worn on the left or the right shoulder is dictated by protocol.
An aiguillette, also spelled aguillette, aiglet or aglet, is a cord with metal tips or lace tags, or the decorative tip itself.
In some countries, aide-de-camp is considered to be a title of honour, which confers the post-nominal letters ADC or A de C.
Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person's name to indicate that that individual holds a position, academic degree, accreditation, office, military decoration, or honour, or is a member of a religious institute or fraternity. An individual may use several different sets of post-nominal letters, but in some contexts it may be customary to limit the number of sets to one or just a few. The order in which post-nominals are listed after a name is based on rules of precedence and what is appropriate for a given situation. Post-nominal letters are one of the main types of name suffix. In contrast, pre-nominal letters precede the name rather than following it.
In Argentina, three officers (one from each armed service, of the rank of lieutenant colonel or its equivalent), are appointed as aide-de-camp to the president of the republic and three others to the minister of defense, these six being the only ones to be called "edecán", which is one Spanish translation for aide-de-camp ("ayudante de campo" is another – "edecán" is a phonetic imitation of the French term; "ayudante de campo" is a word-for-word translation of it).
A controversy was raised in 2006, when president Néstor Kirchner decided to promote his army aide-de-camp, Lieutenant Colonel Graham to colonel, one year ahead of his class. Upon taking office, former president Cristina Kirchner decided to have, for the first time, female officers as her aides-de-camp.
Néstor Carlos Kirchner Jr. was an Argentine politician who served as President of Argentina from 2003 to 2007 and as Governor of Santa Cruz from 1991 to 2003. Ideologically a Peronist and social democrat, he served as President of the Justicialist Party from 2008 to 2010, with his political approach being characterised as Kirchnerism.
In each of the armed forces, the chief of staff and other senior officers have their own adjutants, normally of the rank of major or lieutenant colonel, or its equivalent. At unit level, the unit S-1 (personnel officer) doubles as the unit commander's adjutant, although in recent times in many units this practice has been left only for ceremonial purposes, while for everyday duties a senior NCO performs the adjutant's activities.
An aiguillette is worn on the right shoulder by aides-de-camp and adjutants as a symbol of their position, the colour of the aiguillette depending of the rank of the person they are serving (there are golden, tan, silver and red aiguillettes, as well as an olive-green one for combat uniform).
In Belgium the title of honorary aide-de-camp to the King can be granted by the royal court for services rendered. Notable people include Major General Baron Édouard Empain, Count Charles John d'Oultremont, and Lieutenant General Baron Albert du Roy de Blicquy.
Édouard Louis Joseph, Baron Empain, was a wealthy Belgian engineer, entrepreneur, financier and industrialist, as well as an amateur Egyptologist. During World War I he became a known Major-General.
Lieutenant General Baron Albert Aquila Alexis Maria du Roy de Blicquy was a Belgian General.
An aide-de-camp, according to an 1816 military dictionary, was defined as an officer appointed to attend a general officer, and was traditionally seldom under the grade of captain: "The King may appoint for himself as many as he pleases, which appointment gives the rank of colonel in the army. Generals being field marshals, have four, lieutenant generals two, major generals one".
In British colonies and modern-day British overseas territories, an aide-de-camp is appointed to serve the governor and, later, the governor general. These aides were mostly from military branches or native auxiliaries. They were entitled to use letters ADC or A de C after their names.The emblem of the office is the aiguillette worn on their uniform.
Australian Defence Force officers serve as aides-de-camp to specific senior appointments, such as the Queen, Governor-General, state governors, Chief of the Defence Force, and other specified Army, Navy and Air Force command appointments. Honorary aides-de-camp to the Governor-General or state governors are entitled to the post-nominal ADC during their appointment. Officers of and above the ranks of rear admiral, major general, and air vice marshal in specifically designated command appointments are entitled to an aide de camp with the army rank of captain (or equivalent). Within the navy, an aide-de-camp is called a "flag lieutenant" (as senior naval officers are "flag officers").
