Airbus A319

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A319
Airbus A319 - 8967213029 (cropped).jpg
The A319 is a shorter Airbus A320, keeping its low wing, underwing twinjet configuration
Role Narrow-body jet airliner
National originMultinational [lower-alpha 1]
Manufacturer Airbus
First flight25 August 1995
Introduction1996 with Swissair
StatusIn service
Primary users easyJet
American Airlines
United Airlines
Delta Air Lines [1]
Produced1994–present
Number built1,486 as of 30 April 2021 [1]
Developed from Airbus A320
Variants Airbus A318
Developed into Airbus A319neo

The Airbus A319 is a member of the Airbus A320 family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus. [lower-alpha 2] The A319 carries 124 to 156 passengers and has a maximum range of 3,700 nmi (6,900 km; 4,300 mi). [2] Final assembly of the aircraft takes place in Hamburg, Germany and Tianjin, China.

Contents

The A319 is a shortened-fuselage variant of the Airbus A320 and entered service in April 1996 with Swissair, around two years after the stretched Airbus A321 and eight years after the original A320. The aircraft shares a common type rating with all other Airbus A320 family variants, allowing existing A320 family pilots to fly the aircraft without the need for further training.

As of August 2019, a total of 1,480 Airbus A319 aircraft have been delivered, of which 1,436 are in service. In addition, another 42 airliners are on firm order (comprising 7 A319ceo and 35 A319neo). As of August 2019, American Airlines was the largest operator of the Airbus A319, operating 131 aircraft. [3]

In December 2010, Airbus announced a new generation of the A320 family, the A320neo (new engine option). [4] The similarly shortened fuselage A319neo variant offers new, more efficient engines, combined with airframe improvements and the addition of winglets, named "sharklets" by Airbus. The aircraft promises fuel savings of up to 15%. The A319neo sales are much lower than other A320neo variants, with around 1% of orders by June 2020.

Development

Background

The first member of the A320 family was the A320 which was launched in March 1984 and first flew on 22 February 1987. [5] The family was extended to include the stretched A321 (first delivered 1994), the shortened A319 (1996), and the further shortened A318 (2003). The A320 family pioneered the use of digital fly-by-wire flight control systems, as well as side stick controls, in commercial aircraft. The A319 was developed at the request of Steven Udvar-Hazy, the former president and CEO of ILFC according to The New York Times . [6]

Origins and design

The A319 design is a shortened fuselage, minimum change derivative of the A320 with its origins in the 130- to 140-seat SA1, part of the Single-Aisle studies. [7] The SA1 was shelved as the consortium concentrated on its bigger siblings. After healthy sales of the A320/A321, Airbus re-focused on what was then known as the A320M-7, meaning A320 minus seven fuselage frames. [8] It would provide direct competition for the 737-300/-700. [7] The shrink was achieved through the removal of four fuselage frames fore and three aft the wing, cutting the overall length by 3.73 metres (12 ft 3 in). [2] [9] [10] Consequently, the number of overwing exits was reduced from four to two. High-density A319s, such as 156-seat aircraft used by easyJet, retain four overwing exits. [11] The bulk-cargo door was replaced by an aft container door, which can take in reduced height LD3-45 containers. [10] Minor software changes were made to accommodate the different handling characteristics; otherwise the aircraft is largely unchanged. Power is provided by the CFM56-5A or V2500-A5, derated to 98  kN (22,000 lbf), with option for 105 kN (24,000 lbf) thrust. [12]

With virtually the same fuel capacity as the A320-200 and fewer passengers, the range with 124 passengers in a two-class configuration extends to 6,650 km (3,590 nmi), or 6,850 km (3,700 nmi) with the "Sharklets". [2] The A319's wingspan is wider than the aircraft's overall length.

Production and testing

Airbus began offering the new model from 22 May 1992, and the A319's first customer was ILFC, who signed for six aircraft. [13] Anticipating further orders by Swissair and Alitalia, Airbus launched the $275 million (€250 million) programme on 10 June 1993. [10] [13] [14] On 23 March 1995, the first A319 underwent final assembly at Airbus's German plant in Hamburg, where the A321s are also assembled. It was rolled out on 24 August 1995, with the maiden flight the following day. [15] The certification programme took 350 airborne hours involving two aircraft; certification for the CFM56-5B6/2-equipped variant was granted in April 1996, and the qualification for the V2524-A5 started the following month. [16]

An EasyJet A319 G-EZBW Airbus A319-111 A319 EZY (neue Bemalung) (16000999414).jpg
An EasyJet A319

Delivery of the first A319, to Swissair, took place on 25 April 1996, entering service by month's end. [16] In January 1997, an A319 broke a record during a delivery flight by flying 3,588 nautical miles (6,645 km) on the great circle route to Winnipeg, Manitoba from Hamburg, in 9 hours 5 minutes. [16] The A319 has proved popular with low-cost airlines such as EasyJet, with 172 delivered. [1]

A total of 1,476 of the A319ceo model have been delivered, with 10 remaining on order as of 31 January 2018. [1] The direct Boeing competitor is the Boeing 737-700.