In 1973, the Governor of Bermuda, Sir Richard Sharples, and his aide-de-camp, Captain Hugh Sayers, were murdered on the grounds of Government House.
Aides-de-camp in Canada are appointed to the Queen and some members of the royal family, the governor general, lieutenant governors, and to certain other appointments (e.g., Minister of National Defence, flag and general officers, Canadian heads of mission, foreign heads of state visiting Canada).
In addition to the military officers appointed as full-time aides-de-camp to the governor general, several other flag/general and senior officers are appointed ex officio as honorary aides-de-camp to the governor general or Members of the Royal Family including:
Most aides-de-camp wear a gold pattern aiguillette when acting in their official capacity; however, members of St. John Ambulance Canada wear silver aiguillettes consistent with their other accoutrements as aide-de-camp or as a symbol of ceremonial representation such as a member of the honour guard or a position of command on parade.[ citation needed ] All aides-de-camp also wear the cypher or badge of the principal to whom they are appointed. Honorary appointees to the Queen (royal cypher), to the Duke of Edinburgh, or the Prince of Wales, wear the appropriate cypher on their uniform epaulette and are entitled to use the post-nominal letters ADC for the duration of their appointment.
Aides-de-camp to the governor general wear the governor general's badge (crest of the arms of Canada) and aides-de-camp to a lieutenant governor wear the lieutenant governor's badge (the shield of the province surmounted by a crown).They are appointed from officers of the Canadian Forces. Aides-de-camp to lieutenant governors are appointed from officers of the Canadian Forces, Royal Canadian Mounted Police and, depending on the province, aides may also be appointed from other uniformed organizations such as municipal or provincial police and emergency services. In certain instances, civilians may be appointed. Non-uniformed civilians do not wear the aiguillette, but do wear their lieutenant governor's badge as a symbol of their appointment. On 29 November 1973, Governor General Roland Michener concluded his initiative to permit aides-de-camp to the governor general and lieutenant governors to use the post-nominal letters A de C for the duration of their appointment.
Aides-de-camp to royal and vice-regal personages wear the aiguillette on the right shoulder. Aides-de-camp to all others wear their aiguillette on the left shoulder.
In India, officers of the rank of major general and equivalent and above in the sister services who are in command of divisions or of peacetime commands have aides-de-camp who usually belong to their general's parent regiment/battalion. There have been instances where the sons have served a tenure of aide-de-camp to their fathers. The service chiefs (Chief of the Army/Air/Navy Staff) usually have three aides-de-camp and the President of India has five aides-de-camp (three from the army and one each from the navy and the air force). There is also one honorary aide-de-camp from the Territorial Army.The president may at his pleasure appoint any distinguished officer from the armed forces including the service chiefs as honorary aide-de-camp. The governors of the states have two aides-de-camp, one each from the Indian armed forces and the Indian and state police services except for the state of Jammu and Kashmir where both the aides-de-camp to the governor are appointed from the Indian Army.
As in other Commonwealth countries where the Queen is head of state, personnel from the New Zealand Defence Force serve as aides-de-camp to royal and vice-regal personages. The governor-general of New Zealand has two full-time aides-de-camp of the rank of army captain, lieutenant RNZN or RNZAF flight lieutenant. Additional and honorary aides-de-camp to the governor-general are of the rank of lieutenant colonel or equivalent. Aiguilettes are of the standard palace No. 1 type and worn on the right shoulder. Equivalent appointments also serve the minister of Defence, the chief of Defence Force and service chiefs. These are usually known as military assistants (MA) personal staff officers (PSOs) or, in the case of the RNZN, flag lieutenant (flags), and wear service-specific No. 2 aigullettes with coloured flecks (dark blue for navy, red for army and light blue for air force) on the left shoulder.
In Pakistan the President, Prime Minister and Governors have their own aides-de-camp. The aide-de-camp can be from any one of the three Armed Forces and typically are of the rank of captain (army), lieutenant (navy) or flight lieutenant (air force). The aide-de-camp to Justice Khan Habibullah Khan, while he was chief minister and leader of the house of West Pakistan, was his son, a senior bureaucrat, Captain Akhtar Munir Marwat and Captain Gohar Ayub Khan was to his father, President Field Marshal Ayub Khan. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee and all the three service chiefs are authorised to have an aide-de-camp. In Pakistan, officers of the rank of major general and equivalent and above in the sister services who are in command of divisions or of peacetime commands have aides-de-camp who usually belong to their general's parent regiment/battalion.
As in other commonwealth realms where the Queen is head of state, the governor-general of Papua New Guinea has two full-time aides-de-camp. One is from the Papua New Guinea Defence Force and one from the Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary of the ranks of PNGDF Captain and RPNGC Superintendent.
In Singapore, the President appoints aides-de-camp from the armed services as well as officers selected from the police force and civil defence force. These officers usually hold the rank of major or military expert 5 in the armed services or major in the Singapore civil defence force, whereas an assistant superintendent of police is chosen from the Singapore police force. Both male and female officers may serve as aides-de-camp.
Their duties include assisting in liaison for important guests on behalf of the president and taking care of visiting foreign dignitaries.
In Sri Lanka, the president has aides-de-camp from the three armed services as well as extra aides-de-camp. All general, flag and air officers have their own aide-de-camp, usually selected from their parent regiment or unit. In the navy, an aide-de-camp is called a flag lieutenant. Junior officers of the rank of major and below serve as aide-de-camp, appointed only if they have completed three years of commissioned service. Officers appointed as an aide-de-camp or extra aide-de-camp can serve a maximum of three years, with the exception of those serving the president. Once an officer completes a term of service as an aide-de-camp or extra aide-de-camp, the officer can not be reappointed to a similar position for another two years. Medical officers of the rank of lieutenant colonel and above can be appointed as Honorary Physician to the President or Honorary Surgeon to the President.
Twice in 1992, Sri Lankan aides-de-camp were killed in service, and in 2006 an aide-de-camp was seriously injured:
The President of Tanzania has an aide-de-camp from the Tanzania People's Defence Force, with the rank of Kanali (colonel).
In the United Kingdom, junior officers serve as aides-de-camp to certain senior officers. Flag lieutenant is the Royal Navy's equivalent. Equerries are equivalents to aides-de-camp in the Royal Household, in which aides-de-camp are restricted to senior officers with a primarily honorific role.
There are several categories of these senior aides-de-camp to the Queen, which entitle the aide-de-camp to the post-nominal letters "ADC". Most are serving army, navy, and air force officers, usually of colonel or brigadier rank or equivalent. There are also specific posts for very senior officers, such as first and principal naval aide-de-camp, flag aide-de-camp, aides de camp general, and air aides-de-camp. Analogous offices include the Lieutenant of the Admiralty, the Rear Admiral of the United Kingdom, and the Gold Stick and Silver Stick.
Certain members of the Royal Family with military rank may be appointed personal aides-de-camp to the Queen. Those currently holding this appointment are HRH The Duke of Kent; HRH The Prince of Wales; HRH The Duke of Cambridge; HRH The Duke of York; HRH The Earl of Wessex; HRH The Duke of Sussex and Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence. In addition, when wearing a military uniform, HRH The Duke of Edinburgh wears the insignia of a personal aide-de-camp to the Queen's father, King George VI.
Aides-de-camp and equerries (along with certain other officers) are distinguished by the addition of aiguillettes to dress uniforms, which differ in size, colour and position of wear, depending on the appointment. In addition, aides-de-camp to the monarch wear the monarch's royal cypher on their shoulder straps in various orders of dress. A distinctive and elaborate full dress uniform used to be worn by army aides-de-camp, but its use was largely discontinued after World War I.
The President, as commander-in-chief of the French armed forces, is served by aides-de-camp. In general, there are three, including one who traditionally serves in the French Army, and all of whom are at the rank of lieutenant colonel. In essence, their mission is to transport the briefcase permitting the use of nuclear weapons. They can also provide general assistance to the President: For instance, at times aides-de-camp are seen placing the president's speech on his lectern when he arrives, or holding up notes during award ceremonies to remind him of the official words to be pronounced when handing over medals.