Variants

A319CJ

The A319CJ (rebranded ACJ319) is the corporate jet version of the A319. It incorporates removable extra fuel tanks (up to 6 Additional Center Tanks) which are installed in the cargo compartment, and an increased service ceiling of 12,500 m (41,000 ft). [17] Range with eight passengers' payload and auxiliary fuel tanks (ACTs) is up to 6,000 nautical miles (11,100 km). [18] [19] Upon resale, the aircraft can be reconfigured as a standard A319 by removing its extra tanks and corporate cabin outfit, thus maximising its resale value. It was formerly also known as the ACJ, or Airbus Corporate Jet, while starting with 2014 it has the marketing designation ACJ319.

ACJ319 operated by the Austrian operator MJET MJF-AC1 E01.JPG
ACJ319 operated by the Austrian operator MJET

The aircraft seats up to 39 passengers, but may be outfitted by the customers into any configuration. Tyrolean Jet Service Nfg. GmbH & CO KG, MJET and Reliance Industries are among its users. The A319CJ competes with other ultralarge-cabin corporate jets such as the Boeing 737-700-based Boeing Business Jet (BBJ) and Embraer Lineage 1000, as well as with large-cabin and ultralong-range Gulfstream G650, Gulfstream G550 and Bombardier's Global 6000. It is powered by the same engine types as the A320. The A319CJ was used by the Escadron de Transport, d'Entraînement et de Calibration which is in charge of transportation for France's officials and also by the Flugbereitschaft of the German Air Force for transportation of Germany's officials. An ACJ serves as a presidential or official aircraft of Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, [20] Malaysia, Slovakia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Venezuela.

Starting from 2014, a modularized cabin version of the ACJ319, known as "Elegance", is also available. It is said to be able to lower cost and ease reconfiguration. [21]

A319neo

Airbus A319neo prototype at Toulouse-Blagnac Airport. Airbus A319-151N, Airbus Industrie JP9105933.jpg
Airbus A319neo prototype at Toulouse–Blagnac Airport.

The A319neo will be part of the Airbus A320neo family of airliners developed since December 2010 by Airbus, [22] with the suffix "neo" meaning "new engine option". It is the last step of the A320 Enhanced (A320E) modernisation programme, which was started in 2006. The A319neo replaces the original A319, which is now referred to as A319ceo, for "current engine option".

In addition to the new engines, the modernisation programme also included such improvements as: aerodynamic refinements, large curved winglets (sharklets), weight savings, a new aircraft cabin with larger hand luggage spaces, and an improved air purification system. [23] [24] Customers will have a choice of either the CFM International LEAP-1A or the Pratt & Whitney PW1100G engines.

These improvements in combination are predicted to result in 15% lower fuel consumption per aircraft, 8% lower operating costs, reduced noise production, and a reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by at least 10% compared to the A320 series, as well as an increase in range of approximately 500 nautical miles (900 km). [25]

The A319neo is the least popular variant of the Airbus A320neo family, with total orders for only 55 aircraft placed as of 31 January 2019, compared with 4,179 for the A320neo and 2,292 for the A321neo. [1]

A319 MPA

The Airbus A319 MPA (Maritime Patrol Aircraft) is a military derivative of the Airbus A319. Development was announced in 2018 [26] by Airbus Defence and Space [27] to compete against the Boeing P-8 Poseidon, which is a derivative aircraft of the Boeing 737 manufactured in the United States.