When the president travels, an aide-de-camp often rides in the front passenger seat of the presidential car. He is one of the people who are closest to the president.
The Hong Kong Police Force, the Fire Services Department, the Customs and Excise Department, the Immigration Department, the Government Flying Service, the Civil Aid Service, the Hong Kong Auxiliary Police Force, the Auxiliary Medical Service, the St. John Ambulance Brigade, and the Correctional Services Department each sends an aide-de-camp to the territory's chief executive, which replaced the governor in 1997.
On the last day of British rule in Hong Kong on 30 June 1997, the police aide-de-camp to Governor Chris Patten, presented Patten with the flag at Government House. He then gave the Vice Regal Salute before proceeding, with the Pattens, to leave Government House for the last time.
In the 18th-Century, under Catherine the Great of Russia, favorites of the Empress were frequently appointed as her aides-de-camp.
From 1896 until the end of World War II, the Emperors of Japan had army and naval aides-de-camp.
Royal Thai Aide-De-Camp Department is a royal service agency under the Royal Security Command. It is responsible for organizing royal appearances and maintaining the safety of the Thai Royal Family. Royal Thai aide-de-camps are also appointed to senior officers of the Thai army, navy, and air force. King Chulalongkorn initiated the Royal Guard in 1870, during his visit to Singapore and Indonesia. He had Lieutenant General Prince Suksvasti serve as his aide, and Prince Suksvasti is considered the first Thai aide-de-camp.
Military officers are assigned as aides to the Secretary of the Army, Secretary of Defense, Vice President, and President of the United States. For government officials with more than one aide, the senior-ranking aide usually coordinates the activities of the other aides as well as personal attendants such as drivers or orderlies.[ citation needed ]
The President has five military aides, one from each of the armed services. The President's aides from the Army, Marine Corps and Air Force are majors or lieutenant colonels, and the aides from the Navy and Coast Guard are lieutenant commanders or commanders. One of their major roles is to hold the Presidential emergency satchel. In addition to the five permanent aides-de-camp, there are some 40–45 military social aides holding more junior ranks from lieutenant to major. Their appointment is temporary and part-time, serving for perhaps two to four afternoons a month as required, for social purposes such as gatherings hosted at the White House.[ citation needed ]
Within the United States Army, aides-de-camp are specifically appointed to General-grade officers (NATO Code OF-6 through OF-10). The usual tour of duty for aides is up to two years.[ citation needed ] Although Congress has authorized general officers to be assigned up to three officer aides, their number and rank being contingent upon the general's grade, Army regulations have traditionally limited each general to a single officer aide. Some generals are also authorized to have enlisted aides on their staff. A general, based on his or her grade, may choose for an aide-de-camp any commissioned officer up to the following maximum rank:
Lieutenant colonels and colonels in command of units (battalions and brigades, respectively) do not have aides. Occasionally, the unit's adjutant (S-1) will assist the commanding officer as an aide, but this is uncommon. A General of the Army does not retire and remains an officer of the United States Army for life, entitled to an aide of the rank of Colonel.[ citation needed ]
U.S. Army aides-de-camp wear a special device in place of the branch-of-service insignia (e.g., infantry, artillery, quartermaster) that they would otherwise wear on the lapels of their service uniform. The rank of the General Officer being served is indicated on the device worn by the aide-de-camp, as illustrated below. Although the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are O-10 positions, their aides-de-camp wear devices specific to those offices, rather than the normal four-star aide device. Also, an aide-de-camp wears a special aiguillette on the shoulder of his or her dress uniform.
In the United States Navy, the aide-de-camp to an admiral is also known as a "flag aide" (command ashore) or "flag lieutenant" (command afloat).
Commodore is a naval rank used in many navies that is superior to a navy captain, but below a rear admiral. Non-English-speaking nations often use the rank of flotilla admiral, counter admiral, or senior captain as an equivalent, although counter admiral may also correspond to rear admiral.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
A lieutenant is the junior most commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.
Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1a rank.