A319LR

A Qatar Airways A319LR Airbus A319-133LR Qatar Airways A7-CJA.jpg
A Qatar Airways A319LR

The A319LR is the longer-range version of the A319. The typical range of the A319LR is increased up to 4,500 nautical miles (8,300 km) compared to the standard A319. Qatar Airways was the launch customer, receiving two A319-100LRs, [28] PrivatAir received two A319LRs in 2003, [29] and Eurofly acquired two in 2005. [30]

Operators

As of July 2019, 1,246 Airbus A319 aircraft were in service with 108 operators, [31] with American Airlines and EasyJet operating the largest A319 fleets of 130 and 125 aircraft respectively. [32] The A319 is the most popular variant of the Airbus A320 family to be operated by governments and as executive and private jets, with 75 aircraft in operation in these capacities as of 2019. [1]

Orders and deliveries

OrdersDeliveries
TypeTotalBacklogTotal20212020201920182017201620152014201320122011201020092008200720062005200420032002200120001999199819971996
A319ceo1,48631,48313483424343838475188981051371428772858911288534718
A319neo7370312
(A319)(1,559)(73)(1,486)(2)(3)(6)(8)(3)(4)(24)(34)(38)(38)(47)(51)(88)(98)(105)(137)(142)(87)(72)(85)(89)(112)(88)(53)(47)(18)

Data through end of April 2021. [1]

Accidents and incidents

As of June 2020, there have been 20 aviation accidents and incidents involving the Airbus A319, [33] including three hull-loss accidents. [34] No fatal accidents have been recorded involving the aircraft type. [35]

Planform view of an Air Serbia Airbus A319-100 departing London Heathrow Airport (2016) Planform view of Air Serbia Airbus A319-100 (YU-APC) dep London Heathrow 20Oct2016 arp.jpg
Planform view of an Air Serbia Airbus A319-100 departing London Heathrow Airport (2016)

Specifications

Airbus A319 [2]
Cockpit crewTwo
Exit limit160 [36] / 150 [37]
1-class max. seating156 at 28–30 in (71–76 cm) pitch [38]
1-class, typical134 at 32 in (81 cm) pitch [38]
2-class, typical124 (8F @ 38 in, 116Y @ 32 in) [38]
Cargo capacity27.7 m3 (980 cu ft)
Unit load devices 4× LD3-45
Length33.84 m (111 ft 0 in)
Wheelbase11.04 m (36 ft 3 in)
Track7.59 m (24 ft 11 in)
Wingspan35.8 m (117 ft 5 in) [lower-alpha 3]
Wing area122.4 m2 (1,318 sq ft) [39]
Wing sweepback25 degrees [39]
Tail height11.76 m (38 ft 7 in)
Cabin width3.70 m (12 ft 2 in)
Fuselage width3.95 m (13 ft 0 in)
Fuselage height4.14 m (13 ft 7 in)
Operating empty weight (OEW)40.8 t (90,000 lb)
Maximum zero-fuel weight (MZFW)58.5 t (129,000 lb)
Maximum landing weight (MLW)62.5 t (138,000 lb)
Maximum takeoff weight (MTOW)75.5 t (166,000 lb)
Cruising speedMach 0.78 (829 km/h; 515 mph) [40]
Maximum speedMach 0.82 (871 km/h; 541 mph)
Range, typical payload [lower-alpha 4] 3,750 nmi (6,940 km) [lower-alpha 3]
ACJ range6,000 nmi (11,100 km) [41]
Takeoff (MTOW, SL, ISA)1,850 m (6,070 ft) [41]
Landing (MLW, SL, ISA)1,360 m (4,460 ft) [41]
Fuel capacity24,210–30,190 L (6,400–7,980 US gal)
Service ceiling39,100–41,000 ft (11,900–12,500 m) [36]
Engines (×2) CFM56-5B, 68.3 in (1.73 m) fan
IAE V2500A5, 63.5 in (1.61 m) fan
Thrust (×2)98–120 kN (22,000–27,000 lbf)

Engines

Aircraft ModelCertification DateEngines [36]
A319-11110 April 1996 CFM56-5B5 or 5B5/P
A319-11210 April 1996 CFM56-5B6 or 5B6/P or 5B6/2P
A319-11331 May 1996 CFM56-5A4 or 5A4/F
A319-11431 May 1996 CFM56-5A5 or 5A5/F
A319-11530 July 1999 CFM56-5B7 or 5B7/P
A319-13118 December 1996 IAE Model V2522-A5
A319-13218 December 1996 IAE Model V2524-A5
A319-13330 July 1999 IAE Model V2527M-A5

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

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References

Footnotes

  1. The Airbus A319 is built in Hamburg, Germany and Tianjin, China
  2. Airbus was originally a consortium of European aerospace companies named, Airbus Industrie, and is now fully owned by Airbus, originally named EADS. Airbus' name has been Airbus SAS since 2001.
  3. 1 2 with sharklets
  4. Passengers and bags

References

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