Brigadier general or Brigade general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops. In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general (OF-6).
The Sergeant Major of the Army (SMA) is a unique non-commissioned rank and position of office in the United States Army. The holder of this rank and position is the most senior enlisted member of the Army unless an Army Sergeant Major is serving as the senior enlisted advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in which case they would be the most senior enlisted member and the SMA will be the second-most senior enlisted member of the Army. The SMA is appointed to serve as a spokesman to address the issues of enlisted soldiers to all officers, from warrant officers and lieutenants to the Army's highest positions. As such, they are the senior enlisted advisor to the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army. The exact duties vary depending on the chief of staff, though much of the SMA's time is spent traveling throughout the Army, observing training and talking with soldiers and their families.
Ensign is a junior rank of a commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. As the junior officer in an infantry regiment was traditionally the carrier of the ensign flag, the rank acquired the name. This rank has generally been replaced in army ranks by second lieutenant. Ensigns were generally the lowest ranking commissioned officer, except where the rank of subaltern existed. In contrast, the Arab rank of ensign, لواء, liwa', derives from the command of units with an ensign, not the carrier of such a unit's ensign, and is today the equivalent of a major general.
A flag officer is a commissioned officer in a nation's armed forces senior enough to be entitled to fly a flag to mark the position from which the officer exercises command.
The South African National Defence Force's rank system is largely based on the British system, with the Air Force sharing the Army rank titles. Rank titles changed over time as did the insignia.
Finnish military ranks form a system that incorporates features from Swedish, German, and Russian armed forces. In addition, the system has some typically Finnish characteristics that are mostly due to the personnel structure of the Finnish Defence Forces. The ranks have official names in Finnish and Swedish languages and official English translations. The Swedish forms are used in all Swedish-languages communications in Finland, e.g. in Swedish-speaking units of Finnish Defence Force. The system of ranks in the Swedish Armed Forces is slightly different.
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank, immediately above the rank of lieutenant colonel and immediately below the rank of brigadier general. It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services. The pay grade for colonel is O-6.
A personal aide-de-camp is a senior military officer who is appointed to act as the honorary military attendant to the monarch of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms or any of his or her viceroys. The Sovereign will typically commission another member of the Royal Family to act as his or her personal aide-de-camp, though other non-royal officers will be assigned to the role, especially when the monarch is in one of the realms besides the United Kingdom. Those designated as aide-de-camp to a governor general, lieutenant governor, or governor use the letters ADC or in Canada A de C after their names.
Branch insignia of the United States Army refers to military emblems that may be worn on the uniform of the United States Army to denote membership in a particular area of expertise and series of functional areas. Army branch insignia is similar to the line officer and staff corps officer devices of the U.S. Navy as well as to the Navy enlisted rating badges. The Medical, Nurse, Dental, Veterinary, Medical Service, Medical Specialist, Chaplains, and Judge Advocate General's Corps are considered "special branches", while the others are "basic branches".
Gorget patches are an insignia, paired patches of cloth or metal on the collar (gorget) of the uniform, that is used in the military and civil service in some countries. Collar tabs sign the military rank, the rank of civil service, the military unit, the office (department) or the branch of the armed forces and the arm of service.
An officer of three-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8. The term is also used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Typically, three-star officers hold the rank of vice admiral, lieutenant general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air marshal.
The Australian Defence Force's (ADF) ranks of officers and enlisted personnel in each of its three service branches of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army, and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) inherited their rank structures from their British counterparts. The insignia used to identify these ranks are also generally similar to those used in the British Armed Forces.
A general officer is an officer of high military rank; in the uniformed services of the United States, general officers are commissioned officers above the field officer ranks, the highest of which is colonel in the Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force and captain, in the Navy, Coast Guard, Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps (NOAACC).
General Ganegoda Appuhamelage Don Granville Nalin Seneviratne, VSV, ndc, SLE was a Sri Lankan Army officer. He was the Commander of the Sri Lankan Army from 1985 to 1988 and first Governor of the North East Province.
Major general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparently confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant.